Mediastinum

mediastinalposterior mediastinumanterior mediastinumsuperior mediastinumthoracic planemediastinal structuresmiddle compartmentmiddle compartment of the chestmédiastinposterior mediastinal
The mediastinum (from Medieval Latin mediastinus, "midway" ) is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity surrounded by loose connective tissue, as an undelineated region that contains a group of structures within the thorax.wikipedia
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Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
The mediastinum contains the heart and its vessels, the esophagus, trachea, phrenic and cardiac nerves, the thoracic duct, thymus and lymph nodes of the central chest.
In humans, the heart is located between the lungs, in the middle compartment of the chest.

Thoracic cavity

chest cavityintrathoracicthoracic
The mediastinum (from Medieval Latin mediastinus, "midway" ) is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity surrounded by loose connective tissue, as an undelineated region that contains a group of structures within the thorax.
The central compartment of the thoracic cavity is the mediastinum.

Esophagus

oesophagusesophageallower esophageal sphincter
The mediastinum contains the heart and its vessels, the esophagus, trachea, phrenic and cardiac nerves, the thoracic duct, thymus and lymph nodes of the central chest. These conditions frequently accompany Boerhaave syndrome, or spontaneous esophageal rupture.
It begins at the back of the mouth, passing downwards through the rear part of the mediastinum, through the diaphragm, and into the stomach.

Lung

lungspulmonaryright lung
It is surrounded by the chest wall in front, the lungs to the sides and the spine at the back.
It begins in the lower oblique fissure near the posterior border of the lung, and, running horizontally forward, cuts the anterior border on a level with the sternal end of the fourth costal cartilage; on the mediastinal surface it may be traced backward to the hilum.

Brachiocephalic artery

brachiocephalic trunkinnominate arterybrachiocephalic
brachiocephalic artery
The brachiocephalic artery (or brachiocephalic trunk or innominate artery) is an artery of the mediastinum that supplies blood to the right arm and the head and neck.

Common carotid artery

carotidcarotid arteriescarotid artery
thoracic portions of the left common carotid and the left subclavian
It originates directly from the aortic arch, and travels upward through the superior mediastinum to the level of the left sternoclavicular joint.

Thoracic duct

lymph ducts
The mediastinum contains the heart and its vessels, the esophagus, trachea, phrenic and cardiac nerves, the thoracic duct, thymus and lymph nodes of the central chest.
It traverses the diaphragm at the aortic aperture and ascends the superior and posterior mediastinum between the descending thoracic aorta (to its left) and the azygos vein (to its right).

Thoracic inlet

superior thoracic aperturepassageway from the lower neck to the armpitthoracic aperture
The superior mediastinum starts at the superior thoracic aperture and ends at the thoracic plane.
Superior to the thoracic inlet is the root of the neck, and the superior mediastinum is inferiorly related.

Pericardium

epicardiumpericardialpericardial cavity
The inferior mediastinum from this level to the diaphragm. This lower part is subdivided into three regions, all relative to the pericardium – the anterior mediastinum being in front of the pericardium, the middle mediastinum contains the pericardium and its contents, and the posterior mediastinum being behind the pericardium.
The pericardium fixes the heart to the mediastinum, gives protection against infection and provides the lubrication for the heart.

Aortic arch

arch of the aortaaortic knobisthmus of aorta
aortic arch
The arch of the Aorta lies within the mediastinum.

Pulmonary artery

pulmonary arteriespulmonary trunkpulmonary
the pulmonary trunk dividing into its two branches
The right main pulmonary artery follows a longer and more horizontal course as it crosses the mediastinum.

Mediastinitis

fibrosing mediastinitisinfection of the chest cavity
Mediastinitis is inflammation of the tissues in the mediastinum, usually bacterial and due to rupture of organs in the mediastinum.
Mediastinitis is inflammation of the tissues in the mid-chest, or mediastinum.

Pulmonary pleurae

pleuraparietal pleuravisceral pleura
The mediastinum lies within the thorax and is enclosed on the right and left by pleurae.
It also separates the pleural cavity from the mediastinum.

Azygos vein

azygosazygos veinsazygous vein
the lower half of the superior vena cava with the azygos vein opening into it
It is formed by the union of the ascending lumbar veins with the right subcostal veins at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra, ascending in the posterior mediastinum, and arching over the right main bronchus posteriorly at the root of the right lung to join the superior vena cava.

Internal thoracic artery

internal mammary arteryinternal mammaryinternal mammary branch
The small mediastinal branches of the internal thoracic artery
Mediastinal branches

Pneumomediastinum

mediastinal emphysemamediastinalpneumomediastinum,
Pneumomediastinum is the presence of air in the mediastinum, which in some cases can lead to pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, and pneumopericardium if left untreated.
Pneumomediastinum (from Greek pneuma – "air", also known as mediastinal emphysema) is pneumatosis (abnormal presence of air or other gas) in the mediastinum.

Anthrax

cutaneous anthraxanthrax sporespulmonary anthrax
anthrax inhalation - a widened mediastinum was found in 7 of the first 10 victims infected by anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) in 2001.
The spores are then picked up by scavenger cells (macrophages) in the lungs and are transported through small vessels (lymphatics) to the lymph nodes in the central chest cavity (mediastinum).

Mediastinal germ cell tumor

germ cell testicular cancer
Mediastinal germ cell tumor
Mediastinal germ cell tumors are tumors that derive from germ cell rest remnants in the mediastinum.

Teratoma

teratomasa tumorcystic teratoma
Anterior mediastinum: substernal thyroid goiters, lymphoma, thymoma, and teratoma.
Teratomas derived from embryonic cells usually occur on the subject's midline: in the brain, elsewhere in the skull, in the nose, in the tongue, under the tongue, and in the neck (cervical teratoma), mediastinum, retroperitoneum, and attached to the coccyx.

Lymphadenopathy

lymphadenitisenlarged lymph nodesswollen lymph nodes
hilar lymphadenopathy

Chest radiograph

chest X-raychest X-rayschest radiography
Widened mediastinum/mediastinal widening is where the mediastinum has a width greater than 6 cm on an upright PA chest X-ray or 8 cm on supine AP chest film.
Splaying of the carina can also suggest a tumor or process in the middle mediastinum or enlargement of the left atrium, with a normal angle of approximately 60 degrees.

Aortic unfolding

aortic unfolding
Aortic unfolding is an abnormality visible on a chest X-ray, that shows widening of the mediastinum which may mimic the appearance of a thoracic aortic aneurysm.

Descending aorta

descending thoracic aortadorsal aortaproximal descending aorta
thoracic part of the descending aorta
* – "Left side of the mediastinum."

Aortic dissection

dissecting aortic aneurysmdissectionthoracic aortic dissection
aortic dissection
Classically, new widening of the mediastinum on radiograph is of moderate sensitivity for detecting an ascending aortic dissection; however, this finding is of low specificity, as many other conditions can cause apparent widening of the mediastinum.

Boerhaave syndrome

esophageal ruptureesophageal perforationperforation of the esophagus
These conditions frequently accompany Boerhaave syndrome, or spontaneous esophageal rupture.
This is because they usually do not involve contamination of the mediastinum with gastric contents.