Mediastinum

mediastinalposterior mediastinumanterior mediastinumsuperior mediastinumthoracic planemediastinal structuresmiddle compartmentmiddle compartment of the chestmédiastinposterior mediastinal
The mediastinum (from Medieval Latin mediastinus, "midway" ) is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity surrounded by loose connective tissue, as an undelineated region that contains a group of structures within the thorax.wikipedia
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Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
The mediastinum contains the heart and its vessels, the esophagus, trachea, phrenic and cardiac nerves, the thoracic duct, thymus and lymph nodes of the central chest.
In humans, the heart is located between the lungs, in the middle compartment of the chest.

Thoracic cavity

chest cavityintrathoracicthoracic
The mediastinum (from Medieval Latin mediastinus, "midway" ) is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity surrounded by loose connective tissue, as an undelineated region that contains a group of structures within the thorax.
The central compartment of the thoracic cavity is the mediastinum.

Thymus

thymus glandthymicmedulla
The mediastinum contains the heart and its vessels, the esophagus, trachea, phrenic and cardiac nerves, the thoracic duct, thymus and lymph nodes of the central chest.
The thymus is composed of two identical lobes and is located anatomically in the anterior superior mediastinum, in front of the heart and behind the sternum.

Esophagus

oesophagusesophageallower esophageal sphincter
The mediastinum contains the heart and its vessels, the esophagus, trachea, phrenic and cardiac nerves, the thoracic duct, thymus and lymph nodes of the central chest.
It begins at the back of the mouth, passing downwards through the rear part of the mediastinum, through the diaphragm, and into the stomach.

Lung

lungspulmonaryright lung
It is surrounded by the chest wall in front, the lungs to the sides and the spine at the back.
It begins in the lower oblique fissure near the posterior border of the lung, and, running horizontally forward, cuts the anterior border on a level with the sternal end of the fourth costal cartilage; on the mediastinal surface it may be traced backward to the hilum.

Brachiocephalic artery

brachiocephalic trunkinnominate arterybrachiocephalic
brachiocephalic artery
The brachiocephalic artery (or brachiocephalic trunk or innominate artery) is an artery of the mediastinum that supplies blood to the right arm and the head and neck.

Common carotid artery

carotidcarotid arteriescarotid artery
thoracic portions of the left common carotid and the left subclavian
It originates directly from the aortic arch, and travels upward through the superior mediastinum to the level of the left sternoclavicular joint.

Thoracic duct

lymph ducts
The mediastinum contains the heart and its vessels, the esophagus, trachea, phrenic and cardiac nerves, the thoracic duct, thymus and lymph nodes of the central chest.
It traverses the diaphragm at the aortic aperture and ascends the superior and posterior mediastinum between the descending thoracic aorta (to its left) and the azygos vein (to its right).

Thoracic inlet

superior thoracic aperturepassageway from the lower neck to the armpitthoracic aperture
The superior mediastinum starts at the superior thoracic aperture and ends at the thoracic plane.
Superior to the thoracic inlet is the root of the neck, and the superior mediastinum is inferiorly related.

Pericardium

epicardiumpericardialpericardial cavity
The inferior mediastinum from this level to the diaphragm. This lower part is subdivided into three regions, all relative to the pericardium – the anterior mediastinum being in front of the pericardium, the middle mediastinum contains the pericardium and its contents, and the posterior mediastinum being behind the pericardium.
The pericardium fixes the heart to the mediastinum, gives protection against infection and provides the lubrication for the heart.

Superior vena cava

superioranterior vena cavaSVC
upper half of the superior vena cava the lower half of the superior vena cava with the azygos vein opening into it
(Venous return from the lower half, below the diaphragm, flows through the inferior vena cava.) The SVC is located in the anterior right superior mediastinum.

Sternal angle

sternal angle of Louis
The thoracic plane separates the superior and inferior mediastinum. It is a plane at the level of the sternal angle, and the intervertebral disc of T4–T5.
The sternal angle is used in the definition of the thoracic plane.

Aortic arch

arch of the aortaaortic knobisthmus of aorta
aortic arch
The arch of the Aorta lies within the mediastinum.

Descending thoracic aorta

thoracic aortathoracicthoracic part
thoracic part of the descending aorta
It is a continuation of the descending aorta and contained in the posterior mediastinal cavity.

Pulmonary artery

pulmonary arteriespulmonary trunkpulmonary
the pulmonary trunk dividing into its two branches
The right main pulmonary artery follows a longer and more horizontal course as it crosses the mediastinum.

Mediastinitis

fibrosing mediastinitisinfection of the chest cavity
Mediastinitis is inflammation of the tissues in the mediastinum, usually bacterial and due to rupture of organs in the mediastinum.
Mediastinitis is inflammation of the tissues in the mid-chest, or mediastinum.

Pulmonary pleurae

pleuraparietal pleuravisceral pleura
The mediastinum lies within the thorax and is enclosed on the right and left by pleurae.
It also separates the pleural cavity from the mediastinum.

Azygos vein

azygosazygos veinsazygous vein
the lower half of the superior vena cava with the azygos vein opening into it
It is formed by the union of the ascending lumbar veins with the right subcostal veins at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra, ascending in the posterior mediastinum, and arching over the right main bronchus posteriorly at the root of the right lung to join the superior vena cava.

Internal thoracic artery

internal mammary arteryinternal mammaryinternal mammary branch
The small mediastinal branches of the internal thoracic artery
Mediastinal branches

Pneumomediastinum

mediastinal emphysemamediastinalpneumomediastinum,
Pneumomediastinum is the presence of air in the mediastinum, which in some cases can lead to pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, and pneumopericardium if left untreated.
Pneumomediastinum (from Greek pneuma – "air", also known as mediastinal emphysema) is pneumatosis (abnormal presence of air or other gas) in the mediastinum.

Mediastinal tumor

mediastinal massmediastinal neoplasmsmediastinal
The mediastinum is frequently the site of involvement of various tumors:
A mediastinal tumor is a tumor in the mediastinum, the cavity that separates the lungs from the rest of the chest.

Anthrax

cutaneous anthraxanthrax sporespulmonary anthrax
anthrax inhalation - a widened mediastinum was found in 7 of the first 10 victims infected by anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) in 2001.
The spores are then picked up by scavenger cells (macrophages) in the lungs and are transported through small vessels (lymphatics) to the lymph nodes in the central chest cavity (mediastinum).

Mediastinal germ cell tumor

germ cell testicular cancer
Mediastinal germ cell tumor
Mediastinal germ cell tumors are tumors that derive from germ cell rest remnants in the mediastinum.

Teratoma

teratomasa tumorcystic teratoma
Anterior mediastinum: substernal thyroid goiters, lymphoma, thymoma, and teratoma.
Teratomas derived from embryonic cells usually occur on the subject's midline: in the brain, elsewhere in the skull, in the nose, in the tongue, under the tongue, and in the neck (cervical teratoma), mediastinum, retroperitoneum, and attached to the coccyx.

Lymphadenopathy

lymphadenitisenlarged lymph nodesswollen lymph nodes
hilar lymphadenopathy