Max Planck Society

Society's logo
Max Planck, after whom the society is named.
Entrance of the administrative headquarters of the Max Planck Society in Munich

Formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes.

- Max Planck Society
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Alpha

Former Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut for Chemistry in Berlin, the place at which nuclear fission was first detected

Kaiser Wilhelm Society

German scientific institution established in the German Empire in 1911.

German scientific institution established in the German Empire in 1911.

Former Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut for Chemistry in Berlin, the place at which nuclear fission was first detected
Former Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut for Biology, Berlin
Opening of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut in Berlin-Dahlem, 1913. From right: Adolf von Harnack, Friedrich von Ilberg, Kaiser Wilhelm II, Carl Neuberg, August von Trott zu Solz

Its functions were taken over by the Max Planck Society.

Planck in 1933

Max Planck

German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

Planck in 1933
Max Planck's signature at ten years of age
A side portrait of Planck as a young adult, c. 1878
Plaque at the Humboldt University of Berlin: "Max Planck, discoverer of the elementary quantum of action h, taught in this building from 1889 to 1928."
Planck in 1918, the year he received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on quantum theory
From left to right: W. Nernst, A. Einstein, Planck, R.A. Millikan and von Laue at a dinner given by von Laue in Berlin on 11 November 1931
Planck's grave in Göttingen
Vorlesungen über die Theorie der Wärmestrahlung, 1906

In 1948, the German scientific institution Kaiser Wilhelm Society (of which Planck was twice president) was renamed Max Planck Society (MPG).

Heisenberg in 1933

Werner Heisenberg

German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

Heisenberg in 1933
Heisenberg in 1924
A visual representation of an induced nuclear fission event where a slow-moving neutron is absorbed by the nucleus of a uranium-235 atom, which fissions into two fast-moving lighter elements (fission products) and additional neutrons. Most of the energy released is in the form of the kinetic velocities of the fission products and the neutrons.
Replica of the German experimental nuclear reactor captured and dismantled at Haigerloch
Bust of Heisenberg in his old age, on display at the Max Planck Society campus in Garching bei München

Following the Kaiser Wilhelm Society's obliteration by the Allied Control Council and the establishment of the Max Planck Society in the British zone, Heisenberg became the director of the Max Planck Institute for Physics.

University of Göttingen

Public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany.

Public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany.

King George II, founder and president of the university
King George II in the Pauliner Church in 1748
Alte Aula (Great Hall), also Karzer, at Wilhelmsplatz (built in 1835–1837)
The interior of the university Aula
Sign at Göttingen train station displaying the motto Stadt, die Wissen schafft ("City that creates knowledge", playing also with the German word "Wissenschaft", English "science").
Central Library and "Raumskulptur" sculpture
The old Auditorium Maximum (built in 1826–1865)
Traditional Observatory of the university
The Pauliner Church, once the seat of the University Library in which Heinrich Heine, the Brothers Grimm, and Goethe worked
The Alte Mensa
Carl Friedrich Gauss
Bernhard Riemann
David Hilbert
Felix Klein
Constantin Carathéodory
Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet
J. Robert Oppenheimer
Friedrich Wöhler
Heinrich Heine
Brothers Grimm
Arthur Schopenhauer
Rudolf von Jhering
Otto von Bismarck
Richard von Weizsäcker
Gerhard Schröder
Max Weber
Jürgen Habermas
John von Neumann
Gottlieb Burckhardt
Rudolph Sohm
William Graham Sumner
Emmy Noether
Edward Teller
August Weismann
Emil Wiechert
Arnold Sommerfeld
Ludwig Prandtl
Theodore von Kármán
J.P. Morgan
Maria Goeppert-Mayer physicist
Hsu Tzong-Li Chief Justice & President of Judicial Yuan Taiwan
R. G. Bhandarkar Orientalist
Karl Heinrich Ulrichs pioneer of the gay rights movement

Furthermore, the university maintains strong connections with major research institutes based in Göttingen, such as those of the Max Planck Society and the Leibniz Association.

Otto Hahn

German chemist who was a pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.

German chemist who was a pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.

William Ramsay, London 1905
Ernest Rutherford at McGill University, Montreal 1905
Hahn and Meitner, 1913, in the chemical laboratory of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry. When a colleague she did not recognise said that they had met before, Meitner replied: "You probably mistake me for Professor Hahn."
Physicists and chemists in Berlin in 1920. Front row, left to right: Hertha Sponer, Albert Einstein, Ingrid Franck, James Franck, Lise Meitner, Fritz Haber, and Otto Hahn. Back row, left to right: Walter Grotrian, Wilhelm Westphal,
Otto von Baeyer, Peter Pringsheim and Gustav Hertz
Former Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry building in Berlin. Heavily damaged by bombing during the Second World War, it was restored and became part of the Free University of Berlin. It was renamed the Otto Hahn Building in 1956, and the Hahn-Meitner Building in 2010.
Marble plaque in Latin by Professor Massimo Ragnolini, commemorating the honeymoon of Otto Hahn and his wife Edith at Punta San Vigilio, Lake Garda, Italy, in March and April 1913
Hahn in uniform in 1915.
The decay chain of actinium. Alpha decay shifts two elements down; beta decay shifts one element up.
Decay chain of uranium-238
This was touted for many years as the table and experimental apparatus with which Otto Hahn discovered nuclear fission in 1938. The table and instruments are representative of the ones used, but not necessarily the originals, and would not have been together on the one table in the same room. Pressure from historians, scientists and feminists caused the museum to alter the display in 1988 to acknowledge Lise Meitner, Otto Frisch and Fritz Strassmann.
Otto Hahn's notebook
Plaque commemorating Hahn and Strassmann's discovery of fission in Berlin (unveiled in 1956)
Farm Hall (seen here in 2015)
5 DM coin, Germany, honouring Hahn and his discovery of fission, 1979
Monument in Berlin-Dahlem, in front of the Otto-Hahn-Platz
Otto Hahn with his wife Edith, 1959
Otto Hahn on a stamp of the German Democratic Republic, 1979
Bust by Knud Knudsen
Hahn's grave in Göttingen

Hahn served as the last president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science in 1946 and as the founding president of its successor, the Max Planck Society from 1948 to 1960.

Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics 2016

Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics

Research institute located in Garching, just north of Munich, Bavaria, Germany.

Research institute located in Garching, just north of Munich, Bavaria, Germany.

Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics 2016

It is one of many scientific research institutes belonging to the Max Planck Society.

Aerial view of the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics with assembly hall (left) and lecture hall (right)

Max Planck Institute for Physics

Physics institute in Munich, Germany that specializes in high energy physics and astroparticle physics.

Physics institute in Munich, Germany that specializes in high energy physics and astroparticle physics.

Aerial view of the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics with assembly hall (left) and lecture hall (right)

It is part of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft and is also known as the Werner Heisenberg Institute, after its first director in its current location.

Berlin

Capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population.

Capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population.

Map of Berlin in 1688
Berlin Cathedral (left) and Berlin Palace (right), 1900
Berlin became the capital of the German Empire in 1871 and expanded rapidly in the following years.
Berlin in ruins after World War II (Potsdamer Platz, 1945)
The Berlin Wall (painted on the western side) was a barrier that divided the city from 1961 to 1989.
The fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989. On 3 October 1990, the German reunification process was formally finished.
The coat of arms proposed in the state contract
Satellite image of Berlin
The outskirts of Berlin are covered with woodlands and numerous lakes.
Aerial photo over central Berlin showing City West, Potsdamer Platz, Alexanderplatz and the Tiergarten
Panorama of the Gendarmenmarkt, showing the Konzerthaus Berlin, flanked by the German Church (left) and French Church (right)
The Berlin Cathedral at Museum Island
Charlottenburg Palace
Hackesche Höfe
Breitscheidplatz with Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church is the center of City West.
Berlin's population, 1880–2012
Rotes Rathaus (Red City Hall), seat of the Senate and Mayor of Berlin
Berlin's 12 boroughs and their 96 neighborhoods
Berlin is a UNESCO "City of Design" and recognized for its creative industries and startup ecosystem.
Deutsche Bahn, the world's second-largest transport company, is headquartered in Berlin.
The European Film Academy (logo pictured) was founded in Berlin.
The new building of Axel Springer SE which is heardquarted in Berlin
Berlin Hauptbahnhof is the largest grade-separated railway station in Europe.
The Berlin U-Bahn (Metro) at Heidelberger Platz station
Berlin Brandenburg Airport
Flights departing from Berlin serve 163 destinations around the globe.
Airports in Berlin, including those that are no longer used (as of November 2020)
Typical cycle street in Prenzlauer Berg
Heizkraftwerk Mitte power plant
The Charité university hospital
Café customers in Berlin Mitte using Wi-Fi devices
The Humboldt University of Berlin is affiliated with 57 Nobel Prize winners.
The Free University is one of Germany's eleven "Universities of Excellence".
The WISTA Science and Technology Park in Adlershof is home to several innovative businesses and research institutes.
The Alte Nationalgalerie is part of the Museum Island, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The alternative Holzmarkt, Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg
The Jewish Museum presents two millennia of German–Jewish history.
The reconstructed Ishtar Gate of Babylon at the Pergamon Museum
The Berlinale is the largest international spectator film festival.
The French Cathedral during the annual Festival of Lights
Hanukkah festival at the Brandenburg Gate
Sir Simon Rattle conducting the renowned Berlin Philharmonic
The Elephant Gate at the Berlin Zoo
The Victory Column in Tiergarten
The Olympiastadion hosted the 1936 Summer Olympics and the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final.
The Berlin Marathon is the world record course.
The Federal Chancellery building, seat of the Chancellor of Germany
The Reichstag, seat of the Bundestag
Schloss Bellevue, seat of the President of Germany
Prussian House of Lords, the seat of the Bundesrat of Germany
Headquarters of the Federal Intelligence Service

The city has a high density of internationally renowned research institutions, such as the Fraunhofer Society, the Leibniz Association, the Helmholtz Association, and the Max Planck Society, which are independent of, or only loosely connected to its universities.

Tübingen, Neckarfront

Tübingen

Traditional university city in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

Traditional university city in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

Tübingen, Neckarfront
Shops lining the city square
View from the tower of Stiftskirche
Tübingen city hall
Neckar and Hölderlinturm
Stiftskirche
Tübingen street art near Blaue Brücke
Tübingen (lower right) on the Neckar, in southwest Germany
Tübingen University Main Building (Neue Aula)
Tübingen student

The town is also host to several research institutes including the Max Planck Institutes for Biological Cybernetics, Developmental Biology, Intelligent Systems, The Friedrich Miescher Laboratory of the MPG (and formerly the Max Planck Institute for Biology), the Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, the Werner Reichardt Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and many others.

Fritz Haber, c. 1919

Fritz Haber

German chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process, a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas.

German chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process, a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas.

Fritz Haber, c. 1919
Clara Immerwahr
The grave of Fritz and Clara Haber (née Immerwahr) in the Hörnli graveyard of Basel, Switzerland

In 1981, the Minerva foundation of the Max Planck Society and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HUJI) established the Fritz Haber Research Center for Molecular Dynamics, based at the Institute of Chemistry of the Hebrew University.