Measles

Rubeolameasles encephalitisAcute Measles encephalitisdiseaseMeasalsMeaselsmeasleMeasles (rubeola)measles immunisationmeasles morbillivirus
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.wikipedia
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Measles morbillivirus

measles virusmeaslesmeasles virus (MeV)
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus. Measles is caused by the measles virus, a single-stranded, negative-sense, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Morbillivirus within the family Paramyxoviridae.
It is the cause of measles.

Rubella

German measlesdisease of the same namematernal rubella
Both rubella, also known as "German measles", and roseola are different diseases caused by unrelated viruses.
The rash is sometimes itchy and is not as bright as that of measles.

Infection

infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfections
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Childhood diseases include pertussis, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, measles and tetanus.

MMR vaccine

MMRmeasles-mumps-rubella vaccineMMR vaccination
The measles vaccine is effective at preventing the disease, is exceptionally safe, and is often delivered in combination with other vaccines.
The MMR vaccine is a vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella (German measles).

Measles vaccine

measles vaccinationmeaslesAttenuvax
The measles vaccine is effective at preventing the disease, is exceptionally safe, and is often delivered in combination with other vaccines.
Measles vaccine is a vaccine that prevents measles.

Koplik's spots

Koplik spots
Small white spots known as Koplik's spots may form inside the mouth two or three days after the start of symptoms.
Koplik's spots (also Koplik's sign) are a prodromic viral enanthem of measles manifesting two to three days before the measles rash itself.

Rash

skin rashrashesskin rashes
The characteristic measles rash is classically described as a generalized red maculopapular rash that begins several days after the fever starts.
For example, the rash in measles is an erythematous, morbilliform, maculopapular rash that begins a few days after the fever starts.

Malnutrition

malnourishednutritional deficienciesmalnourishment
The risk of death among those infected is about 0.2%, but may be up to 10% in people with malnutrition. People who are at high risk for complications are infants and children aged less than 5 years; adults aged over 20 years; pregnant women; people with compromised immune systems, such as from leukemia, HIV infection or innate immunodeficiency; and those who are malnourished or have Vitamin A deficiency.
A lack of breastfeeding may contribute, as may a number of infectious diseases such as: gastroenteritis, pneumonia, malaria, and measles, which increase nutrient requirements.

Fever

pyrexiafebrileague
Initial symptoms typically include fever, often greater than 40 C, cough, runny nose, and inflamed eyes.
Infections commonly associated with hyperpyrexia include roseola, measles and enteroviral infections.

Maculopapular rash

maculopapularbumpy rashflat discolored spots or bumps
The classic symptoms include a four-day fever (the 4 D's) and the three C's—cough, coryza (head cold, fever, sneezing), and conjunctivitis (red eyes)—along with a maculopapular rash.
This type of rash is common in several diseases and medical conditions, including scarlet fever, measles, Ebola virus disease, rubella, secondary syphilis (Congenital syphilis, which is asymptomatic, the newborn may present this type of rash), erythrovirus (parvovirus B19), chikungunya (alphavirus), zika, smallpox (which has been eradicated), varicella (when vaccinated persons exhibit symptoms from the modified form), and heat rash.

RNA virus

RNA virusesRNARNA genome
Measles is caused by the measles virus, a single-stranded, negative-sense, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Morbillivirus within the family Paramyxoviridae.
Notable human diseases caused by RNA viruses include Ebola virus disease, SARS, rabies, common cold, influenza, hepatitis C, hepatitis E, West Nile fever, polio and measles.

Roseola

exanthema subitumRoseola infantumsixth disease
Both rubella, also known as "German measles", and roseola are different diseases caused by unrelated viruses.
In contrast, a child suffering from measles would usually appear sicker, with symptoms of conjunctivitis, cold-like symptoms, and a cough, and their rash would affect the face and last for several days.

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

measles encephalitisSSPEDawson disease
Complications of measles are relatively common, ranging from mild ones such as diarrhea to serious ones such as pneumonia (either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia), laryngotracheobronchitis (croup) (either direct viral laryngotracheobronchitis or secondary bacterial bronchitis), otitis media, acute brain inflammation (and very rarely subacute sclerosing panencephalitis), and corneal ulceration (leading to corneal scarring).
SSPE is characterized by a history of primary measles infection, followed by an asymptomatic period that lasts 7 years on average but can range from 1 month to 27 years.

Vitamin A deficiency

shortage of dietary vitamin Avitamin AA
People who are at high risk for complications are infants and children aged less than 5 years; adults aged over 20 years; pregnant women; people with compromised immune systems, such as from leukemia, HIV infection or innate immunodeficiency; and those who are malnourished or have Vitamin A deficiency.
In countries where children are not immunized, infectious diseases such as measles have higher fatality rates.

Croup

laryngotracheobronchitisobstructive laryngitiscynanche trachealis
Complications of measles are relatively common, ranging from mild ones such as diarrhea to serious ones such as pneumonia (either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia), laryngotracheobronchitis (croup) (either direct viral laryngotracheobronchitis or secondary bacterial bronchitis), otitis media, acute brain inflammation (and very rarely subacute sclerosing panencephalitis), and corneal ulceration (leading to corneal scarring).
Other viral causes include influenza A and B, measles, adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

Airborne disease

airbornespread through the airthrough the air
Measles is an airborne disease which spreads easily through the coughs and sneezes of infected people.
Many common infections can spread by airborne transmission at least in some cases, including: Anthrax (inhalational), Chickenpox, Influenza, Measles, Smallpox, Cryptococcosis, and Tuberculosis.

Morbillivirus

morbillivirus infections
Measles is caused by the measles virus, a single-stranded, negative-sense, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Morbillivirus within the family Paramyxoviridae.
Diseases in humans associated with viruses classified in this genus include measles: fever, and rash; in animals, they include acute febrile respiratory tract infection.

Vaccine

vaccinesvaccinologyvaccinated
In developing countries where measles is common, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends two doses of vaccine be given, at six and nine months of age.
Examples include the viral diseases yellow fever, measles, mumps, and rubella, and the bacterial disease typhoid.

Vaccination

vaccinationsvaccinatedvaccinating
Vaccination resulted in an 80% decrease in deaths from measles between 2000 and 2017, with about 85% of children worldwide having received their first dose as of 2017.
Maurice Hilleman was the most prolific vaccine inventor, developing successful vaccines for measles, mumps, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, chickenpox, meningitis, pneumonia and Haemophilus influenzae.

Herd immunity

herd immunity § Mechanismthe wider community
There have been false claims of an association between the measles vaccine and autism; this incorrect concern has reduced the rate of vaccination and increased the number of cases of measles where immunisation rates became too low to maintain herd immunity.
It was recognized as a naturally occurring phenomenon in the 1930s when it was observed that after a significant number of children had become immune to measles, the number of new infections temporarily decreased, including among susceptible children.

World Health Organization

WHOWorld Health OrganisationWorld Health Organization (WHO)
In developing countries where measles is common, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends two doses of vaccine be given, at six and nine months of age.
2001: The measles initiative was formed, and credited with reducing global deaths from the disease by 68% by 2007.

Measles & Rubella Initiative

Measles Initiative
Worldwide, the fatality rate has been significantly reduced by a vaccination campaign led by partners in the Measles Initiative: the American Red Cross, the United States CDC, the United Nations Foundation, UNICEF and the WHO.
Measles & Rubella Initiative (MRI), launched in 2001, is a long-term commitment and partnership among leaders in public health and supports the goal of reducing measles deaths globally by 90% by 2010 compared to 2000 estimates.

Paramyxoviridae

paramyxovirusparamyxoviruseshemagglutinin
Measles is caused by the measles virus, a single-stranded, negative-sense, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Morbillivirus within the family Paramyxoviridae.
These include mumps, measles, which caused around 733,000 deaths in 2000, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which is the major cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and children.

Antiviral drug

antiviralantiretroviral therapyantivirals
There is no specific antiviral treatment if measles develops.
For instance, public schools require students to receive vaccinations (termed "vaccination schedule") for viruses and bacteria such as diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DTaP), measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), varicella (chickenpox), hepatitis B, rotavirus, polio, and more.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

bone marrow transplantbone marrow transplantationstem cell transplant
Risk factors for measles virus infection include immunodeficiency caused by HIV or AIDS, immunosuppression following receipt of an organ or a stem cell transplant, alkylating agents, or corticosteroid therapy, regardless of immunization status; travel to areas where measles commonly occurs or contact with travelers from such an area; and the loss of passive, inherited antibodies before the age of routine immunization.
Transplant patients lose their acquired immunity, for example immunity to childhood diseases such as measles or polio.