Medical test

diagnostic testdiagnostic testsdiagnostic testingin vitro diagnosticsdiagnostic agentmedical teststestsdiagnosticpositive testin vitro'' diagnostics
For sociological tests, see laboratory studies.wikipedia
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Medical procedure

procedureproceduresmedical
A medical test is a medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, or to determine a course of treatment.
A medical procedure with the intention of determining, measuring, or diagnosing a patient condition or parameter is also called a medical test.

Monitoring (medicine)

monitoringmonitorpatient monitoring
A medical test is a medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, or to determine a course of treatment.
It can be performed by continuously measuring certain parameters by using a medical monitor (for example, by continuously measuring vital signs by a bedside monitor), and/or by repeatedly performing medical tests (such as blood glucose monitoring with a glucose meter in people with diabetes mellitus).

Medical diagnosis

diagnosisdiagnosticdiagnostic criteria
A medical test is a medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, or to determine a course of treatment.
Often, one or more diagnostic procedures, such as medical tests, are also done during the process.

Molecular diagnostics

molecular diagnosticassaysdiagnostic
Medical tests relate to clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics, and are typically performed in a medical laboratory.
Molecular diagnostics is a collection of techniques used to analyse biological markers in the genome and proteome—the individual's genetic code and how their cells express their genes as proteins—by applying molecular biology to medical testing.

Blood test

blood testsbloodblood testing
For laboratory test, see blood test.
For these reasons, blood tests are the most commonly performed medical tests.

Gluten challenge test

gluten challengegluten-challenge testrechallenge
The gluten challenge test is a medical test in which gluten-containing foods are consumed and (re-)occurrence of symptoms is observed afterwards to determine whether and how much a person reacts to these foods.

ACTH stimulation test

ACTH stimulation test or synacthen testACTH stimulation testingcorticotropin stimulation test
The ACTH test (also called the cosyntropin, tetracosactide, or Synacthen test) is a medical test usually ordered and interpreted by endocrinologists to assess the functioning of the adrenal glands' stress response by measuring the adrenal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; corticotropin) or another corticotropic agent such as tetracosactide (cosyntropin, tetracosactrin; Synacthen) or alsactide (Synchrodyn).

Bronchial challenge test

methacholine challengeMethacholine challenge test
A bronchial challenge test is a medical test used to assist in the diagnosis of asthma.

Reference ranges for blood tests

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Tests whose results are of continuous values, such as most blood values, can be interpreted as they are, or they can be converted to a binary ones by defining a cutoff value, with test results being designated as positive or negative depending on whether the resultant value is higher or lower than the cutoff.
Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.

Electrocardiography

electrocardiogramECGEKG
ECGs can be interpreted in isolation but should be applied – like all diagnostic tests – in the context of the patient.

Lung cancer

lungbronchogenic carcinomalungs
Examples of screenings include measuring the level of TSH in the blood of a newborn infant as part of newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism, checking for Lung cancer in non-smoking individuals who are exposed to second-hand smoke in an unregulated working environment, and Pap smear screening for prevention or early detection of cervical cancer.
Cancer screening uses medical tests to detect disease in large groups of people who have no symptoms.

Sensitivity and specificity

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The classification of tests into either positive or negative gives a binary classification, with resultant ability to perform bayesian probability and performance metrics of tests, including calculations of sensitivity and specificity.
In many tests, including diagnostic medical tests, sensitivity is the extent to which actual positives are not overlooked (so false negatives are few), and specificity is the extent to which actual negatives are classified as such (so false positives are few).

Binary classification

binary classifierbinarybinary categorization
Tests whose results are of continuous values, such as most blood values, can be interpreted as they are, or they can be converted to a binary ones by defining a cutoff value, with test results being designated as positive or negative depending on whether the resultant value is higher or lower than the cutoff. The classification of tests into either positive or negative gives a binary classification, with resultant ability to perform bayesian probability and performance metrics of tests, including calculations of sensitivity and specificity.
Tests whose results are of continuous values, such as most blood values, can artificially be made binary by defining a cutoff value, with test results being designated as positive or negative depending on whether the resultant value is higher or lower than the cutoff.

False positives and false negatives

false positivefalse negativefalse positives
Medical tests may also have indirect risks, such as the stress of testing, and riskier tests may be required as follow-up for a (potentially) false positive test result.
In medical testing, and more generally in binary classification, a false positive is an error in data reporting in which a test result improperly indicates presence of a condition, such as a disease (the result is positive), when in reality it is not present, while a false negative is an error in which a test result improperly indicates no presence of a condition (the result is negative), when in reality it is present.

Predictive value of tests

predictive valuepredictive values
Most diagnostic tests basically use a reference group to establish performance data such as predictive values, likelihood ratios and relative risks, which are then used to interpret the post-test probability for an individual.
Predictive value of tests is the probability of a target condition given by the result of a test, often in regard to medical tests.

Likelihood ratios in diagnostic testing

likelihood ratiolikelihood ratioslikelihood
Most diagnostic tests basically use a reference group to establish performance data such as predictive values, likelihood ratios and relative risks, which are then used to interpret the post-test probability for an individual.
In evidence-based medicine, likelihood ratios are used for assessing the value of performing a diagnostic test.

Circulating tumor cell

circulating tumor cellscirculating tumour cellsCellSearch
Maintrac is a diagnostic blood test platform applying microscopic in vitro diagnostic methods to identify rare cells in body fluids and their molecular characteristics.

Pre- and post-test probability

post-test probabilitypre-test probabilitypost-test
In reality, however, the subjective probability of the presence of a condition is never exactly 100% or 0%, so tests are rather aimed at estimating a post-test probability of a condition or other entity.
Pre-test probability and post-test probability (alternatively spelled pretest and posttest probability) are the probabilities of the presence of a condition (such as a disease) before and after a diagnostic test, respectively.

Physical examination

physical exammedical examinationexamination
Tests performed in a physical examination are usually aimed at detecting a symptom or sign, and in these cases, a test that detects a symptom or sign is designated a positive test, and a test that indicated absence of a symptom or sign is designated a negative test, as further detailed in separate section below.
The medical history and physical examination were supremely important to diagnosis before advanced health technology was developed, and even today, despite advances in medical imaging and molecular medical tests, the history and physical remain indispensable steps in evaluating any patient.

Point-of-care testing

point of carepoint-of-carepoint-of-care test
Point-of-care testing (POCT or bedside testing) is defined as medical diagnostic testing at or near the point of care—that is, at the time and place of patient care.

Test panel

panel
A test panel is a predetermined group of medical tests as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

Medical sign

signsclinical signsign
Tests performed in a physical examination are usually aimed at detecting a symptom or sign, and in these cases, a test that detects a symptom or sign is designated a positive test, and a test that indicated absence of a symptom or sign is designated a negative test, as further detailed in separate section below.

Screening (medicine)

screeningscreening testmedical screening
A medical test is a medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, or to determine a course of treatment. Medical tests may also have indirect risks, such as the stress of testing, and riskier tests may be required as follow-up for a (potentially) false positive test result.

Differential diagnosis

differential diagnosesdifferentiateddifferential
By practical reasons, the physician considers that there is enough test indication to have a look at the patient's medical records.