Maya civilization

MayaMayanMayansMaya cultureancient MayaMayasMaya civilisationMayan cultureMayan civilizationMayan cities
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and highly developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.wikipedia
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Ancient Maya art

Maya artMayaMayan art
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and highly developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
Ancient Maya art refers to the material arts of the Maya civilization, an eastern and south-eastern Mesoamerican culture that took shape in the course of the later Preclassic Period (500 BCE to 200 CE).

Maya astronomy

astronomicalastronomical tablesJupiter and Saturn
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and highly developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
Maya astronomy is the study of the Moon, planets, Milky Way, Sun, and other astronomical occurrences by the Precolumbian Maya Civilization of Mesoamerica.

Guatemala

GuatemalanRepublic of GuatemalaGTM
The Maya civilization developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador. This region consists of the northern lowlands encompassing the Yucatán Peninsula, and the highlands of the Sierra Madre, running from the Mexican state of Chiapas, across southern Guatemala and onwards into El Salvador, and the southern lowlands of the Pacific littoral plain.
The territory of modern Guatemala once formed the core of the Maya civilization, which extended across Mesoamerica.

Mexico

MexicanMéxicoMEX
The Maya civilization developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador.
Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of six cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec before first contact with Europeans.

Honduras

HonduranRepublic of HondurasHondurans
The Maya civilization developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador.
Honduras was home to several important Mesoamerican cultures, most notably the Maya, before the Spanish Colonization in the sixteenth century.

Pre-Columbian era

pre-Columbianpre-Hispanicprehispanic
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and highly developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
A few, such as the Maya civilization, had their own written records.

Maya cuisine

Maya dietdietMaya diet and subsistence
2000 BC to 250 AD) saw the establishment of the first complex societies in the Maya region, and the cultivation of the staple crops of the Maya diet, including maize, beans, squashes, and chili peppers.
Ancient Maya cuisine was varied and extensive.

Maya city

Maya citiescitycities
The first Maya cities developed around 750 BC, and by 500 BC these cities possessed monumental architecture, including large temples with elaborate stucco façades.
Maya cities were the centres of population of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica.

Chiapas

Chiapas, MexicoChiapanState of Chiapas
This region consists of the northern lowlands encompassing the Yucatán Peninsula, and the highlands of the Sierra Madre, running from the Mexican state of Chiapas, across southern Guatemala and onwards into El Salvador, and the southern lowlands of the Pacific littoral plain.
Chiapas is home to the ancient Mayan ruins of Palenque, Yaxchilán, Bonampak, Chinkultic and Toniná.

Tikal

Tikal National ParkMutulTikal ruins
In the Maya Lowlands two great rivals, the cities of Tikal and Calakmul, became powerful.
It is one of the largest archaeological sites and urban centers of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization.

Calakmul

KaanKaan KingdomAncient Maya City and Protected Tropical Forests of Calakmul, Campeche
In the Maya Lowlands two great rivals, the cities of Tikal and Calakmul, became powerful.
Calakmul (also Kalakmul and other less frequent variants) is a Maya archaeological site in the Mexican state of Campeche, deep in the jungles of the greater Petén Basin region.

Belize

British HondurasBelizeanBelizian
The Maya civilization developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador.
The Maya Civilization emerged at least three millennia ago in the lowland area of the Yucatán Peninsula and the highlands to the south, in the area of present-day southeastern Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and western Honduras.

Mesoamerican chronology

Classic periodPostclassicLate Classic
The Archaic period, prior to 2000 BC, saw the first developments in agriculture and the earliest villages.
The Zapotec civilization arose in the Valley of Oaxaca, the Teotihuacan civilization arose in the Valley of Mexico, and the Maya civilization began to develop in the Mirador Basin (in modern-day Guatemala) and the Epi-Olmec culture in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (in modern-day Chiapas), later expanding into Guatemala and the Yucatán Peninsula.

Kaminaljuyu

KaminaljuyúKaminal Juyú
In the Late Preclassic a number of large cities developed in the Petén Basin, and the city of Kaminaljuyu rose to prominence in the Guatemalan Highlands.
Kaminaljuyu (pronounced ) is a Pre-Columbian site of the Maya civilization that was primarily occupied from 1500 BC to AD 1200.

Classic Maya collapse

Maya collapsecollapseClassic Maya
In the 9th century, there was a widespread political collapse in the central Maya region, resulting in internecine warfare, the abandonment of cities, and a northward shift of population.
In archaeology, the classic Maya collapse is the decline of the Classic Maya civilization and the abandonment of Maya cities in the southern Maya lowlands of Mesoamerica between the 8th and 9th centuries, at the end of the Classic Maya Period.

Maya stelae

stelaestelaMaya stela
There are also a great many examples of Maya text found on stelae and ceramics.
Maya stelae (singular stela) are monuments that were fashioned by the Maya civilization of ancient Mesoamerica.

Petén Basin

PeténPetenPetén region
In the Late Preclassic a number of large cities developed in the Petén Basin, and the city of Kaminaljuyu rose to prominence in the Guatemalan Highlands.
During the Late Preclassic and Classic periods of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican chronology many major centers of the Maya civilization flourished, such as Tikal and Calakmul.

Maya numerals

bar-and-dotMayanMayan numerals
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and highly developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
The Mayan numeral system was the system to represent numbers and calendar dates in the Maya civilization.

Americas

Americathe AmericasAmerican
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and highly developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
The term Pre-Columbian is used especially often in the context of the great indigenous civilizations of the Americas, such as those of Mesoamerica (the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacano, the Zapotec, the Mixtec, the Aztec, and the Maya) and the Andes (Inca, Moche, Muisca, Cañaris).

Nojpetén

TayasalItza capital
In the 16th century, the Spanish Empire colonised the Mesoamerican region, and a lengthy series of campaigns saw the fall of Nojpetén, the last Maya city, in 1697.
Nojpetén (also spelled Noh Petén, and also known as Tayasal) was the capital city of the Itza Maya kingdom of Petén Itzá, located on an island in Lake Petén Itzá in the modern department of Petén in northern Guatemala.

Jade use in Mesoamerica

jadegreenstone(jade) in Mesoamerica
The Maya civilization developed highly sophisticated artforms, and the Maya created art using both perishable and non-perishable materials, including wood, jade, obsidian, ceramics, sculpted stone monuments, stucco, and finely painted murals.
The use of jade in Mesoamerica for symbolic and ideological ritual was highly influenced by its rarity and value among pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures, such as the Olmec, the Maya, and the various groups in the Valley of Mexico.

Sacbe

causewaycausewayssacbeob
Different parts of a city would often be linked by causeways.
A sacbe, plural sacbeob (Yucatec Maya: singular sakbej, plural sakbejo'ob), or "white way", is a raised paved road built by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica.

Human sacrifice in Maya culture

human sacrificesacrificedhuman sacrifices
As a part of their religion, the Maya practised human sacrifice.
Human sacrifice among the Maya is evident from at least the Classic period (c.

Teotihuacan

TeotihuacánTeotihuacan EmpireTeotihuacano
The Classic period also saw the intrusive intervention of the central Mexican city of Teotihuacan in Maya dynastic politics.
This suggests that, in the Maya civilization of the Classic period, Teotihuacan was understood as a Place of Reeds similar to other Postclassic Central Mexican settlements that took the name of Tollan, such as Tula-Hidalgo and Cholula.

City-state

city statecity-statescity states
This period saw the Maya civilization develop many city-states linked by a complex trade network.
Historical city-states included Sumerian cities such as Uruk and Ur; Ancient Egyptian city-states, such as Thebes and Memphis; the Phoenician cities (such as Tyre and Sidon); the five Philistine city-states; the Berber city-states of the Garamantes; the city-states of ancient Greece (the poleis such as Athens, Sparta, Thebes, and Corinth); the Roman Republic (which grew from a city-state into a great power); the Mayan and other cultures of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica (including cities such as Chichen Itza, Tikal, Copán and Monte Albán); the central Asian cities along the Silk Road; the city-states of the Swahili coast; Venice; Ragusa; states of the medieval Russian lands such as Novgorod and Pskov; and many others.