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Walther Bothe in the 1950s
Max Planck, after whom the society is named.
Walther Bothe
Entrance of the administrative headquarters of the Max Planck Society in Munich

In the year after Bothe's death, his Physics Institute at the KWImF was elevated to the status of a new institute under the Max Planck Society and it then became the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics.

- Walther Bothe

The KWG was one of the world's leading research organizations; its board of directors included scientists like Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, and Fritz Haber.

- Max Planck Society
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Planck in 1933

Max Planck

German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

Planck in 1933
Max Planck's signature at ten years of age
A side portrait of Planck as a young adult, c. 1878
Plaque at the Humboldt University of Berlin: "Max Planck, discoverer of the elementary quantum of action h, taught in this building from 1889 to 1928."
Planck in 1918, the year he received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on quantum theory
From left to right: W. Nernst, A. Einstein, Planck, R.A. Millikan and von Laue at a dinner given by von Laue in Berlin on 11 November 1931
Planck's grave in Göttingen
Vorlesungen über die Theorie der Wärmestrahlung, 1906

In 1948, the German scientific institution Kaiser Wilhelm Society (of which Planck was twice president) was renamed Max Planck Society (MPG).

1914 Walther Bothe (1891–1957)

Former Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut for Chemistry in Berlin, the place at which nuclear fission was first detected

Kaiser Wilhelm Society

German scientific institution established in the German Empire in 1911.

German scientific institution established in the German Empire in 1911.

Former Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut for Chemistry in Berlin, the place at which nuclear fission was first detected
Former Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut for Biology, Berlin
Opening of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut in Berlin-Dahlem, 1913. From right: Adolf von Harnack, Friedrich von Ilberg, Kaiser Wilhelm II, Carl Neuberg, August von Trott zu Solz

Its functions were taken over by the Max Planck Society.

The institutions were to be under the guidance of prominent directors, which included the physicists and chemists Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, Fritz Haber and Otto Hahn; a board of trustees also provided guidance.

Heisenberg in 1933

Werner Heisenberg

German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

Heisenberg in 1933
Heisenberg in 1924
A visual representation of an induced nuclear fission event where a slow-moving neutron is absorbed by the nucleus of a uranium-235 atom, which fissions into two fast-moving lighter elements (fission products) and additional neutrons. Most of the energy released is in the form of the kinetic velocities of the fission products and the neutrons.
Replica of the German experimental nuclear reactor captured and dismantled at Haigerloch
Bust of Heisenberg in his old age, on display at the Max Planck Society campus in Garching bei München

The invitees included Walther Bothe, Siegfried Flügge, Hans Geiger, Otto Hahn, Paul Harteck, Gerhard Hoffmann, Josef Mattauch and Georg Stetter.

Following the Kaiser Wilhelm Society's obliteration by the Allied Control Council and the establishment of the Max Planck Society in the British zone, Heisenberg became the director of the Max Planck Institute for Physics.