Medical ultrasound

ultrasoundultrasonographysonogrammedical ultrasonographysonographyultrasound imagingultrasound scandiagnostic ultrasoundDoppler ultrasoundDoppler sonography
Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.wikipedia
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Ultrasound

ultrasonicultrasonicsultrasounds
Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.
Ultrasound imaging or sonography is often used in medicine.

Medical imaging

imagingdiagnostic imagingdiagnostic radiology
Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.
As a discipline and in its widest sense, it is part of biological imaging and incorporates radiology which uses the imaging technologies of X-ray radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, medical ultrasonography or ultrasound, endoscopy, elastography, tactile imaging, thermography, medical photography and nuclear medicine functional imaging techniques as positron emission tomography (PET) and Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

Sonographer

sonographerssonographyultrasound
Sonographers are medical professionals who perform scans which are then traditionally interpreted by radiologists, physicians who specialize in the application and interpretation of a wide variety of medical imaging modalities, or by cardiologists in the case of cardiac ultrasonography (echocardiography).
A sonographer, or ultrasonographer, is a healthcare professional, who specialise in the use of ultrasonic imaging devices to produce diagnostic images, scans, videos, or 3D volumes of anatomy and diagnostic data, frequently a radiographer but may be any healthcare professional with the appropriate training.

Elastography

shear wavestactile imagingacoustic radiation force impulse imaging
Other types can display blood flow, motion of tissue over time, the location of blood, the presence of specific molecules, the stiffness of tissue, or the anatomy of a three-dimensional region.
The most prominent techniques use ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to make both the stiffness map and an anatomical image for comparison.

Ultrasonography of chronic venous insufficiency of the legs

lower limbs venous ultrasonographyultrasoundvenous shunts
In the case of the common and potentially, serious problem of blood clots in the deep veins of the leg, ultrasound plays a key diagnostic role, while ultrasonography of chronic venous insufficiency of the legs focuses on more superficial veins to assist with planning of suitable interventions to relieve symptoms or improve cosmetics.
Ultrasonography of suspected or previously confirmed chronic venous insufficiency of leg veins is a risk-free, non-invasive procedure.

Ultrasonography of deep vein thrombosis

ultrasonography for deep vein thrombosisultrasonography for deep venous thrombosisUltrasonography for suspected deep vein thrombosis
In the case of the common and potentially, serious problem of blood clots in the deep veins of the leg, ultrasound plays a key diagnostic role, while ultrasonography of chronic venous insufficiency of the legs focuses on more superficial veins to assist with planning of suitable interventions to relieve symptoms or improve cosmetics.
Ultrasonography in suspected deep vein thrombosis focuses primarily on the femoral vein and the popliteal vein, because thrombi in these veins are associated with the greatest risk of harmful pulmonary embolism.

Echocardiography

echocardiogramechocardiographicultrasound of the heart
Echocardiography is an essential tool in cardiology, assisting in evaluation of heart valve function, such as stenosis or insufficiency, and strength of cardiac muscle contraction.
An echocardiogram, often referred to as a cardiac echo or simply an echo, is a sonogram of the heart.

Emergency ultrasound

Point of carepoint of care ultrasonography
Point of care emergency ultrasound has many applications in emergency medicine.
Emergency ultrasound or point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is the application of ultrasound at the point of care to make immediate patient-care decisions.

Abdominal ultrasonography

abdominal ultrasoundtransabdominal ultrasonographyTransabdominal ultrasound
Abdominal and endoanal ultrasound are frequently used in gastroenterology and colorectal surgery.
Abdominal ultrasonography (also called abdominal ultrasound imaging or abdominal sonography) is a form of medical ultrasonography (medical application of ultrasound technology) to visualise abdominal anatomical structures.

Anesthesiology

anesthesiologistanaesthetistanaesthesiology
In anesthesiology, ultrasound is commonly used to guide the placement of needles when placing local anaesthetic solutions near nerves.
Safe anesthesia requires in-depth knowledge of various invasive and non-invasive organ support techniques that are used to control patients' vital functions while under the effects of anaesthetic drugs; these include advanced airway management, invasive and non-invasive hemodynamic monitors, and diagnostic techniques like ultrasonography and echocardiography.

Focused assessment with sonography for trauma

FASTFAST protocolFAST scan
This includes differentiating cardiac causes of acute breathlessness from pulmonary causes, and the Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) exam for assessing significant hemoperitoneum or pericardial tamponade after trauma.
Focused assessment with sonography in trauma (commonly abbreviated as FAST) is a rapid bedside ultrasound examination performed by surgeons, emergency physicians and certain paramedics as a screening test for blood around the heart (pericardial effusion) or abdominal organs (hemoperitoneum) after trauma.

Emergency medicine

emergency careemergencyemergency treatment
Point of care emergency ultrasound has many applications in emergency medicine.
Sub-specializations of emergency medicine include disaster medicine, medical toxicology, ultrasonography, critical care medicine, hyperbaric medicine, sports medicine, palliative care, or aerospace medicine.

Gynecologic ultrasonography

sonohysterographygynecologic ultrasoundultrasound
Gynecologic ultrasonography examines female pelvic organs (specifically the uterus, ovaries, and Fallopian tubes) as well as the bladder, adnexa, and Pouch of Douglas.
Gynecologic ultrasonography or gynecologic sonography refers to the application of medical ultrasonography to the female pelvic organs (specifically the uterus, the ovaries, and the fallopian tubes) as well as the bladder, the adnexa, and the recto-uterine pouch.

Obstetric ultrasonography

ultrasoundobstetric ultrasoundprenatal ultrasound
The practice of examining pregnant women using ultrasound is called obstetric ultrasound, and was an early development and application of clinical ultrasonography. Obstetrical sonography was originally developed in the late 1950’s and 60’s by Sir Ian Donald and is commonly used during pregnancy to check on the development and presentation of the fetus.
Obstetric ultrasonography is the use of medical ultrasonography in pregnancy, in which sound waves are used to create real-time visual images of the developing embryo or fetus in its mother's uterus (womb).

Medicine

medicalmedical sciencemedicinal
Sonography (ultrasonography) is widely used in medicine.
Diagnostic radiology is concerned with imaging of the body, e.g. by x-rays, x-ray computed tomography, ultrasonography, and nuclear magnetic resonance tomography. Interventional radiologists can access areas in the body under imaging for an intervention or diagnostic sampling.

3D ultrasound

3D3D echocardiography3D/4D ultrasound
Other types can display blood flow, motion of tissue over time, the location of blood, the presence of specific molecules, the stiffness of tissue, or the anatomy of a three-dimensional region.
3D ultrasound is a medical ultrasound technique, often used in fetal, cardiac, trans-rectal and intra-vascular applications.

Vaginal ultrasonography

transvaginal ultrasoundtransvaginal ultrasonographyvaginal ultrasound
It commonly uses transducers designed for approaches through the lower abdominal wall, curvilinear and sector, and specialty transducers such as endovaginal.
Vaginal ultrasonography is a medical ultrasonography that applies an ultrasound transducer (or "probe") in the vagina to visualize organs within the pelvic cavity.

Ultrasonography of liver tumors

ultrasonography
Ultrasonography of liver tumors allows for both detection and characterization.
Ultrasonography of liver tumors involves two stages: detection and characterization.

Pathology

pathologistpathologicalpathologies
Its aim is often to find a source of a disease or to exclude pathology.
Examples of important subdivisions in medical imaging include radiology (which uses the imaging technologies of X-ray radiography) magnetic resonance imaging, medical ultrasonography (or ultrasound), endoscopy, elastography, tactile imaging, thermography, medical photography, nuclear medicine and functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography.

Ophthalmology

ophthalmologistophthalmicoculist
In ophthalmology and optometry, there are two major forms of eye exam using ultrasound:
Ultrasonography

Transcranial Doppler

transcranialfunctional transcranial Doppler (fTCD)functional transcranial Doppler spectroscopy
Transcranial Doppler is frequently used by neuro-anesthesiologists for obtaining information about flow-velocity in the basal cerebral vessels.
The tests are often used in conjunction with other tests such as MRI, MRA, carotid duplex ultrasound and CT scans.

Thyroid

thyroid glandthyroid folliclethyroid glands
Superficial structures such as muscle, tendon, testis, breast, thyroid and parathyroid glands, and the neonatal brain are imaged at a higher frequency (7–18 MHz), which provides better linear (axial) and horizontal (lateral) resolution.
When the thyroid function tests are normal, an ultrasound is often used to investigate the nodule, and provide information such as whether the nodule is fluid-filled or a solid mass, and whether the appearance is suggestive of a benign or malignant cancer.

Ian Donald

Professor Ian Donald
Obstetrical sonography was originally developed in the late 1950’s and 60’s by Sir Ian Donald and is commonly used during pregnancy to check on the development and presentation of the fetus.
Ian Donald (December 1910 – 19 June 1987) was a Scottish physician who pioneered the use of diagnostic ultrasound in medicine.

Phased array

phased array radarphased-arrayphased-array radar
Newer technology transducers use phased array techniques to enable the ultrasound machine to change the direction and depth of focus.
The phased array principle is also used in acoustics, and phased arrays of acoustic transducers are used in medical ultrasound imaging scanners (phased array ultrasonics), oil and gas prospecting (reflection seismology), and military sonar systems.

Doppler ultrasonography

Dopplerduplex ultrasonographyDoppler ultrasound
Other types can display blood flow, motion of tissue over time, the location of blood, the presence of specific molecules, the stiffness of tissue, or the anatomy of a three-dimensional region.
Doppler ultrasonography is medical ultrasonography that employs the Doppler effect to generate imaging of the movement of tissues and body fluids (usually blood), and their relative velocity to the probe.