Maximilian I of Mexico

Emperor MaximilianMaximilianMaximilian IMaximilian of HabsburgEmperor Maximilian IMaximilian of MexicoArchduke MaximilianArchduke Ferdinand MaximilianEmperor Maximilian I of MexicoMaximiliano I
Maximilian I (Fernando Maximiliano José María de Habsburgo-Lorena; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire.wikipedia
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Second Mexican Empire

Mexican EmpireMexicoEmperor of Mexico
Maximilian I (Fernando Maximiliano José María de Habsburgo-Lorena; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire.
The Assemblies' referendum confirmed Austrian Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, as Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico, on December 4, 1863, with Maximilian officially accepting the crown on April 10, 1864.

Franz Joseph I of Austria

Franz Joseph IFranz JosephEmperor Franz Joseph
He was a younger brother of the Austrian emperor Franz Joseph I.
He ruled peacefully for the next 45 years, but personally suffered the tragedies of the execution of his brother, the Emperor Maximilian of Mexico in 1867, the suicide of his only son and heir-apparent, Crown Prince Rudolf, in 1889, the assassination of his wife, Empress Elisabeth, in 1898, and the assassination of his nephew and heir-presumptive, the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, in 1914.

Conservative Party (Mexico)

ConservativeConservative PartyConservatives
With the support of the French army and a group of Conservative Party monarchists hostile to the Liberal Party administration of the new Mexican president, Benito Juárez, Maximilian was offered the position of Emperor of Mexico, which he accepted on 10 April 1864.
The Conservative Party disappeared in 1867, after the fall of Maximilian I of Mexico.

Carlota of Mexico

Charlotte of BelgiumEmpress Carlota of MexicoEmpress Carlota
His wife, Charlotte of Belgium (Carlota), who had left for Europe earlier to try to build support for her husband's regime, suffered an emotional collapse after his death and apparently became insane.
Charlotte of Belgium (7 June 1840 – 19 January 1927) was a Belgian princess who became Empress of Mexico when her husband accepted the Imperial Throne of Mexico and reigned as Maximilian I of Mexico.

Second French intervention in Mexico

French intervention in MexicoFrench InterventionMexico
France, together with Spain and the United Kingdom, invaded the Mexican Republic in the winter of 1861, ostensibly to collect debts; the Spanish and British both withdrew the following year after negotiating agreements with Mexico's republican government, while France sought to conquer the country.
In Mexican politics, the French intervention allowed active political reaction against the liberal policies of racial and socio-economic reform of president Benito Juárez (1858–72), thus the Roman Catholic Church, upper-class conservatives, much of the Mexican nobility, and some Native American communities welcomed and collaborated with the French empire's installation of Maximilian I of Mexico as Emperor of the Mexicans.

Archduke Franz Karl of Austria

Archduke Franz KarlFranz KarlArch-Duke Franz Carl
His father was Archduke Franz Karl, the second surviving son of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, during whose reign he was born.
He was the father of two emperors: Franz Joseph I of Austria and Maximilian I of Mexico.

Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor

Francis IIFrancis IFrancis I of Austria
His father was Archduke Franz Karl, the second surviving son of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, during whose reign he was born.
Francis II's grandchildren include Napoleon II (Napoleon's only legitimate son), Franz Joseph I of Austria, Maximillian I of Mexico, Maria II of Portugal and Pedro II of Brazil.

Princess Sophie of Bavaria

Archduchess SophieSophie of BavariaSophie
His mother was Princess Sophie of Bavaria, a member of the House of Wittelsbach.
Her eldest son Franz Joseph reigned as Emperor of Austria, and King of Hungary; her second son Maximilian reigned as Emperor of Mexico.

Second French Empire

Second EmpireFranceFrench Empire
Seeking to legitimize French rule, Napoleon III invited Maximilian to establish a new pro-French Mexican monarchy.
By 1863, French military intervention in Mexico to set up a Second Mexican Empire headed by Emperor Maximilian, brother of Franz Joseph I of Austria, was a complete fiasco.

Paseo de la Reforma

ReformaArch of the RevolutionGo Visa Ad on Paseo De La Reforma Avenue
He built wide boulevards such as Paseo de la Emperatriz ("Promenade of the Empress") in Mexico City, and instituted liberal social reforms (much to the chagrin of his conservative base).
After the French intervention in Mexico overthrew the constitutional President Benito Juárez, the newly crowned Emperor Maximilian made his mark on the conquered city.

Napoleon III

Napoléon IIILouis NapoleonNapoleon III of France
After a distinguished career in the Austrian Navy as its commander, he accepted an offer by Napoleon III of France to rule Mexico, conditional on a national plebiscite in his favour.
In 1862, Napoleon III sent troops to Mexico in an effort to establish an allied monarchy in the Americas, with Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria enthroned as Emperor Maximilian I.

Chapultepec Castle

Castillo de ChapultepecCastle of ChapultepecChapultepec
From Puebla they went to Mexico City, where they established the royal residence in Chapultepec Castle, which had previously been a military academy.
It became the official residence of Emperor Maximilian I and his consort Empress Carlota during the Second Mexican Empire (1864-1867).

Benito Juárez

Benito JuarezJuarezJuárez
With the support of the French army and a group of Conservative Party monarchists hostile to the Liberal Party administration of the new Mexican president, Benito Juárez, Maximilian was offered the position of Emperor of Mexico, which he accepted on 10 April 1864.
Never relinquishing office although forced into exile to areas of Mexico not controlled by the French, Juárez tied Liberalism to Mexican nationalism and maintained that he was the legitimate head of the Mexican state, rather than Emperor Maximilian.

Nanny

nannieschildmindernurse
Until his sixth birthday, he was cared for by Baroness Louise von Sturmfeder, who was his aja (then rendered "nurse", now nanny).

SMS Novara (1850)

NovaraSMS NovaraSMS ''Novara
He also initiated a large-scale scientific expedition (1857–1859) during which the frigate SMS Novara became the first Austrian warship to circumnavigate the globe.
SMS Novara was a sail frigate of the Austro-Hungarian Navy most noted for sailing the globe for the Novara Expedition of 1857–1859 and, later for carrying Archduke Maximilian and wife Carlota to Veracruz in May 1864 to become Emperor and Empress of Mexico.

Puebla

State of PueblaPuebla StatePuebla, Mexico
Nonetheless, when they celebrated Charlotte's birthday in Puebla in June of that year, the people donated 1,604 pesos as a birthday present.
However, less than a year later, the city would be taken and shortly after, Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico would be installed.

Veracruz

Veracruz, MexicoVera CruzState of Veracruz
Once offered the crown of Mexico, Maximilian and Charlotte sailed from Trieste on 10 April 1864, and arrived in Veracruz on 28 May 1864.
The Spanish and the British withdrew after making deals with Juárez, but the French pushed on to establish the reign of Maximilian I of Mexico.

Wilhelm von Tegetthoff

Admiral TegetthoffTegetthoffAdmiral Tegethoff
As commander-in-chief, Maximilian carried out many reforms to modernise the naval forces, and was instrumental in creating the naval port at Trieste and Pola (now Pula), as well as the battle fleet with which Admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff would later secure his victories.
This service brought him to the favorable notice of Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria, the Oberkommandant der Marine (High Commander of the Navy), with whom he had been acquainted since 1850.

Acapantzingo, Cuernavaca

AcapantzingoEjido of Acapantzingo
The couple bought the Borda Garden in Cuernavaca, and he bought a country estate for his mistress, Concepcion Sedano, in suburban Acapantzingo.
Maximilian I of Mexico arrived in Mexico in 1861 and declared himself emperor in 1864.

Lokrum

Lacroma
At the same time, the couple acquired a converted monastery on the island of Lokrum as a holiday residence.
Austrian archduke (and short-lived Emperor of Mexico) Maximilian once had a holiday home on the island.

Emperor of Mexico

EmperorEmperors of MexicoConstitutional Emperor of Mexico
With the support of the French army and a group of Conservative Party monarchists hostile to the Liberal Party administration of the new Mexican president, Benito Juárez, Maximilian was offered the position of Emperor of Mexico, which he accepted on 10 April 1864.

Napoleon II

Duke of ReichstadtNapoleon II of FranceKing of Rome
Rumors at the court stated that Maximilian was, in fact, the product of an extramarital affair between his mother and his first cousin Napoleon II, Duke of Reichstadt, the only legitimate son of Napoleon; the duke's mother was Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, former Empress of the French, Maximilian's aunt.

Miramare Castle

MiramareCastello di MiramareMiramare Park
Maximilian then retired to Trieste, near which he built Miramare Castle.
It was built from 1856 to 1860 for Austrian Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian and his wife, Charlotte of Belgium, later Emperor Maximilian I and Empress Carlota of Mexico, based on a design by Carl Junker.

Cuernavaca

Cuernavaca, MorelosCuernavaca, MexicoCuauhnahuac
He also acquired a country retreat at Cuernavaca.
Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico set up a country residence in the city.

Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia

Kingdom of Lombardy-VenetiaLombardy-VenetiaLombardy–Venetia
He had a reputation as a liberal, and this was one of several considerations leading to his appointment as Viceroy of the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia in February 1857.
The office was initially assumed by Field Marshal Radetzky, upon his retirement in 1857 it passed it to Franz Joseph's younger brother Maximilian (who later became Emperor of Mexico), who served as Governor-General in Milan from 1857 to 1859.