Medieval Greek

Byzantine GreekGreekByzantineMedievalMiddle GreekGreek-speakingByzantine periodGreek languagelanguageByz. Gk.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.wikipedia
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Modern Greek

GreekModernModern Greek language
Medieval Greek is the link between this vernacular, known as Koine Greek, and Modern Greek.
The end of the Medieval Greek period and the beginning of Modern Greek is often symbolically assigned to the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, even though that date marks no clear linguistic boundary and many characteristic modern features of the language arose centuries earlier, between the fourth and the fifteenth centuries AD.

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
It would eventually become the official parlance of the Byzantine Empire and develop into Medieval Greek.

Anatolia

Asia MinorAsiatic TurkeyAnatolian Plateau
The conquests of Alexander the Great, and the ensuing Hellenistic period, had caused Greek to spread to peoples throughout Anatolia and the Eastern Mediterranean, altering the spoken language's pronunciation and structure.
Anatolia (from Greek: Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, "east" or "[sun]rise"; Anadolu), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"; Küçük Asya), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is a large peninsula in West Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent.

Koine Greek

GreekKoineNew Testament Greek
Medieval Greek is the link between this vernacular, known as Koine Greek, and Modern Greek.
As the dominant language of the Byzantine Empire, it developed further into Medieval Greek, which then turned into Modern Greek.

Chronicle of the Morea

Chronicle of MoreaMorea, Chronicle of the
The Chronicle of the Morea, a verse chronicle from the 14th century, is unique.
The Chronicle of the Morea is a long 14th-century history text, of which four versions are extant: in French, Greek (in verse), Italian and Aragonese.

Cappadocian Greek

CappadocianCappadocian Greek languageGreek
However, with the fracturing of the Byzantine state after the turn of the first millennium, newly isolated dialects such as Mariupol Greek, spoken in Crimea, Pontic Greek, spoken along the Black Sea coast of Asia Minor, and Cappadocian, spoken in central Asia Minor, began to diverge.
The language originally diverged from the Medieval Greek of the Byzantine Empire following the Seljuq Turk victory at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.

Pontic Greek

PonticPontic dialectPontic Greek language
However, with the fracturing of the Byzantine state after the turn of the first millennium, newly isolated dialects such as Mariupol Greek, spoken in Crimea, Pontic Greek, spoken along the Black Sea coast of Asia Minor, and Cappadocian, spoken in central Asia Minor, began to diverge.
The linguistic lineage of Pontic Greek stems from Ionic Greek via Koine and Byzantine Greek, and contains influences from Georgian, Russian, Turkish and Armenian.

Cypriot Greek

CypriotCypriot dialectCyprus
Cypriot Greek was already in a literary form in the late Middle Ages, being used in the chronicles of Leontios Makhairas and Georgios Voustronios.
Cypriot Greek is not an evolution of ancient Arcadocypriot Greek, but derives from Byzantine Medieval Greek.

Greek Orthodox Church

Greek OrthodoxGreek OrthodoxyGreek
Though Byzantine Greek literature was still strongly influenced by Attic Greek, it was also influenced by vernacular Koine Greek, which is the language of the New Testament and the liturgical language of the Greek Orthodox Church.
They attend churches which conduct their services in Arabic, the common language of most Greek Orthodox believers in the Levant, while at the same time maintaining elements of the Byzantine Greek cultural tradition.

Suda

SuidasSoudaSuida
The Suda, an encyclopedia from the late 10th century, gives some indication of the vowel inventory.
It is an encyclopedic lexicon, written in Greek, with 30,000 entries, many drawing from ancient sources that have since been lost, and often derived from medieval Christian compilers.

Griko dialect

GrikoGriko languageGrico
In Griko, a language spoken in the southern Italian exclaves, and in Tsakonian, which is spoken on the Peloponnese, dialects of older origin continue to be used today.
Thus, Griko should rather be described as a Doric-influenced descendant of Medieval Greek spoken by those who fled the Byzantine Empire to Italy trying to escape the Turks.

Magna Graecia

Magna GreciaGreekGreater Greece
Sicily and parts of Magna Graecia, Cyprus, Asia Minor and more generally Anatolia, parts of the Crimean Peninsula remained Greek-speaking.
At this time the language had evolved into medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, and its speakers were known as Byzantine Greeks.

Bible

biblicalThe BibleChristian Bible
They ranged from a moderately archaic style employed for most every-day writing and based mostly on the written Koiné of the Bible and early Christian literature, to a highly artificial learned style, employed by authors with higher literary ambitions and closely imitating the model of classical Attic, in continuation of the movement of Atticism in late antiquity.
The mainstream consensus is that the New Testament was written in a form of Koine Greek, which was the common language of the Eastern Mediterranean from the Conquests of Alexander the Great (335–323 BCE) until the evolution of Byzantine Greek (c.

Political verse

fifteen-syllabledekapentasyllabospolitic verse
The poetic metre adheres to the fully developed Greek 15-syllable political verse.
Political verse (Greek: politikós stíkhos, πολιτικός στίχος), also known as decapentasyllabic verse (from Greek: dekapentasíllavos, δεκαπεντασύλλαβος, lit. '15-syllable'), is a common metric form in Medieval and Modern Greek poetry.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
In the Byzantine Empire, Ancient and Medieval Greek texts were copied repeatedly; studying these texts was part of Byzantine education.
It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by Medieval Greek.

Byzantine literature

ByzantineliteratureByzantine authors
As a result, Byzantine literature was largely written in a style of Atticistic Greek, far removed from the popular Medieval Greek that was spoken by all classes of Byzantine society in their everyday lives.

Chatalar Inscription

Chatalar
The Chatalar Inscription is a medieval Greek inscribed text upon a column in the village of Chatalar (modern Han Krum, North East Bulgaria) by the Bulgarian Kanasubigi Omurtag (815-831).

Acritic songs

Acriticacritic cycleacritic epic
Written in Medieval Greek, the Acritic songs deal with the heroic deeds of ἀκρίτες ("frontiersmen"), warriors that lived near the Arab frontiers and fought against the enemy.

Aspirated consonant

aspiratedaspirationunaspirated
The shift in the consonant system from voiced plosives and aspirated voiceless plosives to corresponding fricatives ( and, respectively) was already completed during Late Antiquity.
Later, during the Koine Greek period, the aspirated and voiced stops of Attic Greek lenited to voiceless and voiced fricatives, yielding in Medieval and Modern Greek.

Proto-Greek language

Proto-GreekGreekfirst Greek-speaking tribes
It is assumed to be the last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean Greek, the subsequent ancient Greek dialects (i.e., Attic, Ionic, Aeolic, Doric, Ancient Macedonian and Arcadocypriot) and, ultimately, Koine, Byzantine and Modern Greek.

Augment (Indo-European)

augmentaugmentationaugmentum
The use of the past tense prefix, known as augment, was gradually limited to regular forms in which the augment was required to carry word stress.
Unaccented syllabic augment disappeared during the Byzantine period as a result of the loss of unstressed initial syllables.

Byzantine studies

ByzantinistByzantineByzantinologist
The study of the Medieval Greek language and literature is a branch of Byzantine studies, the study of the history and culture of the Byzantine Empire.
They were used in the appointments of Imperial ambassadors and they were stamped with the Imperial golden seal (Chrysos = gold and bulla = seal).

Russian language

RussianRussian-languageRussian:
As the language of the Orthodox Church, Middle Greek has, especially with the conversion of the Slavs by the brothers Cyril and Methodius, found entrance into the Slavic languages via the religious sector, in particular to the Old Church Slavonic and over its subsequent varieties, the different Church Slavonic manuscripts, also into the language of the countries with an Orthodox population, thus primarily into Bulgarian, Russian, Ukrainian and Serbian.
The punctuation, originally based on Byzantine Greek, was in the 17th and 18th centuries reformulated on the French and German models.

Theodore Prodromos

Theodore ProdromusTheodorus ProdromusProdromic Poems
One collection of four poems, written in the vernacular, has passed down to us under the name of "Ptōchopródromos", however it has still not been established with certainty whether these poems were written by him or by someone who was imitating, or possibly even parodying, the true Theodore Prodromos.

Iotacism

itacismitacisticitacisms
The conveyance of Greek by Greek contemporaries also brought about the itacistic tradition of Greek studies in Italy.