Medieval music

medievalMiddle Agesmusicmedieval eramediaevalmediaeval musicmedieval timesmusic of the Middle AgesEuropean Medieval musicGothic
Medieval music consists of songs, instrumental pieces, and liturgical music from about 500 A.D.wikipedia
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Choir

choralchoruschoral music
Medieval music includes solely vocal music, such as Gregorian chant and choral music (music for a group of singers), solely instrumental music, and music that uses both voices and instruments (typically with the instruments accompanying the voices).
Choirs may perform music from the classical music repertoire, which spans from the medieval era to the present, or popular music repertoire.

Classical music

classicalWestern classical musicEuropean classical music
Medieval music was an era of Western music, including liturgical music (also known as sacred) used for the church, and secular music, non-religious music.
The major time divisions of classical music up to 1900 are the Early music period, which includes Medieval (500–1400) and Renaissance (1400–1600) eras, and the Common practice period, which includes the Baroque (1600–1750), Classical (1750–1820) and Romantic (1810–1910) eras.

Renaissance music

RenaissancemusicRenaissance composer
Establishing the end of the medieval era and the beginning of the Renaissance music era is difficult, since the trends started at different times in different regions.
Consensus among music historians has been to start the era around 1400, with the end of the medieval era, and to close it around 1600, with the beginning of the Baroque period, therefore commencing the musical Renaissance about a hundred years after the beginning of the Renaissance as it is understood in other disciplines.

Polyphony

polyphonicpolyphonic musicpolyphonically
However the theoretical advances, particularly in regard to rhythm—the timing of notes—and polyphony—using multiple, interweaving melodies at the same time—are equally important to the development of Western music.
Within the context of the Western musical tradition, the term polyphony is usually used to refer to music of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance.

Recorder (musical instrument)

recorderrecordersalto recorder
The recorder was made of wood during the Medieval era, and despite the fact that in the 2000s, it may be made of synthetic materials, it has more or less retained its past form.
The recorder is first documented in Europe in the Middle Ages, and continued to enjoy wide popularity in the Renaissance and Baroque periods, but was little used in the Classical and Romantic periods.

Byzantine lyra

lyraliraLyra (Byzantine)
The bowed lyra of the Byzantine Empire was the first recorded European bowed string instrument.
The Byzantine lyra or lira was a medieval bowed string musical instrument in the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire.

Dates of classical music eras

musical eraEstablishing the end of the medieval erageneralizations
Establishing the end of the medieval era and the beginning of the Renaissance music era is difficult, since the trends started at different times in different regions.
These eras and styles include Medieval, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic, 20th century and 21st-century classical music.

Musical improvisation

improvisationimprovised musicimprovised
Medieval music was composed and, for some vocal and instrumental music, improvised for many different music genres (styles of music).
Throughout the eras of the Western art music tradition, including the Medieval, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, and Romantic periods, improvisation was a valued skill.

Vielle

fiddlefiddlesFiedel
Early versions of the pipe organ, fiddle (or vielle), and a precursor to the modern trombone (called the sackbut) were used.
The vielle is a European bowed stringed instrument used in the Medieval period, similar to a modern violin but with a somewhat longer and deeper body, three to five gut strings, and a leaf-shaped pegbox with frontal tuning pegs, sometimes with a figure-8 shaped body.

Guido of Arezzo

Guido d'ArezzoGuido MonacoGuido d' Arezzo
The completion of the four-line staff is usually credited to Guido d’ Arezzo (c. For specific medieval music theorists, see also: Isidore of Seville, Aurelian of Réôme, Odo of Cluny, Guido of Arezzo, Hermannus Contractus, Johannes Cotto (Johannes Afflighemensis), Johannes de Muris, Franco of Cologne, Johannes de Garlandia (Johannes Gallicus), Anonymous IV, Marchetto da Padova (Marchettus of Padua), Jacques of Liège, Johannes de Grocheo, Petrus de Cruce (Pierre de la Croix), and Philippe de Vitry.
Guido of Arezzo (also Guido Aretinus, Guido Aretino, Guido da Arezzo, Guido Monaco, Guido d'Arezzo,Guido Monaco Pomposiano, or Guy of Arezzo also Guy d'Arezzo) (991/992 – after 1033) was an Italian music theorist of the Medieval era.

Rhythmic mode

modal rhythmrhythmic modesModal notation
This rhythmic plan was codified by the music theorist Johannes de Garlandia, author of the De Mensurabili Musica (c.1250), the treatise which defined and most completely elucidated these rhythmic modes. In a similar fashion, the semibreve's division (termed prolation) could be divided into three minima (prolatio perfectus or major prolation) or two minima (prolatio imperfectus or minor prolation) and, at the higher level, the longs division (called modus) could be three or two breves (modus perfectus or perfect mode, or modus imperfectus or imperfect mode respectively).
In medieval music, the rhythmic modes were set patterns of long and short durations (or rhythms).

Motet

motetsisorhythmic motetMotetus
Of greater sophistication was the motet, which developed from the clausula genre of medieval plainchant.
From these first motets arose a medieval tradition of secular motets.

Canon (music)

canoncanonscanonic
The madrigal form also gave rise to polyphonic canons (songs in which multiple singers sing the same melody, but starting at different times), especially in Italy where they were called caccie. These were three-part secular pieces, which featured the two higher voices in canon, with an underlying instrumental long-note accompaniment.
During the Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque—that is, through the early 18th century—any kind of imitative musical counterpoints were called fugues, with the strict imitation now known as canon qualified as fuga ligata, meaning "fettered fugue".

Neume

neumesneumaticneumatic notation
The first step to fix this problem came with the introduction of various signs written above the chant texts to indicate direction of pitch movement, called neumes.
Neumatic notation was later used in medieval music to indicate certain patterns of rhythm called rhythmic modes, and eventually evolved into modern musical notation.

Johannes de Garlandia (music theorist)

Johannes de Garlandia
This rhythmic plan was codified by the music theorist Johannes de Garlandia, author of the De Mensurabili Musica (c.1250), the treatise which defined and most completely elucidated these rhythmic modes. For specific medieval music theorists, see also: Isidore of Seville, Aurelian of Réôme, Odo of Cluny, Guido of Arezzo, Hermannus Contractus, Johannes Cotto (Johannes Afflighemensis), Johannes de Muris, Franco of Cologne, Johannes de Garlandia (Johannes Gallicus), Anonymous IV, Marchetto da Padova (Marchettus of Padua), Jacques of Liège, Johannes de Grocheo, Petrus de Cruce (Pierre de la Croix), and Philippe de Vitry.
c. 1270 – 1320) was a French music theorist of the late ars antiqua period of medieval music.

Franco of Cologne

FranconianFRANCO, MAGISTER (of Cologne)Franconian notation
The next step forward concerning rhythm came from the German theorist Franco of Cologne. For specific medieval music theorists, see also: Isidore of Seville, Aurelian of Réôme, Odo of Cluny, Guido of Arezzo, Hermannus Contractus, Johannes Cotto (Johannes Afflighemensis), Johannes de Muris, Franco of Cologne, Johannes de Garlandia (Johannes Gallicus), Anonymous IV, Marchetto da Padova (Marchettus of Padua), Jacques of Liège, Johannes de Grocheo, Petrus de Cruce (Pierre de la Croix), and Philippe de Vitry.
He was one of the most influential theorists of the late Medieval era, and was the first to propose an idea which was to transform musical notation permanently: that the duration of any note should be determined by its appearance on the page, and not from context alone.

Prolation

prolatioProlatio Major et Minorprolatione minori
In a similar fashion, the semibreve's division (termed prolation) could be divided into three minima (prolatio perfectus or major prolation) or two minima (prolatio imperfectus or minor prolation) and, at the higher level, the longs division (called modus) could be three or two breves (modus perfectus or perfect mode, or modus imperfectus or imperfect mode respectively).
Prolation is a term used in the theory of the mensural notation of medieval and Renaissance music to describe its rhythmic structure on a small scale, as opposed to tempus, which described a larger scale.

Music technology (mechanical)

Mechanical music technologymusical instrument technologiestechnologically developed
Many instruments used to perform medieval music still exist in the 21st century, but in different and typically more technologically developed forms.
During the Medieval Music era (476 to 1400) the plainchant tunes used by monks for religious songs were primarily monophonic (a single melody line, with no harmony parts) and transmitted by oral tradition ("by ear").

Aurelian of Réôme

Aurelian
For specific medieval music theorists, see also: Isidore of Seville, Aurelian of Réôme, Odo of Cluny, Guido of Arezzo, Hermannus Contractus, Johannes Cotto (Johannes Afflighemensis), Johannes de Muris, Franco of Cologne, Johannes de Garlandia (Johannes Gallicus), Anonymous IV, Marchetto da Padova (Marchettus of Padua), Jacques of Liège, Johannes de Grocheo, Petrus de Cruce (Pierre de la Croix), and Philippe de Vitry.
He is the author of the Musica disciplina, the earliest extant treatise on music from medieval Europe.

Marchetto da Padova

Marchettus of Padua
For specific medieval music theorists, see also: Isidore of Seville, Aurelian of Réôme, Odo of Cluny, Guido of Arezzo, Hermannus Contractus, Johannes Cotto (Johannes Afflighemensis), Johannes de Muris, Franco of Cologne, Johannes de Garlandia (Johannes Gallicus), Anonymous IV, Marchetto da Padova (Marchettus of Padua), Jacques of Liège, Johannes de Grocheo, Petrus de Cruce (Pierre de la Croix), and Philippe de Vitry.
Marchetto da Padova (Marchettus of Padua; fl. 1305 – 1319) was an Italian music theorist and composer of the late medieval era.

Anonymous IV

Anonymous
For specific medieval music theorists, see also: Isidore of Seville, Aurelian of Réôme, Odo of Cluny, Guido of Arezzo, Hermannus Contractus, Johannes Cotto (Johannes Afflighemensis), Johannes de Muris, Franco of Cologne, Johannes de Garlandia (Johannes Gallicus), Anonymous IV, Marchetto da Padova (Marchettus of Padua), Jacques of Liège, Johannes de Grocheo, Petrus de Cruce (Pierre de la Croix), and Philippe de Vitry.
Anonymous IV is the designation given (by Edmond de Coussemaker) to the writer of an important treatise of medieval music theory.

Johannes Cotto

Joannes CottoJohannes AfflighemensisJohn
For specific medieval music theorists, see also: Isidore of Seville, Aurelian of Réôme, Odo of Cluny, Guido of Arezzo, Hermannus Contractus, Johannes Cotto (Johannes Afflighemensis), Johannes de Muris, Franco of Cologne, Johannes de Garlandia (Johannes Gallicus), Anonymous IV, Marchetto da Padova (Marchettus of Padua), Jacques of Liège, Johannes de Grocheo, Petrus de Cruce (Pierre de la Croix), and Philippe de Vitry. Much of the information concerning these modes, as well as the practical application of them, was codified in the 11th century by the theorist Johannes Afflighemensis.
He wrote one of the most influential treatises on music of the Middle Ages, De musica, first printed by Gerbert in 1784.

Perfect fourth

fourthfourthsF
Organum, for example, expanded upon plainchant melody using an accompanying line, sung at a fixed interval (often a perfect fifth or perfect fourth away from the main melody), with a resulting alternation between a simple form of polyphony and monophony.
In medieval music, the tonality of the common practice period had not yet developed, and many examples may be found with harmonic structures that are built on fourths and fifths.

Magnus Liber

Magnus Liber Organi
Surviving manuscripts from this period include the Musica Enchiriadis, Codex Calixtinus of Santiago de Compostela, the Magnus Liber, and the Winchester Troper.
The Magnus Liber or Magnus Liber Organi (Latin for "Great Book of Organum") contained a repertory of medieval music known as organum in use by the Parisian School of Notre Dame around the turn of the 12th & 13th centuries and is known from references to a "magnum volumen" by Johannes de Garlandia and to a "Magnus liber organi de graduali et antiphonario pro servitio divino" by the English music theorist known simply as Anonymous IV.

Ars antiqua

Sometimes the music of this period is called the Parisian school, or Parisian organum, and represents the beginning of what is conventionally known as Ars antiqua.
Ars antiqua, also called ars veterum or ars vetus, is a term used by modern scholars to refer to the Medieval music of Europe during the High Middle Ages, between approximately 1170 and 1310.