Maxillary nerve

maxillarymaxillary divisionpalatine nervesuperior maxillary nerveCN V 2 maxillary branchesupper jawboneV2V2 (2nd division of the Trigeminal nerve)
The maxillary nerve (CN V 2 ) is one of the three branches or divisions of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth (V) cranial nerve.wikipedia
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Trigeminal nerve

trigeminalVfifth cranial nerve
The maxillary nerve (CN V 2 ) is one of the three branches or divisions of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth (V) cranial nerve.
Its name ("trigeminal" = tri-, or three, and - geminus, or twin: thrice-twinned) derives from the fact that each of the two nerves (one on each side of the pons) has three major branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V 1 ), the maxillary nerve (V 2 ), and the mandibular nerve (V 3 ).

Palate

palatalroof of the mouthpalatine
It comprises the principal functions of sensation from the maxillary, nasal cavity, sinuses, the palate and subsequently that of the mid-face, and is intermediate, both in position and size, between the ophthalmic nerve and the mandibular nerve.
The maxillary nerve branch of the trigeminal nerve supplies sensory innervation to the palate.

Inferior orbital fissure

Fissura orbitalis inferiorinferior orbitalsphenomaxillary fissure
It then crosses the pterygopalatine fossa, inclines lateralward on the back of the maxilla, and enters the orbit through the inferior orbital fissure. Zygomatic nerve (zygomaticotemporal nerve, zygomaticofacial nerve), through the Inferior orbital fissure
The medial wall and the floor of the orbit are separated posteriorly by the inferior orbital fissure which transmits the zygomatic branch of the maxillary nerve and the ascending branches from the pterygopalatine ganglion.

Middle meningeal nerve

* Middle meningeal nerve in the meninges
The middle meningeal nerve (meningeal or dural branch) is given off from the maxillary nerve (CN V 2 ) directly after its origin from the trigeminal ganglion, before CN V 2 enters the foramen rotundum.

Zygomatic nerve

zygomatic branch
Zygomatic nerve (zygomaticotemporal nerve, zygomaticofacial nerve), through the Inferior orbital fissure
The zygomatic nerve (temporomalar nerve; orbital nerve) is a branch of the maxillary nerve (CN V 2, itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve) that enters the orbit and helps to supply the skin over the zygomatic and temporal bones.

Trigeminal ganglion

trigeminal gangliagasserian ganglionsemilunar ganglion
It begins at the middle of the trigeminal ganglion as a flattened plexiform band then it passes through the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus .It gives two branches to the sphenopalatine ganglion and then leaves the skull through the foramen rotundum, where it becomes more cylindrical in form, and firmer in texture.
From its convex border, which is directed forward and lateralward, three large nerves proceed, viz., the ophthalmic (V 1 ), maxillary (V 2 ), and mandibular (V 3 ).

Nasal cavity

nasal cavitiesnasal passagenasal
It comprises the principal functions of sensation from the maxillary, nasal cavity, sinuses, the palate and subsequently that of the mid-face, and is intermediate, both in position and size, between the ophthalmic nerve and the mandibular nerve.
Posterior nasal branches of Maxillary nerve (V 2 )

Zygomaticotemporal nerve

zygomaticotemporalzygomaticotemporal branch
Zygomatic nerve (zygomaticotemporal nerve, zygomaticofacial nerve), through the Inferior orbital fissure
It is derived from the zygomatic nerve, a branch of the maxillary nerve.

Posterior superior alveolar nerve

nerves
Posterior superior alveolar nerve
The posterior superior alveolar branches (posterior superior dental branches) arise from the trunk of the maxillary nerve just before it enters the infraorbital groove; they are generally two in number, but sometimes arise by a single trunk.

Infraorbital foramen

Foramen infraorbitaleinfraorbital foraminaforamen on the maxilla
It then emerges on the face through the infraorbital foramen and terminates by dividing into palpebral, lateral nasal and labial branches.
It transmits the infraorbital artery and vein, and the infraorbital nerve, a branch of the maxillary nerve.

Greater palatine nerve

Greater
Greater and lesser palatine nerves
The greater palatine nerve (anterior palatine nerve) is a branch of the pterygopalatine ganglion that carries both general sensory fibres from the maxillary nerve and parasympathetic fibers from the nerve of the pterygoid canal.

Pharyngeal nerve

Pharyngeal nerve
The pharyngeal nerve is a small branch of the maxillary nerve, arising from the posterior part of the pterygopalatine ganglion.

Anterior superior alveolar nerve

Anterior superior alveolar nerve
The anterior superior alveolar branch (anterior superior dental branch), of considerable size, is given off from the maxillary nerve (the second branch of the trigeminal nerve or cranial nerve V, abbreviated V 2 ) just before its exit from the infraorbital foramen; it descends in a canal in the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus, and divides into branches which supply the incisor and canine teeth.

Ophthalmic nerve

ophthalmicophthalmic divisionophthalmic branch
It comprises the principal functions of sensation from the maxillary, nasal cavity, sinuses, the palate and subsequently that of the mid-face, and is intermediate, both in position and size, between the ophthalmic nerve and the mandibular nerve.
Compare this to the maxillary nerve, which supplies general somatic afferents to the mid-face and skull:

Infraorbital nerve

infra-orbital nerveinfraorbital portion
Infraorbital nerve
After the maxillary nerve enters the infraorbital canal, the nerve is frequently called the infraorbital nerve.

Mandibular nerve

mandibular divisionmandibular division of the trigeminal nervemandibular
It comprises the principal functions of sensation from the maxillary, nasal cavity, sinuses, the palate and subsequently that of the mid-face, and is intermediate, both in position and size, between the ophthalmic nerve and the mandibular nerve.
Maxillary nerve

Pterygopalatine fossa

pterygopalatinepterygopalatine foramen
It then crosses the pterygopalatine fossa, inclines lateralward on the back of the maxilla, and enters the orbit through the inferior orbital fissure.
the pterygopalatine ganglion suspended by nerve roots from the maxillary nerve

Middle superior alveolar nerve

middle superior alveolar branch
Middle superior alveolar nerve
The middle superior alveolar nerve is a nerve that drops from the infraorbital portion of the maxillary nerve to supply the sinus mucosa, the roots of the maxillary premolars, and the mesiobuccal root of the first maxillary molar.

Lesser palatine nerve

lesserlesser palatine nerveslesser palatine
Greater and lesser palatine nerves
It is a branch of the maxillary nerve (CN V 2 ) It also has nasal branches that innervate the nasal cavity.

Zygomaticofacial nerve

zygomaticofacial branch
Zygomatic nerve (zygomaticotemporal nerve, zygomaticofacial nerve), through the Inferior orbital fissure
It joins with the zygomatic branches of the facial nerve and with the inferior palpebral branches of the maxillary nerve (V2).

Nasopalatine nerve

nasopalatinenasopalatine nerves
Nasopalatine nerve, through the sphenopalatine foramen
One branch of the pterygopalatine ganglion (trigeminal nerve, maxillary branch), longer and larger than the others, is named the nasopalatine nerve (sometimes called the long sphenopalatine nerve).

Cranial nerves

cranial nervecranialCN
The maxillary nerve (CN V 2 ) is one of the three branches or divisions of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth (V) cranial nerve.
Trigeminal neuralgia occurs later in life, from middle age onwards, most often after age 60, and is a condition typically associated with very strong pain distributed over the area innervated by the maxillary or mandibular nerve divisions of the trigeminal nerve (V 2 and V 3 ).

Pterygopalatine ganglion

sphenopalatine ganglionpterygopalatinepterygopalatine ganglia
The pterygopalatine ganglion (of Meckel), the largest of the parasympathetic ganglia associated with the branches of the maxillary nerve, is deeply placed in the pterygopalatine fossa, close to the sphenopalatine foramen.