Max Planck

PlanckMax Karl Ernst Ludwig PlanckPlanck, M.Planck. M.correspondingM. PlanckPlanck's discovery of the quantumPlanck's law of black body radiationPlanck, MaxPlanck, Max Karl Ernst Ludwig
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, ForMemRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.wikipedia
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Max Planck Society

Max Planck InstituteMax-Planck-InstituteMax-Planck Institute
In 1948, the German scientific institution the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (of which Planck was twice president) was renamed the Max Planck Society (MPS).
The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.; abbreviated MPG) is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes founded in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and renamed the Max Planck Society in 1948 in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck.

Kiel

Kiel, GermanyHoltenauKiel-Holtenau
Planck was born in Kiel, Holstein, to Johann Julius Wilhelm Planck and his second wife, Emma Patzig.
A number of important scholars, including Theodor Mommsen, Felix Jacoby, Hans Geiger and Max Planck, studied or taught there.

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich

University of MunichMunichMunich University
His paternal great-grandfather and grandfather were both theology professors in Göttingen; his father was a law professor at the University of Kiel and Munich.
Among these were Wilhelm Röntgen, Max Planck, Werner Heisenberg, Otto Hahn and Thomas Mann.

Kaiser Wilhelm Society

Kaiser Wilhelm InstituteKaiser-Wilhelm GesellschaftKaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry
In 1948, the German scientific institution the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (of which Planck was twice president) was renamed the Max Planck Society (MPS).
Thereupon, Ernst Telschow assumed the duties until Max Planck could be brought from Magdeburg to Göttingen, which was in the British zone of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany.

Physics

physicistphysicalphysicists
However, instead of music he chose to study physics.
Modern physics began in the early 20th century with the work of Max Planck in quantum theory and Albert Einstein's theory of relativity.

Humboldt University of Berlin

University of BerlinBerlinHumboldt University
In 1877 he went to the Friedrich Wilhelms University in Berlin for a year of study with physicists Hermann von Helmholtz and Gustav Kirchhoff and mathematician Karl Weierstrass.
The university has been home to many of Germany's greatest thinkers of the past two centuries, among them the subjective idealist philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte, the theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher, the absolute idealist philosopher G.W.F. Hegel, the Romantic legal theorist Friedrich Carl von Savigny, the pessimist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, the objective idealist philosopher Friedrich Schelling, cultural critic Walter Benjamin, and famous physicists Albert Einstein and Max Planck.

Erwin Planck

Erwin
They had four children: Karl (1888–1916), the twins Emma (1889–1919) and Grete (1889–1917), and Erwin (1893–1945).
Born in Charlottenburg (today part of Berlin), Erwin Planck was the fourth child of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Max Planck (1858–1947) and his first wife Marie, née Merck (1861–1909).

Otto Hahn

HahnHahn, OttoOtto-Hahn
Numerous well-known scientists, such as Albert Einstein, Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner were frequent visitors.
She speculates that it may have been a malicious rumor, similar to the one that affected Max Planck, who was falsely accused by his enemies in the Reich of having Jewish ancestors on his maternal side.

Fritz Reiche

Fritz Reiche (July 4, 1883 – January 14, 1969) was a student of Max Planck and a colleague of Albert Einstein, who was active in, and made important contributions to the early development of quantum mechanics including co-authoring the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule.

Lise Meitner

Lisa MeitnerMeitnerMeitner, Lise
Numerous well-known scientists, such as Albert Einstein, Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner were frequent visitors.
Encouraged by her father and backed by his financial support, she went to the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in Berlin where famous physicist Max Planck allowed her to attend his lectures, an unusual gesture by Planck, who until then had rejected any woman wanting to attend his lectures.

Erwin Schrödinger

SchrödingerErwin SchroedingerErwin Schrodinger
He retired from Berlin on 10 January 1926, and was succeeded by Erwin Schrödinger. At the end of the 1920s Bohr, Heisenberg and Pauli had worked out the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, but it was rejected by Planck, and by Schrödinger, Laue, and Einstein as well.
In 1927, he succeeded Max Planck at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin.

Albert Einstein

EinsteinEinsteinianA. Einstein
Numerous well-known scientists, such as Albert Einstein, Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner were frequent visitors. At the end of the 1920s Bohr, Heisenberg and Pauli had worked out the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, but it was rejected by Planck, and by Schrödinger, Laue, and Einstein as well.
Max Planck and Walther Nernst visited him the next week in Zurich to persuade him to join the academy, additionally offering him the post of director at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics, which was soon to be established.

Walther Bothe

Herbert BeckerWalter Bothe Walther Bothe
In 1913, he was Max Planck's teaching assistant.

Walther Meissner

Walther MeißnerMeissnerWalter Meissner
He studied mechanical engineering and physics at the Technical University of Berlin, his doctoral supervisor being Max Planck.

Moritz Schlick

Friedrich Albert Moritz Schlick
He studied physics at the University of Heidelberg, the University of Lausanne, and, ultimately, the University of Berlin under Max Planck.

Max von Laue

LaueMax LaueMax Theodor Felix von Laue
At the end of the 1920s Bohr, Heisenberg and Pauli had worked out the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, but it was rejected by Planck, and by Schrödinger, Laue, and Einstein as well.
There, he studied under Max Planck, who gave birth to the quantum theory revolution on 14 December 1900, when he delivered his famous paper before the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.

Quantum mechanics

quantum physicsquantum mechanicalquantum theory
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, ForMemRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.
Quantum mechanics gradually arose from theories to explain observations which could not be reconciled with classical physics, such as Max Planck's solution in 1900 to the black-body radiation problem, and from the correspondence between energy and frequency in Albert Einstein's 1905 paper which explained the photoelectric effect.

University of Göttingen

GöttingenGöttingen UniversityGeorg-August-Universität Göttingen
His paternal great-grandfather and grandfather were both theology professors in Göttingen; his father was a law professor at the University of Kiel and Munich.
Notable people that have studied or taught at Georg-August University include the American banker J. P. Morgan, the seismologist Beno Gutenberg, the endocrinologist Hakaru Hashimoto, who studied there before World War I, and several notable Nobel laureates like Max Planck and Werner Heisenberg.

Max Abraham

Abraham Max Abraham’s
Attending the University of Berlin, he studied under Max Planck.

Thermodynamics

thermodynamicthermodynamicallyclassical thermodynamics
While there he undertook a program of mostly self-study of Clausius's writings, which led him to choose thermodynamics as his field.
The foundations of statistical thermodynamics were set out by physicists such as James Clerk Maxwell, Ludwig Boltzmann, Max Planck, Rudolf Clausius and J. Willard Gibbs.

Philipp von Jolly

Philipp Johann Gustav von Jollyvon Jolly, Philipp
The Munich physics professor Philipp von Jolly advised Planck against going into physics, saying, "in this field, almost everything is already discovered, and all that remains is to fill a few holes."
One of his students at the University of Munich was Max Planck, whom he advised in 1878 not to go into physics, saying, "in this field, almost everything is already discovered, and all that remains is to fill a few unimportant holes."

University of Kiel

KielKiel UniversityChristian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
His paternal great-grandfather and grandfather were both theology professors in Göttingen; his father was a law professor at the University of Kiel and Munich.

Walter H. Schottky

Walter SchottkySchottkySchrot effect
He completed his B.S. degree in physics, at the University of Berlin in 1908, and he completed his Ph.D. in physics at the Humboldt University of Berlin in 1912, studying under Max Planck and Heinrich Rubens, with a thesis entitled: Zur relativtheoretischen Energetik und Dynamik.

Hermann von Helmholtz

HelmholtzHermann HelmholtzHermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz
In 1877 he went to the Friedrich Wilhelms University in Berlin for a year of study with physicists Hermann von Helmholtz and Gustav Kirchhoff and mathematician Karl Weierstrass.
Other students and research associates of Helmholtz at Berlin included Max Planck, Heinrich Kayser, Eugen Goldstein, Wilhelm Wien, Arthur König, Henry Augustus Rowland, Albert A. Michelson, Wilhelm Wundt, Fernando Sanford and Michael I. Pupin.

Photon

photonslight quantaincident photon
Einstein's hypothesis of light quanta (photons), based on Heinrich Hertz's 1887 discovery (and further investigation by Philipp Lenard) of the photoelectric effect, was initially rejected by Planck.
The photon model accounts for anomalous observations, including the properties of black-body radiation, that others (notably Max Planck) had tried to explain using semiclassical models.