A report on Medical imaging

One frame of a CT scan of the chest showing the heart and lungs.
Plain x-ray of the wrist and hand
One frame of an MRI scan of the head showing the eyes and brain.
Ultrasound image showing the liver, gallbladder and common bile duct.
3D tactile image (C) is composed from 2D pressure maps (B) recorded in the process of tissue phantom examination (A).
Basic principle of tomography: superposition free tomographic cross sections S1 and S2 compared with the (not tomographic) projected image P
CT scanning (volume rendered in this case) confers a radiation dose to the developing fetus.
In a derivative of a medical image created in the U.S., added annotations and explanations may be copyrightable, but the medical image itself remains public domain.

Technique and process of imaging the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues .

- Medical imaging
One frame of a CT scan of the chest showing the heart and lungs.

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Schematic of construction of a cylindrical superconducting MR scanner

Magnetic resonance imaging

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Schematic of construction of a cylindrical superconducting MR scanner
A mobile MRI unit visiting Glebefields Health Centre, Tipton, England
Effects of TR and TE on MR signal
Examples of T1-weighted, T2-weighted and PD-weighted MRI scans
Patient being positioned for MR study of the head and abdomen
MRI diffusion tensor imaging of white matter tracts
MR angiogram in congenital heart disease
Magnetic resonance angiography
Motion artifact (T1 coronal study of cervical vertebrae)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body.

Modern CT scanner

CT scan

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Modern CT scanner
Drawing of CT fan beam and patient in a CT imaging system
Computed tomography of human brain, from base of the skull to top. Taken with intravenous contrast medium.
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Bronchial wall thickness (T) and diameter of the bronchus (D)
Example of a CTPA, demonstrating a saddle embolus (dark horizontal line) occluding the pulmonary arteries (bright white triangle)
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Types of presentations of CT scans:
- Average intensity projection
- Maximum intensity projection
- Thin slice (median plane)
- Volume rendering by high and low threshold for radiodensity
Typical screen layout for diagnostic software, showing one volume rendering (VR) and multiplanar view of three thin slices in the axial (upper right), sagittal (lower left), and coronal planes (lower right)
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3D human skull from computed tomography data
Left image is a sinogram which is a graphic representation of the raw data obtained from a CT scan. At right is an image sample derived from the raw data.

A computed tomography scan (usually abbreviated to CT scan; formerly called computed axial tomography scan or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique used to obtain detailed internal images of the body.

A radiologist interpreting magnetic resonance imaging

Radiology

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A radiologist interpreting magnetic resonance imaging
Radiography of the knee using a DR machine
Projectional radiograph of the knee
Image from a CT scan of the brain
MRI of the knee
A radiologist interprets medical images on a modern picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workstation. San Diego, California, 2010.
X-ray of a hand with calculation of bone age analysis

Radiology is the medical discipline that uses medical imaging to diagnose diseases and guide their treatment, within the bodies of humans and other animals.

Sonographer doing echocardiography on a child

Medical ultrasound

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Sonographer doing echocardiography on a child
Ultrasound of carotid artery
An ultrasound result on fetal biometry printed on a piece of paper.
B-flow image of venous reflux.
Intravascular ultrasound image of a coronary artery (left), with color-coding on the right, delineating the lumen (yellow), external elastic membrane (blue) and the atherosclerotic plaque burden (green)
Ultrasound of human heart showing the four chambers and mitral and tricuspid valves.
Orthogonal planes of a 3 dimensional sonographic volume with transverse and coronal measurements for estimating fetal cranial volume.
Neck ultrasound.
Urinary bladder (black butterfly-like shape) and hyperplastic prostate (BPH) visualized by medical sonographic technique
Medical ultrasound scanner
Linear array transducer
Duplex scan of the common carotid artery
Parametric imaging of vascular signatures (diagram)
Ultrasound-guided hip joint injection.
Panoramic ultrasonography of a proximal biceps tendon rupture. Top image shows the contralateral normal side, and lower image shows a retracted muscle, with a hematoma filling out the proximal space.
Double aorta artifact in sonography due to difference in velocity of sound waves in muscle and fat.
A normal appendix without and with compression. Absence of compressibility indicates appendicitis.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Reddan|first1=Tristan|last2=Corness|first2=Jonathan|last3=Mengersen|first3=Kerrie|author3-link= Kerrie Mengersen |last4=Harden|first4=Fiona|title=Ultrasound of paediatric appendicitis and its secondary sonographic signs: providing a more meaningful finding|journal=Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences|date=March 2016|volume=63|issue=1|pages=59–66|doi=10.1002/jmrs.154|pmid=27087976|pmc=4775827}}</ref>
Compression is used in this ultrasonograph to get closer to the abdominal aorta, making the superior mesenteric vein and the inferior vena cava look rather flat.

Medical ultrasound includes diagnostic techniques (mainly imaging techniques) using ultrasound, as well as therapeutic applications of ultrasound.

Projectional radiography of the knee in a modern X-ray machine

Radiography

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Imaging technique using X-rays, gamma rays, or similar ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation to view the internal form of an object.

Imaging technique using X-rays, gamma rays, or similar ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation to view the internal form of an object.

Projectional radiography of the knee in a modern X-ray machine
Acquisition of projectional radiography, with an X-ray generator and a detector.
Images generated from computed tomography, including a 3D rendered image at upper left.
Angiogram showing a transverse projection of the vertebro basilar and posterior cerebral circulation.
Radiography may also be used in paleontology, such as for these radiographs of the Darwinius fossil Ida.
A plain radiograph of the elbow
AP radiograph of the lumbar spine
A hand prepared to be X-rayed
Taking an X-ray image with early Crookes tube apparatus, late 1800s
The first radiograph
1897 sciagraph (X-ray photograph) of Pelophylax lessonae (then Rana Esculenta), from James Green & James H. Gardiner's "Sciagraphs of British Batrachians and Reptiles"

Although not technically radiographic techniques due to not using X-rays, imaging modalities such as PET and MRI are sometimes grouped in radiography because the radiology department of hospitals handle all forms of imaging.

Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) scanner

Positron emission tomography

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Functional imaging technique that uses radioactive substances known as radiotracers to visualize and measure changes in metabolic processes, and in other physiological activities including blood flow, regional chemical composition, and absorption.

Functional imaging technique that uses radioactive substances known as radiotracers to visualize and measure changes in metabolic processes, and in other physiological activities including blood flow, regional chemical composition, and absorption.

Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) scanner
PET/CT-System with 16-slice CT; the ceiling mounted device is an injection pump for CT contrast agent
Whole-body PET scan using 18F-FDG. The normal brain and kidneys are labeled, and radioactive urine from breakdown of the FDG is seen in the bladder. In addition, a large metastatic tumor mass from colon cancer is seen in the liver.
PET scan of the human brain
Schematic view of a detector block and ring of a PET scanner
Schema of a PET acquisition process
Complete body PET-CT fusion image
Brain PET-MRI fusion image

PET is a common imaging technique, a medical scintillography technique used in nuclear medicine.

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Anatomy

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Branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

Branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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A dissected body, lying prone on a table, by Charles Landseer
Stylized cutaway diagram of an animal cell (with flagella)
Hyaline cartilage at high magnification (H&E stain)
Gastric mucosa at low magnification (H&E stain)
Cross section through skeletal muscle and a small nerve at high magnification (H&E stain)
Mouse skull
Cutaway diagram showing various organs of a fish
Skeleton of Surinam horned frog (Ceratophrys cornuta)
Plastic model of a frog
Skeleton of a diamondback rattlesnake
Part of a wing. Albrecht Dürer, c. 1500–1512
Modern anatomic technique showing sagittal sections of the head as seen by an MRI scan
In the human, the development of skilled hand movements and increased brain size is likely to have evolved simultaneously.
Head of a male Daphnia, a planktonic crustacean
Image of early rendition of anatomy findings
An anatomy thangka, part of Desi Sangye Gyatso's The Blue Beryl, 17th century
Surgical instruments were invented for the first time in history by Abulcasis in the 11th century
Anatomy of the eye for the first time in history by Hunayn ibn Ishaq in the 9th century
13th century anatomical illustration
Anatomical study of the arm, by Leonardo da Vinci, (about 1510)
Anatomical chart in Vesalius's Epitome, 1543
Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt – Anatomy lesson of Dr. Willem van der Meer, 1617
An electron microscope from 1973
Anatomical study of the arm, by Leonardo da Vinci, (about 1510)

Methods have also improved dramatically, advancing from the examination of animals by dissection of carcasses and cadavers (corpses) to 20th century medical imaging techniques including X-ray, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging.

A pathologist examines a tissue section for evidence of cancerous cells while a surgeon observes.

Pathology

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Study of the causes and effects of disease or injury.

Study of the causes and effects of disease or injury.

A pathologist examines a tissue section for evidence of cancerous cells while a surgeon observes.
The advent of the microscope was one of the major developments in the history of pathology. Here researchers at the Centers for Disease Control in 1978 examine cultures containing Legionella pneumophila, the pathogen responsible for Legionnaire's disease.
A modern pathology lab at the Services Institute of Medical Sciences
A bone marrow smear from a case of erythroleukemia. The large cell in the top center is an abnormal erythroblast: it is multinucleated, with megaloblastoid nuclear chromatin This is diagnostic of erythroleukemia.
A malignant melanoma can often be suspected from sight, but confirmation of the diagnosis or outright removal requires an excisional biopsy.
Pathologist performing a human dissection of the abdominal and thoracic organs in an autopsy room
An instance of diagnosis via histopathology, this high-magnification micrograph of a section of cardiac tissue reveals advanced cardiac amyloidosis. This sample was attained through an autopsy.
This coronal cross-section of a brain reveals a significant arteriovenous malformation that occupies much of the parietal lobe.
This tissue cross-section demonstrates the gross pathology of polycystic kidneys.
Brain biopsy under stereotaxy. A small part of the tumor is taken via a needle with a vacuum system.
Clinical chemistry: an automated blood chemistry analyzer
Many conditions, such as this case of geographic tongue, can be diagnosed partly on gross examination, but may be confirmed with tissue pathology.
An anatomical pathology instructor uses a microscope with multiple eyepieces to instruct students in diagnostic microscopy.
This field post-mortem of a ewe has revealed lesions consistent with acute haemolytic pneumonia, possibly due to Pasteurella haemolytica.
A tobacco plant infected with the tobacco mosaic virus

Biopsy is usually requested after a mass is detected by medical imaging.

A modern fluoroscope

Fluoroscopy

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Imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the interior of an object.

Imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the interior of an object.

A modern fluoroscope
A fluoroscopy X-ray machine is a great asset during surgery for implants
A barium swallow exam taken via fluoroscopy.
Experimenter in 1890s (top right) examining his hand with fluoroscope.
Thoracic fluoroscopy using handheld fluorescent screen, 1909. No radiation protection is used, as the dangers of X-rays were not yet recognised.
Surgical operation during World War I using a fluoroscope to find embedded bullets, 1917.
Thoracic fluoroscopy in 1940.
Adrian shoe-fitting fluoroscope used prior to 1950 in shoe stores for testing the fit of shoes. A high-tech sales gimmick, these were phased out due to concerns about unnecessary radiation exposure.
1950s fluoroscope
Fluoroscopy burn from long exposure
Fluoroscopy room with control space.

In its primary application of medical imaging, a fluoroscope allows a physician to see the internal structure and function of a patient, so that the pumping action of the heart or the motion of swallowing, for example, can be watched.

Statue of Asclepius, the Greek god of medicine, holding the symbolic Rod of Asclepius with its coiled serpent

Medicine

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Science and practice of caring for a patient, managing the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, treatment, palliation of their injury or disease, and promoting their health.

Science and practice of caring for a patient, managing the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, treatment, palliation of their injury or disease, and promoting their health.

Statue of Asclepius, the Greek god of medicine, holding the symbolic Rod of Asclepius with its coiled serpent
The Doctor by Sir Luke Fildes (1891)
Elizabeth Blackwell, the first female physician in the United States graduated from SUNY Upstate (1847)
The Hospital of Santa Maria della Scala, fresco by Domenico di Bartolo, 1441–1442
Modern drug ampoules
Nurses in Kokopo, East New Britain, Papua New Guinea
Drawing by Marguerite Martyn (1918) of a visiting nurse in St. Louis, Missouri, with medicine and babies
Louis Pasteur, as portrayed in his laboratory, 1885 by Albert Edelfelt
Surgeons in an operating room
Gynecologist Michel Akotionga of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Medical students learning about stitches
Headquarters of the Organización Médica Colegial de España, which regulates the medical profession in Spain
A 12th-century Byzantine manuscript of the Hippocratic Oath
Statuette of ancient Egyptian physician Imhotep, the first physician from antiquity known by name
Mosaic on the floor of the Asclepieion of Kos, depicting Hippocrates, with Asklepius in the middle (2nd–3rd century)
A manuscript of Al-Risalah al-Dhahabiah by Ali al-Ridha, the eighth Imam of Shia Muslims. The text says: "Golden dissertation in medicine which is sent by Imam Ali ibn Musa al-Ridha, peace be upon him, to al-Ma'mun."
Siena's Santa Maria della Scala Hospital, one of Europe's oldest hospitals. During the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church established universities to revive the study of sciences, drawing on the learning of Greek and Arab physicians in the study of medicine.
Paul-Louis Simond injecting a plague vaccine in Karachi, 1898
Alexander Fleming's discovery of penicillin in September 1928 marks the start of modern antibiotics.
Packaging of cardiac medicine at the Star pharmaceutical factory in Tampere, Finland in 1953.

The treatment plan may include ordering additional medical laboratory tests and medical imaging studies, starting therapy, referral to a specialist, or watchful observation.