Maynila (historical polity)

Kingdom of MaynilaMaynilaRajahnate of MaynilaSeludongManilaSelurongKota SeludongKota SelurongSaludungKingdom of Manila
In early Philippine history, the Tagalog Bayan ("country" or "polity") of Maynila (Baybayin: ; Balen ning Menila) was a major trade hub located on the southern part of the Pasig River delta, where the modern day district of Intramuros currently stands.wikipedia
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Bayan (settlement)

BayanBayan (political entity)
In early Philippine history, the Tagalog Bayan ("country" or "polity") of Maynila (Baybayin: ; Balen ning Menila) was a major trade hub located on the southern part of the Pasig River delta, where the modern day district of Intramuros currently stands.
Among the most prominent of these bayan entities were those in Maynila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, and Sulu.

Tagalog people

TagalogTagalogsTagalas
In early Philippine history, the Tagalog Bayan ("country" or "polity") of Maynila (Baybayin: ; Balen ning Menila) was a major trade hub located on the southern part of the Pasig River delta, where the modern day district of Intramuros currently stands.
During the reign of Sultan Bolkiah in 1485 to 1521, the Sultanate of Brunei decided to break Tondo's monopoly in the China trade by attacking Tondo and establishing Selurung as a Bruneian satellite-state.

Tondo (historical polity)

TondoKingdom of TondoTondo Dynasty
Together with Tondo, the polity (bayan) on the northern part of the Pasig River delta, it established a shared monopoly on the trade of Chinese goods.
The earliest firsthand Spanish accounts described it as a smaller "village", in comparison to the fortified polity of Maynila.

Datu

datuschiefdatto
By 1570, Maynila was under the rule of two paramount rulers (the more senior Rajah Matanda and the younger Rajah Sulayman), who in turn had several lower-ranked rulers ("Datu") under them.
In large coastal polities such as those in Maynila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Panay, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, Lanao, and Sulu, several datus brought their loyalty-groups, referred to as "barangays" or "dulohan", into compact settlements which allowed greater degrees of cooperation and economic specialization.

Paramount rulers in early Philippine history

Paramount datuparamount rulerparamount rulers
Historical texts indicate that it was led by paramount rulers who used the title "Rajah", but the introduction of hispanized literary forms have led to it sometimes being inappropriately referred to as the "Kingdom of Maynila".
The term Paramount Ruler, or sometimes Paramount Datu, is a term applied by historians to describe the highest ranking political authorities in the largest lowland polities or inter-polity alliance groups in early Philippine history, most notably those in Maynila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, and Sulu.

Rajah Matanda

MatandaRajah Sulaiman IIRaja Matanda
By 1570, Maynila was under the rule of two paramount rulers (the more senior Rajah Matanda and the younger Rajah Sulayman), who in turn had several lower-ranked rulers ("Datu") under them.
Rajah Ache (Baybayin:, Abecedario: Rája Aché), better known by his title Rajah Matanda (1480–1572), was one of the rulers of Maynila, a pre-colonial Indianized Tagalog polity along the Pasig River in what is now Manila, Philippines.

Rajah Sulayman

Rajah Sulaiman IIIRajah SolimanSulayman
By 1570, Maynila was under the rule of two paramount rulers (the more senior Rajah Matanda and the younger Rajah Sulayman), who in turn had several lower-ranked rulers ("Datu") under them.
Rajah Sulayman, sometimes referred to as Sulayman III (Sanskrit: स्ललैअह्, Baybayin:, Abecedario: Suláimán) (1558–1575), was the Rajah or paramount ruler of the Rajahnate of Maynila, a fortified Tagalog Muslim polity which was a vassal to the Brunei Sultanate, on the southern half of the Pasig River delta, by the time Spanish colonizers arrived in the early 1570s.

Intramuros

Intramuros, ManilaManilawalled city
In early Philippine history, the Tagalog Bayan ("country" or "polity") of Maynila (Baybayin: ; Balen ning Menila) was a major trade hub located on the southern part of the Pasig River delta, where the modern day district of Intramuros currently stands.
The site of Intramuros then became a part of the Islamic Kingdom of Maynila a Bruneian puppet-state ruled by Rajah Sulayman, a Muslim Rajah who swore fealty to the Sultan of Brunei.

Manila

Manila, PhilippinesCity of ManilaMaynila
After extensive negotiations with the leaders of Maynila and those of the neighbouring settlement in Tondo, Maynila was declared as the new Spanish city of Manila on 24 June 1571, effectively ending Maynila's history as an independent polity. These Chinese and Japanese immigrants settled in Manila, Pasig included, and in the other ports, which were annually visited by their trade junks, they have cargoes of silk, tea, ceramics, and their precious jade stones.
This is because the settlement was founded several hundred years before indigo dye extraction became an important economic activity in the area in the 18th century.

Namayan

Kingdom of NamayanQueen of NamayanKingdom of Sapa
Primary sources for the history of Rajah Kalamayin's Namayan, further upriver, include artifacts dug up from archaeological digs (the earliest of which was Robert Fox’s work for the National Museum in 1977) and Spanish colonial records (most notably those compiled by the 19th century Franciscan Historian Fray Felix Huerta).
Archeological findings in Santa Ana, Namayan's former seat of power, have produced the oldest evidence of continuous habitation among the three polities, pre-dating artifacts found within the historical sites of Maynila and Tondo.

Philippines

FilipinoPhilippinePhilippine Islands
Here, nilad refers to either: (incorrectly) the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), which is a recent introduction to the Philippines from South America and therefore could not have been the plant species referred to in the toponym; or (correctly) a shrub-like tree (Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea, formerly Ixora manila Blanco ) found in or near mangrove swamps, and known as nilád or nilár in Tagalog.
The epic poem Nagarakretagama stated that the Java-based Hindu empire of Majapahit had colonized Saludong (Manila) at Luzon and Solot (Sulu) at the Sulu Archipelago.

Battle of Bangkusay Channel

Battle of BangkusayBangkusay
Kapampangan scholar Ian Christopher Alfonso, however, notes that the demonym Luções was probably expansive enough to include even Kapampangan sailors, such as the sailors from Hagonoy and Macabebe who would later be involved in the 1571 Battle of Bangkusay Channel.
The Battle of Bangkusay (Batalla de Bangkusay), on June 3, 1571, was a naval engagement that marked the last resistance by locals to the Spanish Empire's occupation and colonization of the Pasig River delta, which had been the site of the indigenous polities of Maynila and Tondo.

Bruneian Empire

Sultanate of BruneiBruneiBruneian Sultanate
For political reasons, the historical rulers of Maynila maintained close cognatic ties through intermarriage with the ruling houses of the Sultanate of Brunei, but Brunei's political influence over Maynila is not considered to have extended to military or political rule. This oral tradition claims that Sultan Bolkiah (1485–1521) of the Sultanate of Brunei attacked Tondo and established the polity of Seludong (Maynila) as a satellite state of the Sultanate of Brunei.
During the rule of Bolkiah, the fifth Sultan, the empire held control over coastal areas of northwest Borneo (present-day Brunei, Sarawak and Sabah) and reached Seludong (present-day Manila), Sulu Archipelago including parts of the island of Mindanao.

History of the Philippines (900–1521)

pre-colonialearly Philippine historyHistory of the Philippines (900-1521)
In early Philippine history, the Tagalog Bayan ("country" or "polity") of Maynila (Baybayin: ; Balen ning Menila) was a major trade hub located on the southern part of the Pasig River delta, where the modern day district of Intramuros currently stands.
Around the year 1500, the Sultanate of Brunei under Sultan Bolkiah attacked the Kingdom of Tondo and established a city with the Malay name of Selurong (later to become the city of Maynila) on the opposite bank of Pasig River.

Miguel López de Legazpi

Miguel Lopez de LegazpiLegazpiMiguel Lopez de Legaspi
Maynila had been partially rebuilt by the following year, 1571, when the full forces of de Goiti's superior, Miguel López de Legazpi, arrived in the city to claim it as a territory of New Spain.
Bambalito and his fleet had lost the battle, and after disputes and hostility had erupted between the two groups, the Spaniards occupied the Islamized states of Tondo and Maynila.

Luzon

Luzon IslandNorthern LuzonLuzon, Philippines
Islamization of Luzon began in the sixteenth century when traders from Brunei settled in the Manila area and married locals while maintaining kinship and trade links with Brunei and thus other Muslim centres in Southeast Asia.
From just before the first millennium, the Tagalog, Kapampangan and Pangasinan peoples of south and central Luzon had established several major coastal polities, most notable among them those of Maynila, Tondo and Namayan.

Pasig

Pasig CityPasig Sports CenterPasig City, Philippines
These Chinese and Japanese immigrants settled in Manila, Pasig included, and in the other ports, which were annually visited by their trade junks, they have cargoes of silk, tea, ceramics, and their precious jade stones.
The greatest rulers of this pre-colonial polity are named Rajah Lontok and Dayang Kalangitan by the legends, which also say that they are closely related to the pre-colonial rulers of Tondo and Maynila.

Old Tagalog

Archaic TagalogClassical Tagalog
Some Filipino historians such as Jaime Tiongson have asserted that some of the words used in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription came from Old Tagalog, although the text itself used the Javanese Kawi script.
It is the language of Tondo, Namayan, state of Ma-i, Rajahnate of Maynila, and other regions of the northern Philippines.

Brunei

Brunei DarussalamBruneianNegara Brunei Darussalam
These settlements held ties with the sultanates of Brunei, Sulu, and Ternate, Indonesia (not to be confused with Ternate in present-day Cavite).
At the peak of the Bruneian Empire, Sultan Bolkiah (reigned 1485–1528) is alleged to have had control over most regions of Borneo, including modern-day Sarawak and Sabah, as well as the Sulu Archipelago off the northeast tip of Borneo, Seludong (modern-day Manila), and the islands off the northwest tip of Borneo.

Bolkiah

Sultan Bolkiah
This oral tradition claims that Sultan Bolkiah (1485–1521) of the Sultanate of Brunei attacked Tondo and established the polity of Seludong (Maynila) as a satellite state of the Sultanate of Brunei.
Sultan Bolkiah's victory over Seludong (modern-day Manila) by defeating Rajah Suko of Tundun in Luzon and as well as his marriage to Laila Menchanai, the daughter of Sulu Sultan Amir Ul-Ombra, widened Brunei's influence in the Philippines.

Cavite

Cavite ProvinceCavite, PhilippinesProvince of Cavite
These settlements held ties with the sultanates of Brunei, Sulu, and Ternate, Indonesia (not to be confused with Ternate in present-day Cavite).
The territory of what is Cavite used to be under the jurisdiction of the Indianized Empire of Majapahit which was superseded by the Kingdom of Tondo which had waged a successful war for independence, thereafter, invaded by the Sultanate of Brunei which established a vassal-state, the Rajahnate of Maynila.

Malays (ethnic group)

MalayMalaysMalay people
This is narrated through Tausug and Malay royal histories, where the names Seludong, Saludong or Selurong are used to denote Manila prior to colonisation.
The empire broadened its influence in Luzon by defeating Datu Gambang of the Kingdom of Tondo and by founding a satellite state, Kota Seludong in present-day Manila, setting up the Muslim Rajah, Rajah Sulaiman I as a vassal to the Sultanate of Brunei.

History of Manila

Manilahistoryhistory of the city
The official name of the city under its Malay aristocracy was Seludong/Selurung, which was the same name given for the general region of southwestern Luzon at that time, suggesting that it was the capital of Ancient Tondo.

Nagarakretagama

NagarakertagamaNegarakertagamaNagarakrtagama
In the mid 14th century, the Majapahit empire mentioned in its manuscript Nagarakretagama Canto 14, written by Prapanca in 1365, that the area of Saludung (Selurong) and Solot (Sulu) were parts of the empire.
In Canto 14 more lands are noted: Kadandangan, Landa, Samadang, Tirem, Sedu (Sarawak), Barune (Brunei), Kalka, Saludung (Manila), Solot (Sulu), Pasir, Barito, Sawaku, Tabalung, Tanjung Kutei and Malano.

Luções

LucoesLuzonesilhas Luções
Portuguese and Spanish accounts from the early to mid 1500s state that the Maynila poltiy was the same as the "kingdom" that had been referred to as the "Kingdom of Luzon" (Portuguese: Luçon, locally called "Lusong"), and whose residents had been called "Luções".