Mediterranean Lingua Franca

Lingua FrancaSabirPetit Mauresqueearly modern ItalianFranks" (Latins)Lingua franca of the MediterraneanMediterranean Lingua Franca Sabirname given to a common languagepmlSabir (language)
The Mediterranean Lingua Franca or Sabir was a pidgin language used as a lingua franca in the Mediterranean Basin from the 11th to the 19th centuries.wikipedia
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Lingua franca

trade languagecommon languagelingua francas
The Mediterranean Lingua Franca or Sabir was a pidgin language used as a lingua franca in the Mediterranean Basin from the 11th to the 19th centuries. Lingua franca means literally "language of the Franks" in Late Latin, and originally referred specifically to the language that was used around the Eastern Mediterranean Sea as the main language of commerce.
The term is taken from the medieval Mediterranean Lingua Franca, a Romance-based pidgin language used (especially by traders and seamen) as a lingua franca in the Mediterranean Basin from the 11th to the 19th century.

Pidgin

pidgin languagepidginsPidgin English
The Mediterranean Lingua Franca or Sabir was a pidgin language used as a lingua franca in the Mediterranean Basin from the 11th to the 19th centuries.
However, not all pidgins become creole languages; a pidgin may die out before this phase would occur (e.g. the Mediterranean Lingua Franca).

Bagnio

Bagnebagnes
This mixed language was used widely for commerce and diplomacy and was also current among slaves of the bagnio, Barbary pirates and European renegades in pre-colonial Algiers.
The communication between master and slave and between slaves of different origins was made in a lingua franca known as Sabir or Mediterranean Lingua Franca, a Mediterranean pidgin language with Romance and Arabic vocabulary.

Hugo Schuchardt

SchuchardtSchuchardt, H.
Hugo Schuchardt (1842–1927) was the first scholar to investigate the Lingua Franca systematically.
Hugo Ernst Mario Schuchardt (4 February 1842, Gotha (Thuringia) – 21 April 1927, Graz (Styria)) was an eminent German linguist, best known for his work in the Romance languages, the Basque language, and in mixed languages, including pidgins, creoles, and the Lingua franca of the Mediterranean.

Franks

FrankishFrankFrankish kingdom
Lingua franca means literally "language of the Franks" in Late Latin, and originally referred specifically to the language that was used around the Eastern Mediterranean Sea as the main language of commerce. However, the terms "Franks" and "Frankish" were actually applied to all Western Europeans during the late Byzantine Period.
The Mediterranean Lingua Franca (or "Frankish language") was a pidgin first spoken by 11th century European Christians and Muslims in Mediterranean ports that remained in use until the 19th century.

Polari

naffpalareNaff (Polari)
Lingua Franca left traces in present Algerian slang and Polari.
Polari is a mixture of Romance (Italian or Mediterranean Lingua Franca), Romani, London slang, backslang, rhyming slang, sailor slang, and thieves' cant.

Relexification

relexifiedrelexifyrelexifying
Through a process of relexification, the Lingua Franca and Portuguese lexicon was substituted by the languages of the peoples in contact.
A hypothesis that all creole languages derive their grammar from the medieval Mediterranean Lingua Franca was widely held in the late 1950s and the early 1960s, but it fell out of favour.

Creole language

creolecreolescreole languages
This theory is one way of explaining the similarities between most of the European-based pidgins and creole languages, such as Tok Pisin, Papiamento, Sranan Tongo, Krio, and Chinese Pidgin English.
The monogenetic theory of pidgins and creoles hypothesizes that they are all derived from a single Mediterranean Lingua Franca, via a West African Pidgin Portuguese of the seventeenth century, relexified in the so-called "slave factories" of Western Africa that were the source of the Atlantic slave trade.

Cape Guardafui

FilukCape Guardafui LighthouseGardafuul
There are traces even in geographical names, such as Cape Guardafui (that literally means "Cape Look and Escape" in Lingua Franca and ancient Italian).
The name Guardafui originated during the late Middle Ages by sailors using the Mediterranean Lingua Franca: "guarda fui" in ancient Italian means "look and escape", as a reference to the danger of the cape.

Lingua Franca Nova

lfnLingua Franca Nova tutorial in Wikibooks
Boeree was inspired by the Mediterranean Lingua Franca, a Romance pidgin used by European traders as a lingua franca in the Mediterranean Basin from the 11–18th century, and by various creoles such as Papiamento, Haitian Creole, and Bislama.

Le Bourgeois gentilhomme

The Bourgeois GentlemanThe Would-Be GentlemanBourgeois Gentilhomme
An example of Sabir is found in Molière's comedy Le Bourgeois gentilhomme.
The play ends with this ridiculous ceremony, including Sabir standing in for Turkish.

Monogenetic theory of pidgins

monogenetic theoryall creole languages derive their grammarmonogenesis hypothesis
According to the monogenetic theory of the origin of pidgins he developed, Lingua Franca was known by Mediterranean sailors including the Portuguese.
attempted to postulate the relatedness of pidgins and creoles, with a lingua franca known as Sabir or Mediterranean Lingua Franca as the starting point, which was then relexified by the Portuguese and then subsequently by various other European powers.

African Romance

African Romance LatinAfricaAfrican Latin
Other Romance languages spoken in Northwest Africa before the European colonization were the Mediterranean Lingua Franca, a pidgin with Arabic and Romance influences, and Judaeo-Spanish, a dialect of Spanish brought by Sephardi Jews.

Mediterranean Basin

Mediterranean regionMediterraneanMediterranean area
The Mediterranean Lingua Franca or Sabir was a pidgin language used as a lingua franca in the Mediterranean Basin from the 11th to the 19th centuries.

Late Latin

Low LatinLatinancient Latin
Lingua franca means literally "language of the Franks" in Late Latin, and originally referred specifically to the language that was used around the Eastern Mediterranean Sea as the main language of commerce.

Levant

the LevantLevantineNear East
Lingua franca means literally "language of the Franks" in Late Latin, and originally referred specifically to the language that was used around the Eastern Mediterranean Sea as the main language of commerce.

Byzantine Empire

ByzantineEastern Roman EmpireByzantines
However, the terms "Franks" and "Frankish" were actually applied to all Western Europeans during the late Byzantine Period.

Romance languages

RomanceRomance languageRomanic
Its other name in the Mediterranean area was Sabir, deriving from a Romance base meaning "to know".

Languages of Italy

Italian dialectsItalianItalian languages
Based mostly on Northern Italian languages (mainly Venetian and Genoese dialects) and Occitano-Romance languages (Catalan and Occitan) in the western Mediterranean area at first, it later came to have more Spanish and Portuguese elements, especially on the Barbary coast (today referred to as the Maghreb).

Occitano-Romance languages

Occitano-Romancelatinized Occitan dialectOccitan languages
Based mostly on Northern Italian languages (mainly Venetian and Genoese dialects) and Occitano-Romance languages (Catalan and Occitan) in the western Mediterranean area at first, it later came to have more Spanish and Portuguese elements, especially on the Barbary coast (today referred to as the Maghreb).

Catalan language

CatalanCatalan-languageca
Based mostly on Northern Italian languages (mainly Venetian and Genoese dialects) and Occitano-Romance languages (Catalan and Occitan) in the western Mediterranean area at first, it later came to have more Spanish and Portuguese elements, especially on the Barbary coast (today referred to as the Maghreb).

Occitan language

OccitanProvençallangue d'oc
Based mostly on Northern Italian languages (mainly Venetian and Genoese dialects) and Occitano-Romance languages (Catalan and Occitan) in the western Mediterranean area at first, it later came to have more Spanish and Portuguese elements, especially on the Barbary coast (today referred to as the Maghreb).

Spanish language

SpanishSpanish-languageCastilian
Based mostly on Northern Italian languages (mainly Venetian and Genoese dialects) and Occitano-Romance languages (Catalan and Occitan) in the western Mediterranean area at first, it later came to have more Spanish and Portuguese elements, especially on the Barbary coast (today referred to as the Maghreb).

Portuguese language

PortuguesePortuguese-languageBrazilian Portuguese
Based mostly on Northern Italian languages (mainly Venetian and Genoese dialects) and Occitano-Romance languages (Catalan and Occitan) in the western Mediterranean area at first, it later came to have more Spanish and Portuguese elements, especially on the Barbary coast (today referred to as the Maghreb).

Barbary Coast

Barbary StatesBarbaryBarbary State
Based mostly on Northern Italian languages (mainly Venetian and Genoese dialects) and Occitano-Romance languages (Catalan and Occitan) in the western Mediterranean area at first, it later came to have more Spanish and Portuguese elements, especially on the Barbary coast (today referred to as the Maghreb).