The Maya area within Mesoamerica
Remains in Joya de Cerén, a Classic-era settlement in El Salvador buried under volcanic ash around 600 AD. Its preservation has greatly helped in the study of everyday life in a Maya farming community.
Depiction of the founding myth of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Codex Mendoza. The eagle perched on a cactus has been incorporated into the Mexican flag since its independence, and was a motif in colonial-era art.
Maya area
Stela D from Quiriguá, representing king Kʼakʼ Tiliw Chan Yopaat
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan with first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
Calakmul was one of the most important Classic period cities.
Cultivation of maize, shown in the Florentine Codex (1576) drawn by an indigenous scribe, with text in Nahuatl on this folio
Chichen Itza was the most important city in the northern Maya region.
1945 mural by Diego Rivera depicting the view from the Tlatelolco markets into Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the largest city in the Americas at the time
Zaculeu was capital of the Postclassic Mam kingdom in the Guatemalan Highlands.
Hernán Cortés and his multilingual cultural translator, Doña Marina ("Malinche"), meeting Moctezuma II from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, a document created ca. 1550 by the Tlaxcalans to remind the Spanish of their loyalty and the importance of Tlaxcala during the conquest of the Aztec Empire.
Mayapan was an important Postclassic city in the northern Yucatán Peninsula.
Smallpox depicted by an indigenous artist in the 1576 Florentine Codex
Page from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala showing the Spanish conquest of Iximche, known as Cuahtemallan in the Nahuatl language
View of the Plaza Mayor (today Zócalo) in Mexico City (ca. 1695) by Cristóbal de Villalpando
Drawing by Frederick Catherwood of the Nunnery complex at Uxmal
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
1892 photograph of the Castillo at Chichen Itza, by Teoberto Maler
Silver peso mined and minted in colonial Mexico, which became a global currency
Stela from Toniná, representing the 6th-century king Bahlam Yaxuun Tihl
Viceroyalty of New Spain following the signing of the 1819 Adams-Onís Treaty
Classic period sculpture showing sajal Aj Chak Maax presenting captives before ruler Itzamnaaj Bʼalam III of Yaxchilan
Luis de Mena, Virgin of Guadalupe and castas, showing race mixture and hierarchy as well as fruits of the realm, ca. 1750
Lintel 16 from Yaxchilán, depicting king Yaxun Bʼalam in warrior garb
Father Hidalgo used this banner of the Virgin of Guadalupe as their emblem
The Puuc-style Labna gateway. The passage is formed by a corbel arch, a common element in Maya architecture.
Siege of the Alhondiga de Granaditas, Guanajuato, 28 Sept. 1810.
Reconstruction of the urban core of Tikal in the 8th century AD
Flag of the Army of the Three Guarantees, the force formed by ex-royalist Iturbide and insurgent Vicente Guerrero in February 1821
Fired bricks with animal designs from Comalcalco. Made from brick since there was a lack of readily available stone, it is unique among major Maya sites.
Flag of the First Mexican Empire under Agustín I, 1822-23, with the eagle wearing a crown
Terminal Classic palace complex at Sayil, in northern Yucatán
Flag of the First Republic of Mexico, with the eagle without a crown, signaling the new republic
Temple I, at Tikal, was a funerary temple in honour of king Jasaw Chan Kʼawiil I.
General Antonio López de Santa Anna
Model of a triadic pyramid at Caracol, Belize
Portrait of Liberal President Benito Juárez
Map of Mayan language migration routes
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian, 19 June 1867. Gen. Tomás Mejía, left, Maximiian, center, Gen. Miguel Miramón, right. Painting by Édouard Manet 1868.
Pages from the Postclassic period Paris Codex, one of the few surviving Maya books in existence
President Porfirio Díaz linking himself to independence hero Hidalgo and liberal hero Juárez September 1910.
Maya script on Cancuén Panel 3 describes the installation of two vassals at Machaquilá by Cancuén king Taj Chan Ahk.
Francisco I. Madero, who challenged Díaz in the fraudulent 1910 election and was elected president when Díaz was forced to resign in May 1911.
Ceramic vessel painted with Maya script in the Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin
Revolutionary Generals Pancho Villa (left) and Emiliano Zapata (right)
Reading order of Maya hieroglyphic text
General Álvaro Obregón (far left) shown with a cigar in his left hand and his right arm missing, center with the white beard is First Chief Venustiano Carranza
Representation of an astronomer from the Madrid Codex
Logo of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which incorporates the colors of the Mexican flag
Relief sculpture of a decapitated ballplayer, adorning the Great Ballcourt at Chichen Itza
Pemex, the national oil company created in 1938 for reasons of economic nationalism; it continues to provide major revenues for the government
Maize was a staple of the Maya diet.
NAFTA signing ceremony, October 1992. From left to right: (standing) President Carlos Salinas de Gortari (Mexico), President George H. W. Bush (U.S.), and Prime Minister Brian Mulroney (Canada)
The Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología, in Guatemala City
Zapatista leader Comandanta Ramona
Vicente Fox and his opposition National Action Party won the 2000 general election, ending one-party rule.
Topographic map of Mexico
Mexico map of Köppen climate classification
Mexican wolf
Gray whale
The National Palace on the east side of Plaza de la Constitución or Zócalo, the main square of Mexico City; it was the residence of viceroys and Presidents of Mexico and now the seat of the Mexican government.
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
Alfonso García Robles diplomat who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982
A Mexican Navy Eurocopter
Demonstration on 26 September 2015, in the first anniversary of the disappearance of the 43 students in the Mexican town of Iguala
The territorial evolution of Mexico after independence: secession of Central America (purple), Chiapas annexed from Guatemala (blue), losses to the U.S. (red, white and orange) and the reannexation of the Republic of Yucatán (red)
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.
Historical GDP per capita development of Mexico
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Telmex Tower, Mexico City.
The Central Eólica Sureste I, Fase II in Oaxaca. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the region of Mexico with the highest capacity for wind energy. (see Tehuantepecer, a strong wind that affects the region)
Guillermo Haro Observatory in Cananea, Sonora.
Cancun and the Riviera Maya is the most visited region in Latin America
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
El Cajon Dam
Mexican states by population density
Las castas. Casta painting showing 16 racial groupings. Anonymous, 18th century, oil on canvas, 148×104 cm, Museo Nacional del Virreinato, Tepotzotlán, Mexico.
Colonial caste painting of Mexican family in Viceroyalty of New Spain
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1981 Miguel de Cervantes Prize, the 1982 Neustadt International Prize for Literature, and the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Our Lady of Guadalupe, patron saint of Mexico. This painting of her at the Basilica of Guadalupe is among her most notable depictions. Scientists debate if it should be dated 1531, the year of the first apparition was said to appear, or the 1550s.
Cathedral of Zacatecas
General Hospital of Mexico in Mexico City.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Olga Sánchez Cordero, Minister of the Interior (Gobernacion) in President López Obrador's cabinet
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Mexican Muralism. A cultural expression starting in the 1920s created by a group of Mexican painters after the Mexican Revolution.
Monument to Cuauhtémoc, Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City (1887)
Teotihuacán, State of Mexico
The colonial-era Cathedral Mexico City dominates one side of the main square of the capital
Museo Soumaya in Mexico City building
David Alfaro Siqueiros by Héctor García Cobo at Lecumberri prison, Mexico City, 1960.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, "The Tenth Muse." Posthmous portrait Juan Cabrera
Actress Dolores del Río, Hollywood star in the 1920s and 1930s and prominent figure of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema in the 1940s and 1950s
Mole sauce, which has dozens of varieties across the Republic, is seen as a symbol of Mexicanidad and is considered Mexico's national dish.
Portrait of composer Carlos Chávez by Carl van Vechten
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
Logo for the 1968 Mexico Olympics
Plaque in Mexico City commemorating Lucha libre as an intangible cultural heritage
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan, the first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
Temple of Kukulcán (El Castillo) in the maya city of Chichen Itza
Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his Troops (1848)
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
Map of the First Mexican Empire
Students in a burned bus during the protests of 1968
Pico de Orizaba, the highest mountain in Mexico
Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Congress of Mexico
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
Headquarters of the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs
Mexican Federal Police celebration.
Mexico City, the financial center of Mexico
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Large Millimeter Telescope in Puebla.
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
Lake Chapala is Mexico's largest freshwater lake.
Regional variation of ancestry according to a study made by Ruiz-Linares in 2014, each dot represents a volunteer, with most coming from south Mexico and Mexico City.
Map for the year 2000 of the indigenous languages of Mexico having more than 100,000 speakers.
Mexico–United States barrier between San Diego's border patrol offices in California, USA (left) and Tijuana, Mexico (right)
Secretary of Health, Mexico City, Mexico.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Frida Kahlo, the most famous woman artist in Mexican history.
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
El Santo, one of the most famous and iconic Mexican luchadores

The Maya civilization developed in the area that today comprises southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador.

- Maya civilization

In particular, the Mesoamerican region was home to many intertwined civilizations; including the Olmec, Maya, Zapotec, Teotihuacan, and Purepecha.

- Mexico

12 related topics



Maya city of Tikal
The Conquistador Pedro de Alvarado led the initial Spanish efforts to conquer Guatemala.
Criollos rejoice upon learning about the declaration of independence from Spain on 15 September 1821.
The Federal Republic of Central America (1823–1838) with its capital in Guatemala City.
Proclamation Coin 1847 of the independent Republic of Guatemala
Captain General Rafael Carrera after being appointed president for Life in 1854.
Vicente Cerna y Cerna was the president of Guatemala from 1865 to 1871.
Manuel Estrada Cabrera ruled Guatemala between 1898 and 1920.
Guatemala's democratically elected president Jacobo Árbenz was overthrown in a coup planned by the CIA, The United Fruit Company had lobbied the U.S. to overthrow him.
Memorial to the victims of the Río Negro massacres
An outdoor market in Chichicastenango, 2009
Guatemala City is the capital and largest city of Guatemala and the most populous urban area in Central America.
A map of Guatemala.
Köppen climate types of Guatemala
The highlands of Quetzaltenango.
A town along the Pan-American Highway within a volcanic crater.
The Congress of the Republic of Guatemala.
Historical GDP per capita development of El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras
A proportional representation of Guatemala exports, 2019
Fields in Quetzaltenango.
Guatemala's population (1950–2010).
Population pyramid in 2020
Tz'utujil men in Santiago Atitlán.
Indigenous Guatemalan women in Antigua Guatemala.
Language map of Guatemala. The "Castilian" areas represent Spanish.
The Catedral Metropolitana, Guatemala City.
A church in San Andrés Xecul.
A Guatemalan woman selling souvenirs.
Author Rigoberta Menchú
Famous singer Ricardo Arjona
Black and red tamales in Guatemala
Estadio Doroteo Guamuch Flores in Guatemala City.

Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America, bordered by Mexico to the north and west, Belize and the Caribbean to the northeast, Honduras to the east, El Salvador to the southeast and the Pacific Ocean to the south.

The core of the Maya civilization, which extended across Mesoamerica, was historically based in the territory of modern Guatemala.


Country on the northeastern coast of Central America.

Country on the northeastern coast of Central America.

Extent of the Maya civilization
"Caana" at Caracol
"El Castillo" at Xunantunich
An excerpt from the 1898 Gazette that declared 10 September an official holiday, part of the efforts of the Centennial Committee
Colonial flag of British Honduras, 1870–1919
Colonial flag of British Honduras, 1919–1981
A British Honduras postage stamp overprinted in 1962 to mark Hurricane Hattie
National Assembly in Belmopan
A British Royal Marine training in the jungle of Belize in 2017
Belizean Coast Guard working with the United States Navy
Districts of Belize
Topography of Belize
Belizean jungles are home to the jaguar and many other mammals. Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary was founded in 1990 as the first wilderness sanctuary for the jaguar and is regarded by one author as the premier site for jaguar preservation in the world.
Scarlet macaws are native to Central and northern South America. Various bird sanctuaries exist in Belize, such as the Crooked Tree Wildlife Sanctuary.
Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary
Belize Barrier Reef; aerial view looking north
The Great Blue Hole, a phenomenon of karst topography
Köppen climate classification of Belize
A proportional representation of Belize's exports in 2019
A sugar cane processing plant, Orange Walk Town, Belize. Sugar is one of Belize's top exports.
Panoramic view of Caye Caulker
Belize electricity supply by source
Belize has a wide diversity of ethnicities.
Maya children
Traditional Garifuna dancers in Dangriga, Belize
Mennonite children selling peanuts near Lamanai in Belize. Over 12,000 Plautdietsch-speaking Mennonites live in Belize, farming the land and living according to their religious beliefs.
Holy Redeemer Catholic Diocesan Centre
Rice and beans (with coconut milk), stewed chicken and potato salad. An inter-ethnic staple meal.
Accomplished Belizean cyclist Shalini Zabaneh
The keel-billed toucan

It borders Mexico to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Guatemala to the west and south.

The Maya civilization spread into the area of Belize between 1500 BC and AD 300 and flourished until about 1200.

Mesoamerica and its cultural areas


Historical region and cultural area in southern North America and most of Central America.

Historical region and cultural area in southern North America and most of Central America.

Mesoamerica and its cultural areas
Ballgame court at Monte Albán
A pair of swinging Remojadas figurines, Classic Veracruz culture, 300 to 900 CE.
Page 9 of the Dresden Codex (from the 1880 Förstermann edition)
El Mirador flourished from 600 BCE to 100 CE, and may have had a population of over 100,000.
Landscape of the Mesoamerican highlands
Yojoa Lake in Honduras.
Tikal is one of the largest archaeological sites, urban centers, and tourist attractions of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. It is located in the archaeological region of the Petén Basin in what is now northern Guatemala.
Olmec Colossal Head No. 3 1200–900 BCE
Pyramid of the Moon viewed from atop of the Pyramid of the Sun.
Xochicalco, Temple of the Feathered Serpent, 650–900 CE
Detail of the Nunnery Quadrangle at Uxmal, 10th century
Mesoamerica and Central America in the 16th century before Spanish arrival
Examples of the diversity of maize
The Aztec Empire in 1512
K'inich Kan B'alam II, the Classic period ruler of Palenque, as depicted on a stele
Illustration that recreates the structures of the archaeological site of Yarumela or El Chircal in Honduras, this place reflects the Olmec influence that existed in Central America in the pre-classic period.
"Head Variant" or "Patron Gods" glyphs for Maya days
The emblem glyph of Tikal (Mutal)
One of the earliest examples of the Mesoamerican writing systems, the Epi-Olmec script on the La Mojarra Stela 1 dated to around 150 CE. Mesoamerica is one of the five places in the world where writing has developed independently.
The xoloitzcuintle is one of the naguales of the god Quetzalcoatl. In this form, it helps the dead cross the Chicnahuapan, a river that separates the world of the living from the dead.
Zapotec mask of the Bat God.
Ritual human sacrifice portrayed in Codex Laud
A small ceremonial ballcourt at Uaxactun.
Ballgame marker from the classic Lowland Maya site of Chinkultic, Mexico depicting a ballplayer in full gear
The Avenue of the Dead in Teotihuacan, an example of a Mesoamerican settlement planned according to concepts of directionality
Art with ideological and political meaning: depiction of an Aztec tzompantli (skull-rack) from the Ramirez Codex
Holy Spirit Grotto
Joya de Cerén
Casa Blanca
San Andres
Sculpture of "The Acrobat" from Tlatilco
Pyramid of the archaeological site of La Venta 1000-400 BCE
Cuicuilco 800–600 BCE
The partly excavated main structure of San José Mogote 1500–500 BCE
Monte Albán, Building J in the foreground. 200 BCE – 200 CE
Great Goddess of Teotihuacan 200–500 CE
A reconstruction of Guachimontones, flourished from 200 to 400 CE
Temple of the Owl, Dzibanche 200–600 CE
Acanceh, 200–300 CE<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Mesoweb Articles|}}</ref>
Mask located on the "Temple of the Masks" Kohunlich c. 500 CE
Main palace of Palenque, 7th century AD
K'inich Janaab Pakal I of Palenque 603–683 AD
Copan Stela H commissioned by Uaxaclajuun Ubʼaah Kʼawiil 695–738 AD
Jaina Island type figure (Maya) 650–800 AD
Cacaxtla, Mural depicting the Bird Man 650–900 AD
Chichen Itza, Temple of the Jaguars 900–1000 AD
Governor's Palace rear view and details, 10th century CE, Uxmal
Codz Poop, 7th–10th centuries CE Kabah
Sayil, three-story palace, 600–900 CE
Chichen Itza, "Temple of Three Dintels" 600–1000 CE
Palace of Mitla, Oaxaca 12th century
The Calendar temple of Tlatelolco, 1200 CE
Detail of page 20 from the Codex Zouche-Nuttall, 14–15th century
Pectoral mixtec, Shield of Yanhuitlan.
Aztec sun stone, early 16th century

It extends from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica.

In the subsequent Preclassic period, complex urban polities began to develop among the Maya, with the rise of centers such as Aguada fénix and Calakmul in Mexico; El Mirador, and Tikal in Guatemala, and the Zapotec at Monte Albán.


Jaguar sculpture from Cintalapa dating between 1000 and 400 BCE on display at the Regional Museum of Anthropology and History of Chiapas.
The Palace at Palenque
The Royal Crown centered in the main plaza of Chiapa de Corzo built in 1562.
Remnants of frescos at the Saint Mark Cathedral of Tuxtla Gutiérrez
Comitán's declaration of independence from 1823
Copy of the 1825 state constitution
1856 map of the state
The Palace of Government of Chiapas (Governor's Office) at Tuxtla Gutiérrez
Palacio Legislativo (Legislative Palace) at Tuxtla Gutiérrez.
Sugar cane mill from Tapachula on display at the Regional Museum in Chiapas
Area of the Lacandon Jungle burned to plant crops
Zapatistas Territory sign in Chiapas, Mexico
Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) graffiti in Chiapas, Mexico
An EZLN mural in Chiapas, Mexico depicting a story about Compañero José written in Spanish and Mayan
Mount Tacaná
View of the Sumidero Canyon from atop the ridge
Lake at the Parque Nacional Lagunas de Montebello
Jungle area near Group C at the Palenque archeological site
Miramar Lake surrounded by the Lacandon Jungle
View of Sierra Madre de Chiapas from the Soconusco Region
View of the waterfalls at Agua Azul
Usumacinta River and Lacandon Jungle on the Chiapas side
Grijalva River flowing through the central region
Overlooking part of the Malpaso or Nezahualcoyotl Reservoir
Tzeltal woman in Palenque
Ranch near Palenque
Boats at the docks of Frontera Corozal, which mostly serves the nearby Yaxchilan archeological site
Misol-Há Waterfall
Drink called taxcalate
Cristo de Chiapas, a monumental cross in Tuxtla Gutiérrez constructed in 2011
Subcomandante Marcos of the Zapatistas entered into an alliance with Chiapas Muslims in the 1990s.
Olmec style stone sculpture from Tiltepec at the Regional Museum of Chiapas
View of Port Chiapas
Ángel Albino Corzo International Airport

Chiapas (Tzotzil and Tzeltal: Chyapas ), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chiapas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chiapas), is one of the states that make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico.

Chiapas is home to the ancient Mayan ruins of Palenque, Yaxchilán, Bonampak, Chinkultic and Toniná.

El Castillo, Chichen Itza

Mesoamerican pyramids

Mesoamerican pyramids form a prominent part of ancient Mesoamerican architecture.

Mesoamerican pyramids form a prominent part of ancient Mesoamerican architecture.

El Castillo, Chichen Itza
Santa Cecilia Acatitlan pyramid
Pyramid of the Sun
El Tajín
Votive Pyramid at La Quemada

The Maya are a people of southern Mexico and northern Central America (Guatemala, Belize, western Honduras, and El Salvador).

An expressive orange-ware clay vessel in the Toltec style, from the American Museum of Natural History collection.


An expressive orange-ware clay vessel in the Toltec style, from the American Museum of Natural History collection.
Pyramid C at Tula, Hidalgo
Tempo Tlahuizcalpantecuhtl (Pyramid B) is the largest and best known structure at the archaeological site of Tula. Atlantean figures are situated on the apex of the pyramid.
Stucco relief at Tula, Hidalgo depicting Coyotes, Jaguars and Eagles feasting on human hearts.
Carved relief of a jaguar at Tula, Hidalgo
Depiction of an anthropomorphic bird-snake deity, probably Quetzalcoatl at the Temple of Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli at Tula, Hidalgo
View of the columns of the burned palace at Tula Hidalgo. The second ballcourt is in the background.
Toltec warriors represented by the famous Atlantean figures in Tula.

The Toltec culture (/ˈtɒltɛk/) was a pre-Columbian Mesoamerican culture that ruled a state centered in Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico during the Epiclassic and the early Post-Classic period of Mesoamerican chronology, reaching prominence from 950 to 1150 CE.

Other controversies relating to the Toltecs include the question of how best to understand the reasons behind the perceived similarities in architecture and iconography between the archaeological site of Tula and the Maya site of Chichén Itzá.

Gulf of Mexico coastline near Galveston, Texas

Gulf of Mexico

Ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.

Ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.

Gulf of Mexico coastline near Galveston, Texas
Galveston harbor by Verner Moore White
Ship and oil rigs in the Gulf
Cantarell Field
Sediment in the Gulf of Mexico
Richard Mount and Thomas Page's 1700 map of the Gulf of Mexico, A Chart of the Bay of Mexico
Graph showing the overall water temperature of the Gulf between Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Although Katrina cooled waters in its path by up to 4 °C, they had rebounded by the time of Rita's appearance.
Fishing boats in Biloxi
Gulf beach near Sabine Pass
The Mississippi River watershed is the largest drainage basin of the Gulf of Mexico Watershed.
Map of northern part of Gulf of Mexico
The shaded relief map of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean area.
Dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico
Deepwater Horizon in flames after the explosion

It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States; on the southwest and south by the Mexican states of Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan, and Quintana Roo; and on the southeast by Cuba.

As early as the Maya Civilization, the Gulf of Mexico was used as a trade route off the coast of the Yucatán Peninsula and present-day Veracruz.

Temple of Kukulkan at Mayapan


Temple of Kukulkan at Mayapan
Maya Ruins in Mayapan.
Mayan site, Mayapan. The picture was taken on the highest pyramid of the site.
A panorama of the Mayapan excavations from the top of the Castle of King Kukulcan.
The Templo Redondo with a Mayan carving in the foreground.
This mural partially survives in the Sala de los Frescos in Mayapán. In it appears a solar disk with the figure of a deity, possibly representing one of the transit of Venus that happened in years 1152 or 1275.
Columned hall, seen from the Kukulkan pyramid.

Mayapan (Màayapáan in Modern Maya; in Spanish Mayapán) is a Pre-Columbian Maya site a couple of kilometers south of the town of Telchaquillo in Municipality of Tecoh, approximately 40 km south-east of Mérida and 100 km west of Chichen Itza; in the state of Yucatán, Mexico.

Usumacinta River

In "Tres Brazos" the Usumacinta joins to San Pedrito river and Grijalva river, in the Wetlands of Centla, biosphere reserve, in Tabasco.
The Usumacinta River. One bank is Guatemala; the other is Mexico. Photograph taken from the Mexican side.

The Usumacinta River (named after the howler monkey) is a river in southeastern Mexico and northwestern Guatemala.

The river and its tributaries were important trade routes for the ancient Maya civilization.


Temple of Kukulcan in Chichén Itzá, locally called "El Castillo".
Yucatán in Mexico, 1824.
Flag of the Republic of Yucatán, civil insignia of the Yucatecan without legal recognition.
Agave fourcroydes, commonly known as henequén in Yucatán, sisal elsewhere and ki in Maya language.
A Dodge Charger squad car of the State Police

Yucatán (, also, , ; ), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Yucatán, is one of the 31 states which comprise the federal entities of Mexico.

It was a very important region for the Maya civilization, which reached the peak of its development here, where the Mayans founded the cities of Chichen Itza, Izamal, Motul, Mayapan, Ek' Balam and Ichcaanzihóo (also called T'ho), now Mérida.