Mediterranean Basin

Physical and political map of the Mediterranean Basin
Map of the Mediterranean Basin's ecoregions. 1201: Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests. 1202: Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests. 1203: Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests. 1204: Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests. 1205: Crete Mediterranean forests. 1206: Cyprus Mediterranean forests. 1207: Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests. 1208: Iberian conifer forests. 1209: Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests. 1210: Illyrian deciduous forests. 1211: Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests. 1212: Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets. 1213: Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe. 1214: Mediterranean woodlands and forests. 1215: Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests. 1216: Northwest Iberian montane forests. 1217: Pindus Mountains mixed forests. 1218: South Apeninne mixed montane forests. 1219: Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands. 1220: Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests. 1221: Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests. 1222: Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests

Region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have mostly a Mediterranean climate, with mild to cool, rainy winters and warm to hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.

- Mediterranean Basin

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Mediterranean climate

[[File:Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification).svg|upright=1.8|thumb|Regions with Mediterranean climates

Continental Portugal has a clear contrast between the cool to warm (Csb) and hot (Csa) summers.
Agean Sea of Ölüdeniz, Turkey
The Ionian Sea, view from the island Lefkada, Greece
Makarska in Dalmatia, Croatia
The coastal Mediterranean region of Costa Brava, Catalonia, Spain
Distribution of the relatively rare cold-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen type Csc) in Washington, Oregon and California

The climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, where this climate type is most common.

Mediterranean Sea

Map of the Mediterranean Sea
Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity c. the 6th century BC
The Roman Empire at its farthest extent in AD 117
The Battle of Lepanto, 1571, ended in victory for the European Holy League against the Ottoman Turks.
The bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet in support of an ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Borders of the Mediterranean Sea
Approximate extent of the Mediterranean drainage basin (dark green). Nile basin only partially shown
Map of the Mediterranean Sea from open Natural Earth data, 2020
Alexandria, the largest city on the Mediterranean
Barcelona, the second largest metropolitan area on the Mediterranean Sea (after Alexandria) and the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean
The Acropolis of Athens with the Mediterranean Sea in the background
The ancient port of Jaffa (now in Tel Aviv-Yafo), from which the biblical Jonah set sail before being swallowed by a whale
Catania, Sicily, Italy, with Mount Etna in the background
İzmir, the third metropolis of Turkey (after Istanbul and Ankara)
Africa (left, on horizon) and Europe (right), as seen from Gibraltar
Positano, Italy, Tyrrhenian Sea
View of the Saint George Bay, and snow-capped Mount Sannine from a tower in the Beirut Central District
The Port of Marseille seen from L'Estaque
Sarandë, Albania, stands on an open-sea gulf of the Ionian sea in the central Mediterranean.
The two biggest islands of the Mediterranean: Sicily and Sardinia (Italy)
Predominant surface currents for June
A submarine karst spring, called vrulja, near Omiš; observed through several ripplings of an otherwise calm sea surface.
Messinian salinity crisis before the Zanclean flood
The thermonuclear bomb that fell into the sea recovered off Palomares, Almería, 1966
Stromboli volcano in Italy
The reticulate whipray is one of the species that colonised the Eastern Mediterranean through the Suez Canal as part of the ongoing Lessepsian migration.
A cargo ship cruises towards the Strait of Messina
Port of Trieste
Kemer Beach in Antalya on the Turkish Riviera (Turquoise Coast). In 2019, Turkey ranked sixth in the world in terms of the number of international tourist arrivals, with 51.2 million foreign tourists visiting the country.
Coast of Alexandria, view From Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt
Beach of Hammamet, Tunisia
The beach of la Courtade in the Îles d'Hyères, France
Sardinia's south coast, Italy
Pretty Bay, Malta
Panoramic view of Piran, Slovenia
Panoramic view of Cavtat, Croatia
View of Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina
A view of Sveti Stefan, Montenegro
Ksamil Islands, Albania
Navagio, Greece
Ölüdeniz, Turquoise Coast, Turkey
Paphos, Cyprus
Burj Islam Beach, Latakia, Syria
A view of Raouché off the coast of Beirut, Lebanon
A view of Haifa, Israel
Old city of Ibiza Town, Spain
Les Aiguades near Béjaïa, Algeria
El Jebha, a port town in Morocco
Europa Point, Gibraltar
Panoramic view of La Condamine, Monaco
Sunset at the Deir al-Balah beach, Gaza Strip

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.


Country that consists of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and several islands surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region.

Expansion of the territory called "Italy" from ancient Greece until Diocletian
The Iron Crown of Lombardy, for centuries a symbol of the Kings of Italy
Marco Polo, explorer of the 13th century, recorded his 24 years-long travels in the Book of the Marvels of the World, introducing Europeans to Central Asia and China.
The Italian states before the beginning of the Italian Wars in 1494
Leonardo da Vinci, the quintessential Renaissance man, in a self-portrait (ca. 1512, Royal Library, Turin)
Christopher Columbus leads an expedition to the New World, 1492. His voyages are celebrated as the discovery of the Americas from a European perspective, and they opened a new era in the history of humankind and sustained contact between the two worlds.
Flag of the Cispadane Republic, which was the first Italian tricolour adopted by a sovereign Italian state (1797)
Holographic copy of 1847 of Il Canto degli Italiani, the Italian national anthem since 1946
Animated map of the Italian unification from 1829 to 1871
The Victor Emmanuel II Monument in Rome, a national symbol of Italy celebrating the first king of the unified country, and resting place of the Italian Unknown Soldier since the end of World War I. It was inaugurated in 1911, on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Unification of Italy.
The fascist dictator Benito Mussolini titled himself Duce and ruled the country from 1922 to 1943.
Areas controlled by the Italian Empire at its peak
Italian partisans in Milan during the Italian Civil War, April 1945
Alcide De Gasperi, first republican Prime Minister of Italy and one of the Founding Fathers of the European Union
The signing ceremony of the Treaty of Rome on 25 March 1957, creating the European Economic Community, forerunner of the present-day European Union
Funerals of the victims of the Bologna bombing of 2 August 1980, the deadliest attack ever perpetrated in Italy during the Years of Lead
Italian government task force to face the COVID-19 emergency
Topographic map of Italy
Dolphins in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Aeolian Islands
National and regional parks in Italy
Gran Paradiso, established in 1922, is the oldest Italian national park.
The Italian wolf, the national animal of Italy
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map of Italy
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of Italy.
The Supreme Court of Cassation, Rome
An Alfa Romeo 159 vehicle of the Carabinieri corps
Group photo of the G7 leaders at the 43rd G7 summit in Taormina
Heraldic coat of arms of the Italian Armed Forces
A proportional representation of Italy exports, 2019
Milan is the economic capital of Italy, and is a global financial centre and a fashion capital of the world.
A Carrara marble quarry
The Autostrada dei Laghi ("Lakes Motorway"), the first motorway built in the world
FS' Frecciarossa 1000 high speed train, with a maximum speed of 400 km/h
Trieste, the main port of the northern Adriatic and starting point of the Transalpine Pipeline
ENI is considered one of the world's oil and gas "Supermajors".
Solar panels in Piombino. Italy is one of the world's largest producers of renewable energy.
Galileo Galilei, the father of modern science, physics and astronomy
Enrico Fermi, creator of the world's first first nuclear reactor
The Amalfi Coast is one of Italy's major tourist destinations.
Map of Italy's population density at the 2011 census
Italy is home to a large population of migrants from Eastern Europe and North Africa.
Linguistic map showing the languages spoken in Italy
Vatican City, the Holy See's sovereign territory
Bologna University, established in AD 1088, is the world's oldest academic institution.
Olive oil and vegetables are central to the Mediterranean diet.
Carnival of Venice
The Last Supper (1494–1499), Leonardo da Vinci, Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Michelangelo's David (1501–1504), Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence
The Birth of Venus (1484–1486), Sandro Botticelli, Uffizi Gallery, Florence
Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the mount of Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino's fresco, 1465
Niccolò Machiavelli, founder of modern political science and ethics
Pinocchio is one of the world's most translated books and a canonical piece of children's literature.
Clockwise from top left: Thomas Aquinas, proponent of natural theology and the Father of Thomism; Giordano Bruno, one of the major scientific figures of the Western world; Cesare Beccaria, considered the Father of criminal justice and modern criminal law; and Maria Montessori, credited with the creation of the Montessori education
La Scala opera house
Statues of Pantalone and Harlequin, two stock characters from the Commedia dell'arte, in the Museo Teatrale alla Scala
Dario Fo, one of the most widely performed playwrights in modern theatre, received international acclaim for his highly improvisational style.
Giacomo Puccini, Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, Madama Butterfly and Turandot, are among the most frequently worldwide performed in the standard repertoire
Luciano Pavarotti, considered one of the finest tenors of the 20th century and the "King of the High Cs"
Giorgio Moroder, pioneer of Italo disco and electronic dance music, is known as the "Father of disco".
Entrance to Cinecittà in Rome
The Azzurri in 2012. Football is the most popular sport in Italy.
Starting in 1909, the Giro d'Italia is the Grands Tours' second oldest.
A Ferrari SF21 by Scuderia Ferrari, the most successful Formula One team
Prada shop at Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan
The traditional recipe for spaghetti with tomato and basil sauce
Italian wine and salumi
The Frecce Tricolori, with the smoke trails representing the national colours of Italy, during the celebrations of the Festa della Repubblica
The Venice Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world.

Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has historically been home to myriad peoples and cultures.

Northwestern Europe

Loosely defined subregion of Europe, overlapping Northern and Western Europe.

Frequent minimum definition of Northwestern Europe, excluding certain nations often defined as Northwestern Europe, such as Austria, Switzerland, and Finland

Southern France is not regarded as northwestern, as it is usually geographically and culturally considered part of the Mediterranean region or Southern Europe.


Collection of four volcanic archipelagos in the North Atlantic Ocean, off the coasts of the continents of Africa and Europe.

Layers of volcanic tephra from the 1957 eruption of Capelinhos on Faial in the Azores. Macaronesian islands are created by volcanic activity.
Remaining patches of Macaronesia's threatened primeval laurisilva forest (except in Cape Verde) were protected by EU law in 2001.

The laurisilva forests of Macaronesia are a type of mountain cloud forest with relict plant species of a vegetation type that originally covered much of the Mediterranean Basin, when the climate of that region was more humid.


Type of vegetation that is adapted to long periods of dryness and heat.

Chaparral vegetation in Southern California
The hard leaves of a Banksia integrifolia (notice the short internodes)
Sclerophyllous woodland in Spain
Sclerophyll woodland in Tuscany, Italy
A sclerophyll bushland in Sydney (which falls in the humid subtropical zone)
Sclerophyll shrubland in southwestern Madagascar
Bush around Eagle Bay, Western Australia
Yellow Box (Eucalyptus melliodora) in a sclerophyll woodland, Melbourne (Cfb climate)
Sclerophyll vegetation on Mount Meron in Israel
Hard-leaved vegetation in the High Atlas mountains, Morocco

They are prominent throughout Australia, parts of Argentina, the Cerrado biogeographic region of Bolivia, Paraguay and Brazil, and in the Mediterranean biomes that cover the Mediterranean Basin, California, Chile, and the Cape Province of South Africa.

Northern Europe

The northern region of Europe has several definitions.

A composed satellite photograph of islands and continental areas in and surrounding the North Sea and Baltic Sea.
European climate. The Köppen climate classification map is presented by the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia and the Global Precipitation Climatology Center of the Deutscher Wetterdienst.
Northern Europe, as defined by the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions
Map of Europe showing the largest religions by region. Eastern Christianity is represented in blue, Islam in green, and the other colors represent branches of Western Christianity.
A composed satellite photograph of islands and continental areas in and surrounding the North Sea and Baltic Sea.

In earlier history, when Europe was dominated by the Roman Empire, the parts of Europe that were not near the Mediterranean region were deemed Northern European, including southern Germany, all of the Low Countries, and Austria.

Southern Europe

Southern region of Europe.

The geographical and ethno-cultural borders of Southern Europe are the Pyrenees, the Alps, and the Balkan Mountains to the north and the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
European climate. Note the high diversity of Köppen-Geiger climates in the southern regions.
Distribution map of Olea europaea s.l. (Olive tree).
Roman Empire. In yellow the south-west of Europe, and in violet the south-east.
Eastern Roman Empire mainly focused on southern Europe.
The areas of the world that were at one time part of the Portuguese and Spanish empires
Ottomans controlled most of the Mediterranean Sea for centuries.
Map representing the geography of Europe, with the mountain ranges separating Southern Europe.
Satellite image of the Iberian Peninsula.
Satellite image of the Italian Peninsula.
Satellite image of the Balkan Peninsula.
Beech forest in the Aurunci Mountains, Italy
Stone pines in Doñana National Park, Spain
Oak savanna of Alentejo, Portugal (Q. suber and Q. rotundifolia)
Aleppo pine forest, Croatia
Temperate pine forests of Monte Cimone, Italy
Dry olive groove, Crete

Southern Europe also loosely corresponds to the European part of the Mediterranean Basin.

Pinus halepensis

Bark and trunk
Plate from Lambert's Description of the Genus Pinus
Cone of pinus halepensis in Hebron
Pinus halepensis forest
A dead Aleppo pine in front of the Étang de Thau
A grove of Aleppo pines in Pinet

Pinus halepensis, commonly known as the Aleppo pine, also known as the Jerusalem pine, is a pine native to the Mediterranean region.

Quercus ilex

Mature acorns on a tree in Corsica
Leaves and catkins in spring
Quercus ilex, MHNT

Quercus ilex, the evergreen oak, holly oak or holm oak is a large evergreen oak native to the Mediterranean region.