Media (communication)

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In mass communication, media are the communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data.

- Media (communication)

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News media

The news media or news industry are forms of mass media that focus on delivering news to the general public or a target public.

Electronic news-gathering trucks and photojournalists gathered outside the Prudential Financial headquarters in Newark, United States in August 2004 following the announcement of evidence of a terrorist threat to it and to buildings in New York City.
Reading the newspaper: Brookgreen Gardens in Pawleys Island, South Carolina.
Journalists at work in Montreal in the 1940s
The editor's office (Newsroom) of the Helsingin Sanomat in 1965
Bill German, editor emeritus and Page One editor Jack Breibart in the newsroom of The San Francisco Chronicle in 1994
Cover of 2512, a monthly newsmagazine published in Réunion.
Newspaper "gone to the Web" in California

A "medium" (plural "media") is a carrier of something.

Mass media

Copy of a newspaper (El Universo), an example of mass media.
Egyptian film star Salah Zulfikar on the cover of Al-Kawakeb magazine, March 1961
A family listening to a crystal radio in the 1920s
Shopping carts for children fitted with gaming computers
A panel in the Newseum in Washington, D.C., showing newspaper headlines from the day after 9/11
Political advertisements on a billboard in the Netherlands in 2019
A member of staff at the International Printing Museum demonstrates printing with a 19th-century, hand-operated Columbian press
Early wooden printing press, depicted in 1520
Early minstrel shows lampooned the assumed stupidity of black people. Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843
A magazine feature from Beauty Parade from March 1952 stereotyping women drivers. It features Bettie Page as the model.
American political cartoon titled The Usual Irish Way of Doing Things, depicting a drunken Irishman lighting a powder keg and swinging a bottle. Published in Harper's Weekly, 1871

Mass media refers to a diverse array of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.

New media

New media are forms of media that are computational and rely on computers and the Internet for redistribution.

The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel

Until the 1980s media relied primarily upon print and analog broadcast models, such as those of television and radio.

Digital media

Hard drives store information in binary form and so are considered a type of physical digital media.
Binary Code shown here which can used to represent the whole alphabet
Digital codes, like binary, can be changed without reconfiguring mechanical parts
Motorola phones in their first generation of production
Decline of print ads over the years of 2008 US economic problem
Average camera of a YouTube blogger, a Canon EOS
US Philips TV Controller with built in Netflix Streaming button
YouTube Copyright Claim Takedown

Digital media means any communication media that operate with the use of any of various encoded machine-readable data formats.


A broadcasting antenna in Stuttgart
A television studio production control room in Olympia, Washington, August 2008.
An "On Air" sign is illuminated, usually in red, while a broadcast or recording session is taking place
Radio Maria studio in Switzerland.
Radio station WTUL studio, Tulane University, New Orleans

Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.


Processed, organized and structured data.

Partial map of the Internet, with nodes representing IP addresses
Galactic (including dark) matter distribution in a cubic section of the Universe
Information embedded in an abstract mathematical object with symmetry breaking nucleus
Visual representation of a strange attractor, with converted data of its fractal structure

When Marshall McLuhan speaks of media and their effects on human cultures, he refers to the structure of artifacts that in turn shape our behaviors and mindsets.


Flat-screen televisions for sale at a consumer electronics store in 2008
The Nipkow disk. This schematic shows the circular paths traced by the holes that may also be square for greater precision. The area of the disk outlined in black displays the region scanned.
Baird in 1925 with his televisor equipment and dummies "James" and "Stooky Bill" (right)
Vladimir Zworykin demonstrates electronic television (1929)
Ad for the beginning of experimental television broadcasting in New York City by RCA in 1939
Indian-head test pattern used during the black-and-white era before 1970. It was displayed when a television station first signed on every day.
Samsung LED TV
Color bars used in a test pattern, sometimes used when no program material is available.
A smart TV
A modern high gain UHF Yagi television antenna. It has 17 directors, and one reflector (made of 4 rods) shaped as a corner reflector.
Coaxial cable is used to carry cable television signals into cathode-ray tube and flat panel television sets.
DBS satellite dishes installed on an apartment complex.
RCA 630-TS, the first mass-produced television set, which sold in 1946–1947
A 14-inch cathode-ray tube showing its deflection coils and electron guns
The Christie Mirage 5000, a 2001 DLP projector.
A generic LCD TV, with speakers on either side of the screen.
Comparison of 8K UHDTV, 4K UHDTV, HDTV and SDTV resolution
Television sets per 1000 people of the world
Television was still in its experimental phase in 1928, but the medium's potential to sell goods was already predicted.
American family watching television, circa 1958

Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images and sound.

Marshall McLuhan

Canadian philosopher whose work is among the cornerstones of the study of media theory.

McLuhan in 1945
A blank tetrad diagram
A portion of Toronto's St. Joseph Street is co-named Marshall McLuhan Way

Some theorists have attacked McLuhan's definition and treatment of the word "medium" for being too simplistic.

Media studies

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Media studies is a discipline and field of study that deals with the content, history, and effects of various media; in particular, the mass media.


Practice in which an individual uses a technique – such as mindfulness, or focusing the mind on a particular object, thought, or activity – to train attention and awareness, and achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm and stable state.

Man Meditating in a Garden Setting
The āsana in which Mahavira is said to have attained omniscience
Bodhidharma practicing zazen
A statue of Patañjali practicing dhyana in the Padma-asana at Patanjali Yogpeeth.
"Gathering the Light", Taoist meditation from The Secret of the Golden Flower
Saint Pio of Pietrelcina stated: "Through the study of books one seeks God; by meditation one finds Him."
Whirling dervishes
Meditation. Alexej von Jawlensky, oil on cardboard, 1918
Meditating in Madison Square Park, New York City
Young children practicing meditation in a Peruvian school

The session can be either in person, via media comprising music or verbal instruction, or a combination of both.