Media richness theory

media richnessrich media
Media richness theory, sometimes referred to as information richness theory or MRT, is a framework used to describe a communication medium's ability to reproduce the information sent over it.wikipedia
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Richard L. Daft

DaftDaft, R.L.
It was introduced by Richard L. Daft and Robert H. Lengel in 1986 as an extension of information processing theory.
He co-developed media richness theory, with Robert H. Lengel, and is one of the most widely cited scholars in the field of management.

Face-to-face interaction

face-to-faceface-to-face communicationinteraction
For example, a simple message intended to arrange a meeting time and place could be communicated in a short email, but a more detailed message about a person's work performance and expectations would be better communicated through face-to-face interaction.
Nardi and Whittaker (2002) pointed that face-to-face communication is still the golden standard among the mediated technologies based on many theorists, particularly in the context of the media richness theory where face-to-face communication is described as the most efficient and informational one.

Social presence theory

social presence
Social presence refers to the degree to which a medium permits communicators to experience others as being psychologically present or the degree to which a medium is perceived to convey the actual presence of the communicating participants.

Channel expansion theory

Channel expansion theory was proposed by Carlson and Zmud (1999) to explain the inconsistencies found in several empirical studies.
It is developed from media richness theory as studies tested directly using media richness theory have turned out to have confusing results such as e-mail.

Social information processing (theory)

Social information processing theorysocial information processingCues-filtered-out theory
Media richness is also related to adaptive structuration theory and social information processing theory, which explain the context around a communication that might influence media choice.
While other media theories exist, such as media richness theory and uses and gratifications theory, SIP specifically focuses on relationships entirely mediated online.

Telecommuting

teleworktelecommuteteleworking
According to media richness theory, face-to-face interactions provide the capacity to process rich information: ambiguous issues can be clarified, immediate feedback can be provided, and there is personalized communication (e.g. body language, tone of voice).

Multicommunicating

multicommunication
Multicommunicating primarily builds off Hall's work on polychronicity, Goffman's theory of the presentation of self, and Daft and Lengel's notion of media richness.

Hyperpersonal model

hyperpersonalhyperpersonal communication modelhyperpersonal phase
Media richness theory, also sometimes referred to as information richness theory/MRT, is introduced by Richard L. Daft and Robert H. Lengel in 1986 as an extension of information processing theory.

Telephone call

callphone callphone calls
MRT is used to rank and evaluate the richness of certain communication media, such as phone calls, video conferencing, and email.

Email

e-mailelectronic maile-mails
MRT is used to rank and evaluate the richness of certain communication media, such as phone calls, video conferencing, and email.

Social cue

social cuescue
For example, a phone call cannot reproduce visual social cues such as gestures which makes it a less rich communication media than video conferencing, which affords the transmission of gestures and body language.

Gesture

gesturesgesturalgesticulation
For example, a phone call cannot reproduce visual social cues such as gestures which makes it a less rich communication media than video conferencing, which affords the transmission of gestures and body language. In general, richer media are more personal as they include nonverbal and verbal cues, body language, inflection, and gestures that signal a person's reaction to a message.

Body language

bodily gestures and posturesbodily movementsbody language communication
For example, a phone call cannot reproduce visual social cues such as gestures which makes it a less rich communication media than video conferencing, which affords the transmission of gestures and body language. In general, richer media are more personal as they include nonverbal and verbal cues, body language, inflection, and gestures that signal a person's reaction to a message.

Contingency theory

contingenciesarea contingencycontingency
Based on contingency theory and information processing theory, MRT explains that richer, personal communication media are generally more effective for communicating equivocal issues in contrast with leaner, less rich media.

Information processing theory

information processingcognitive processingcognitive processing center
Based on contingency theory and information processing theory, MRT explains that richer, personal communication media are generally more effective for communicating equivocal issues in contrast with leaner, less rich media.

New media

medianew-medianew
Other communication scholars have tested the theory in order to improve it, and more recently Media Richness Theory has been retroactively adapted to include new media communication media, such as video telephony, online conferencing, and online coursework.

Web conferencing

webinarwebinarsweb conference
Other communication scholars have tested the theory in order to improve it, and more recently Media Richness Theory has been retroactively adapted to include new media communication media, such as video telephony, online conferencing, and online coursework.

Social norm

social normsnormsnorm
Daft and Lengel also stress that message clarity may be compromised when multiple departments are communicating with each other, as departments may be trained in different skill sets or have conflicting communication norms.

Feedback

feedback loopfeedback loopsfeedback control
Senders that use less-rich communication media must consider the limitations of that medium in the dimensions of feedback, multiple cues, message tailoring, and emotions.

Face-to-face (philosophy)

face-to-faceFacevis-à-vis
Therefore, face-to-face media like group meetings are more appropriate for performing tasks that require high social presence; media such as email and written letters are more appropriate for tasks that require low social presence.

Nonverbal communication

nonverbalnon-verbal communicationnon-verbal
In general, richer media are more personal as they include nonverbal and verbal cues, body language, inflection, and gestures that signal a person's reaction to a message.

Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflectional
In general, richer media are more personal as they include nonverbal and verbal cues, body language, inflection, and gestures that signal a person's reaction to a message.