Meditation

meditativemeditatemeditatingmeditatorsmeditative praxisDeep Meditationmeditatedmeditatesspiritual contemplationTadabbur
Meditation is a practice where an individual uses a technique – such as mindfulness, or focusing the mind on a particular object, thought or activity – to train attention and awareness, and achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm and stable state.wikipedia
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Mindfulness

mindfulness meditationmindfulMindfulness (psychology)
Meditation is a practice where an individual uses a technique – such as mindfulness, or focusing the mind on a particular object, thought or activity – to train attention and awareness, and achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm and stable state. Open monitoring methods include mindfulness, shikantaza and other awareness states.
Mindfulness is the psychological process of purposely bringing one's attention to experiences occurring in the present moment without judgment, which one can develop through the practice of meditation and through other training.

History of meditation

antiquity
Meditation has been practiced since antiquity in numerous religious traditions, often as part of the path towards enlightenment and self realization.
The practice of meditation is of prehistoric origin, and is found throughout history, especially in religious contexts.

Research on meditation

Health applications and clinical studies of meditationmeditationpsychological benefits
Meditation is under research to define its possible health (psychological, neurological, and cardiovascular) and other effects.
For the purpose of this article, research on meditation concerns research into the psychological and physiological effects of meditation using the scientific method.

Transcendental Meditation

Maharishi EffectSpiritual Regeneration MovementMaharishi Vedic Education Development Corporation
Focused methods include paying attention to the breath, to an idea or feeling (such as mettā (loving-kindness)), to a kōan, or to a mantra (such as in transcendental meditation), and single point meditation.
Transcendental Meditation (TM) refers to a specific form of silent mantra meditation and less commonly to the organizations that constitute the Transcendental Meditation movement.

Lotus position

Padmasanalotus posturePadmāsana
Asanas and positions such as the full-lotus, half-lotus, Burmese, Seiza, and kneeling positions are popular in Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism, although other postures such as sitting, supine (lying), and standing are also used.
It is an ancient asana, predating hatha yoga, and is commonly used for meditation, in the Yoga, Hindu, Tantra, Jain, and Buddhist contemplative traditions.

Rosary

rosariesrosary beadsHoly Rosary
The Roman Catholic rosary is a string of beads containing five sets with ten small beads.
For more than four centuries, the rosary has been promoted by several popes as part of the veneration of Mary in the Catholic Church, and consisting essentially in meditation on the life of Christ.

Brahmamuhurtha

Brahma MuhurtBrahma MuhurtaBrahma Muhūrta
Some meditators find practice best in the hours before dawn.
meditation, worship or any other religious practice.

Asana

asanasāsanaYogasana
Asanas and positions such as the full-lotus, half-lotus, Burmese, Seiza, and kneeling positions are popular in Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism, although other postures such as sitting, supine (lying), and standing are also used.
An asana is a body posture, originally and still a general term for a sitting meditation pose, and later extended in hatha yoga and modern yoga as exercise, to any type of pose or position, adding reclining, standing, inverted, twisting, and balancing poses.

Walking meditation

kinhinwalkingkinh hành
Meditation is also sometimes done while walking, known as kinhin, or while doing a simple task mindfully, known as samu.
Walking meditation, also known as kinhin is the walking meditation that is practiced between long periods of the sitting meditation known as zazen.

Shikantaza

silent illuminationshikan-tazaShikantaza (Ch. zhǐguǎn dǎzuò, "Just sitting")
Open monitoring methods include mindfulness, shikantaza and other awareness states.
Unlike many other forms of meditation, shikantaza does not require focused attention on a specific object (such as the breath); instead, practitioners "just sit" in a state of conscious awareness.

Dhyana in Hinduism

dhyanadhyānameditation
Some of the earliest written records of meditation (Dhyana), come from the Hindu traditions of Vedantism.
Dhyana (IAST: Dhyāna) in Hinduism means contemplation and meditation.

Anapanasati

ānāpānasatiMindfulness of Breathinganapana
Focused methods include paying attention to the breath, to an idea or feeling (such as mettā (loving-kindness)), to a kōan, or to a mantra (such as in transcendental meditation), and single point meditation.
One may decide to either practice anapanasati while seated or standing or lying down or walking, or to alternate seated, standing, lying down and walking meditation.

Sahaja Yoga

meditation practice of the Sahaja yoga spiritual movementSahaja
In the meditation practice of the Sahaja yoga spiritual movement, the focus is on thoughts ceasing.
Meditation is one of the foundational practices within Sahaja Yoga.

Dhyāna in Buddhism

jhanadhyānadhyana
The closest words for meditation in the classical languages of Buddhism are bhāvanā, jhāna/dhyāna, and vipassana.
Commonly translated as meditation, and often equated with "concentration," though meditation may refer to a wider scala of exercises for bhavana, development.

Zen

Zen BuddhismZen BuddhistChan
In the modern era, Buddhist meditation saw increasing popularity due to the influence of Buddhist modernism on Asian Buddhism, and western lay interest in Zen and the Vipassana movement.
The term Zen is derived from the Japanese pronunciation of the Middle Chinese word 禪 (Chán), which traces its roots to the Indian practice of dhyāna ("meditation").

Prayer beads

beadsrosary beadsA rosary
Some religions have traditions of using prayer beads as tools in devotional meditation.
The term rosary comes from the Latin rosarium "rose garden" and is an important and traditional devotion of the Catholic Church, combining prayer and meditation in sequences (called "decades") of the Lord's Prayer, 10 Hail Marys, and a Gloria Patri as well as a number of other prayers (such as the Apostles' Creed and the Salve Regina) at the beginning and end.

Retreat (spiritual)

retreatretreatsspiritual retreat
Some meditators practice for much longer, particularly when on a course or retreat.
Spiritual retreats allow time for reflection, prayer, or meditation.

Qigong

Qi GongChi KungChi Gong
Some well-known examples are daoyin "guiding and pulling", qigong "life-energy exercises", neigong "internal exercises", neidan "internal alchemy", and taijiquan "great ultimate boxing", which is thought of as moving meditation.
Qigong, qi gong, chi kung, or chi gung is a centuries-old system of coordinated body-posture and movement, breathing, and meditation used for the purposes of health, spirituality, and martial-arts training.

Naam Japo

Naam SimranNaam Japnanām
Nām Japnā involves focusing one's attention on the names or great attributes of God.
In Sikhism, Nām Japō (Gurmukhi ਨਾਮ ਜਪੋ), Naam Japna, or Naam Simran refers to the meditation, vocal singing of hymns from the Sri Guru Granth Sahib or contemplating the various Names of God (or qualities of God), especially the chanting of the word Waheguru, which means "Wonderful Lord" representing the formless being, the creator of all the forms and the being omnipresent in all forms.

Mantra

mantrasmantrammantric
Focused methods include paying attention to the breath, to an idea or feeling (such as mettā (loving-kindness)), to a kōan, or to a mantra (such as in transcendental meditation), and single point meditation.
The letter a is both visualised in the Siddham script and pronounced in rituals and meditation practices.

Hinduism

HinduHindusHindu culture
There are many schools and styles of meditation within Hinduism.
Some devout Hindus perform daily rituals such as worshiping at dawn after bathing (usually at a family shrine, and typically includes lighting a lamp and offering foodstuffs before the images of deities), recitation from religious scripts, singing devotional hymns, yoga, meditation, chanting mantras and others.

Hatha Yoga Pradipika

Haṭha Yoga PradīpikāHYPSvatmarama
Later developments in Hindu meditation include the compilation of Hatha Yoga (forceful yoga) compendiums like the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the development of Bhakti yoga as a major form of meditation and Tantra.
He introduces his system as a preparatory stage for physical purification before higher meditation or Raja Yoga.

Sikhism

SikhSikhsSikh religion
In Sikhism, simran (meditation) and good deeds are both necessary to achieve the devotee's Spiritual goals; without good deeds meditation is futile.
To get closer to God: Sikhs avoid the evils of Maya, keep the everlasting truth in mind, practice Shabad Kirtan, meditate on Naam, and serve humanity.

Neigong

inner energyinternal methodnei kung
Some well-known examples are daoyin "guiding and pulling", qigong "life-energy exercises", neigong "internal exercises", neidan "internal alchemy", and taijiquan "great ultimate boxing", which is thought of as moving meditation.
Neigong, also spelled nei kung, neigung, or nae gong, refers to any of a set of Chinese breathing, meditation and spiritual practice disciplines associated with Daoism and especially the Chinese martial arts.

Yoga Yajnavalkya

Yoga-YajnavalkyaYoga-YājñavalkyaYogayajnavalkya Samhita
Another important Hindu yoga text is the Yoga Yajnavalkya, which makes use of Hatha Yoga and Vedanta Philosophy.
Meditation discussions start in the eighth chapter of the text, where 40 verses discuss how to start and develop meditative practices with the help of Om and resonating sounds, followed by 44 verses in the ninth chapter for advanced meditation that is reflective on one's mind, Vedana (feelings) and nature of one's Atman (self, soul).