Mechanical watch

mechanicalmechanical watchesmanual windingJewelsmechanical movementanalog wristwatchhand-woundjeweljewel crazejeweled
A mechanical watch is a watch that uses a clockwork mechanism to measure the passage of time, as opposed to quartz watches which function electronically via a small battery.wikipedia
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Balance wheel

foliotcompensation balanceauxiliary temperature compensation
Its force is transmitted through a series of gears to power the balance wheel, a weighted wheel which oscillates back and forth at a constant rate.
A balance wheel, or balance, is the timekeeping device used in mechanical watches and some clocks, analogous to the pendulum in a pendulum clock.

Mainspring

springspring motorspring-wound
A mechanical watch is driven by a mainspring which must be hand-wound periodically. The mainspring that powers the watch, a spiral ribbon of spring steel, is inside a cylindrical barrel, with the outer end of the mainspring attached to the barrel. Because the mainspring provides an uneven source of power (its torque steadily decreases as the spring unwinds), watches from the early 16th century to the early 19th century featured a chain-driven fusee which served to regulate the torque output of the mainspring throughout its winding.
A mainspring is a spiral torsion spring of metal ribbon—commonly spring steel—used as a power source in mechanical watches, some clocks, and other clockwork mechanisms.

Automatic watch

automaticself-windingself-winding watch
Automatic winding or self-winding—in order to eliminate the need to wind the watch, this device winds the watch's mainspring automatically using the natural motions of the wrist, with a rotating-weight mechanism.
An automatic or self-winding watch is a mechanical watch in which the natural motion of the wearer provides energy to run the watch, making manual winding unnecessary.

Repeater (horology)

repeaterminute repeaterrepeating clock
Repeater—a watch that chimes the hours audibly at the press of a button. This rare complication was originally used before artificial lighting to check what time it was in the dark. These complex mechanisms are now only found as novelties in extremely expensive luxury watches.
A repeater is a complication in a mechanical watch or clock that chimes the hours and often minutes at the press of a button.

Watch

wristwatchwatchesdigital watch
A mechanical watch is a watch that uses a clockwork mechanism to measure the passage of time, as opposed to quartz watches which function electronically via a small battery.
These are called mechanical watches.

Barrel (horology)

barrelgoing barrelbarrels
The mainspring that powers the watch, a spiral ribbon of spring steel, is inside a cylindrical barrel, with the outer end of the mainspring attached to the barrel.
Used in mechanical watches and clocks, a barrel is a cylindrical metal box closed by a cover, with a ring of gear teeth around it, containing a spiral spring called the mainspring, which provides power to run the timepiece.

Lever escapement

escapement wheellever watchSilicon escapement wheel
The fourth wheel also drives the escape wheel of the lever escapement.
The lever escapement, invented by British clockmaker Thomas Mudge in 1755, is a type of escapement that is used in almost all mechanical watches, as well as small mechanical non-pendulum clocks, alarm clocks, and kitchen timers.

Nicolas Fatio de Duillier

de Duillier, Nicolas FatioFatioFatio de Duillier
Jewel bearings were invented and introduced in watches by Nicolas Fatio (or Facio) de Duillier and Pierre and Jacob Debaufre around 1702 to reduce friction.
He also invented and developed the first method for fabricating jewel bearings for mechanical watches and clocks.

Balance spring

hairspringisochronousbalance spring or "hair spring
It consists of a weighted wheel which rotates back and forth, which is returned toward its center position by a fine spiral spring, the balance spring or "hair spring".
The balance spring is a fine spiral or helical torsion spring used in mechanical watches, alarm clocks, kitchen timers, marine chronometers, and other timekeeping mechanisms to control the rate of oscillation of the balance wheel.

Pallet fork

palletleverpallets
The escape wheel teeth alternately catch on two fingers called pallets on the arms of the pallet lever, which rocks back and forth.
The pallet fork is a component of the lever escapement of a mechanical watch.

Jewel bearing

jeweljewelsjeweled
Jewel bearings were invented and introduced in watches by Nicolas Fatio (or Facio) de Duillier and Pierre and Jacob Debaufre around 1702 to reduce friction.
Their largest use is in mechanical watches.

Wheel train

going traingear trainkeyless winding
A gear train, called the wheel train, which has the dual function of transmitting the force of the mainspring to the balance wheel and adding up the swings of the balance wheel to get units of seconds, minutes, and hours. A separate part of the gear train, called the keyless work, allows the user to wind the mainspring and enables the hands to be moved to set the time.
In horology, a wheel train (or just train) is the gear train of a mechanical watch or clock.

Clock

clockstimepiecemechanical clock
Mechanical watches evolved in Europe in the 17th century from spring powered clocks, which appeared in the 15th century.

Tourbillon

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Tourbillon—this expensive feature was originally designed to make the watch more accurate, but is now simply a demonstration of watchmaking virtuosity. In an ordinary watch the balance wheel oscillates at different rates, because of gravitational bias, when the watch is in different positions, causing inaccuracy. In a tourbillon, the balance wheel is mounted in a rotating cage so that it will experience all positions equally. The mechanism is usually exposed on the face to show it off.
In modern mechanical watch designs, a tourbillon is not required to produce a highly accurate timepiece; there is even debate amongst horologists as to whether tourbillons ever improved the accuracy of mechanical time pieces, even when they were first introduced, or whether the time pieces of the day were inherently inaccurate due to design and manufacturing techniques.

Escapement

detent escapementCross-beat escapementduplex escapements
A device called an escapement releases the watch's wheels to move forward a small amount with each swing of the balance wheel, moving the watch's hands forward at a constant rate.
An escapement is a device in mechanical watches and clocks that transfers energy to the timekeeping element (the "impulse action") and allows the number of its oscillations to be counted (the "locking action").

Fusee (horology)

fuseefuseeschain and fusee
Because the mainspring provides an uneven source of power (its torque steadily decreases as the spring unwinds), watches from the early 16th century to the early 19th century featured a chain-driven fusee which served to regulate the torque output of the mainspring throughout its winding.
Used in antique spring-powered mechanical watches and clocks, a fusee is a cone-shaped pulley with a helical groove around it, wound with a cord or chain which is attached to the mainspring barrel.

Skeleton watch

Skeleton watch
A skeleton watch is a mechanical watch, in which all of the moving parts are visible through either the front of the watch, the back of the watch or a small cut outlining the dial.

ETA SA

ETAETA movementsETA S.A.
ETA SA
ETA SA Manufacture Horlogère Suisse (ETA SA Swiss Watch Manufacturer) designs and manufactures quartz watches and both hand-wound and automatic-winding mechanical ébauches and movements.

Pin-pallet escapement

pin pallet escapementBrocot escapementpin lever escapement
A cheaper version of the lever, the pin lever escapement, patented in 1867 by Georges Frederic Roskopf was used in inexpensive watches until the 1970s.
The pin pallet escapement is similar to the lever escapement, which is used in quality watches, except that the horizontal jewel pallets on the lever are replaced with vertical metal pins, and the shape of the escape wheel teeth is modified.

History of watches

lever escapement
History of watches
The jewel craze caused 'jewel inflation' and watches with up to 100 jewels were produced.

Georges Frederic Roskopf

Roskopf
A cheaper version of the lever, the pin lever escapement, patented in 1867 by Georges Frederic Roskopf was used in inexpensive watches until the 1970s.
Mechanical watch

Movement (clockwork)

movementmovementswatch movement
A mechanical watch is a watch that uses a clockwork mechanism to measure the passage of time, as opposed to quartz watches which function electronically via a small battery.

Quartz clock

quartz watchquartzquartz movement
A mechanical watch is a watch that uses a clockwork mechanism to measure the passage of time, as opposed to quartz watches which function electronically via a small battery.

Electric battery

batterybatteriesbattery-powered
A mechanical watch is a watch that uses a clockwork mechanism to measure the passage of time, as opposed to quartz watches which function electronically via a small battery.

Aesthetics

aestheticart theoryphilosophy of art
Since the 1970s, quartz watches have taken over most of the watch market, and mechanical watches are now mostly a high-end product, purchased for aesthetic reasons, for appreciation of their fine craftsmanship, or as a status symbol.