Mediterranean climate

warm-summer Mediterranean climateMediterraneanCsbCsahot-summer Mediterranean climatehot-summer Mediterraneancontinental mediterranean climateMediterranean type climateMediterranean-type climateWarm-summer
[[File:Koppen World Map C.png|upright=1.8|thumb|Regions with Mediterranean climateswikipedia
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Mediterranean Basin

MediterraneanMediterranean regionMediterranean area
While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, these are generally located on the western coasts of continents, between roughly 30 and 43 degrees north and south of the equator, typically between oceanic climates towards the poles (where they tend to be wetter and cooler), and semi-arid and arid climates towards the equator (where they tend to be drier and hotter).
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.

Oceanic climate

CfbCwbmaritime climate
While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, these are generally located on the western coasts of continents, between roughly 30 and 43 degrees north and south of the equator, typically between oceanic climates towards the poles (where they tend to be wetter and cooler), and semi-arid and arid climates towards the equator (where they tend to be drier and hotter).
Oceanic climates are generally characterised by a narrower annual range of temperatures than in other places at a comparable latitude, and generally do not have the extremely dry summers of Mediterranean climates or the hot summers of humid subtropical.

Chaparral

desert chaparralchaparral plant communityfire follower
The resulting vegetation of Mediterranean climates are the garrigue or maquis in the Mediterranean Basin, the chaparral in California, the fynbos in South Africa, the mallee in Australia, and the matorral in Chile.
It is shaped by a Mediterranean climate (mild, wet winters and hot dry summers) and wildfire, featuring summer-drought-tolerant plants with hard sclerophyllous evergreen leaves, as contrasted with the associated soft-leaved, drought-deciduous, scrub community of coastal sage scrub, found below the chaparral biome.

Fynbos

fynbos biomearid fynbosfynbos vegetation
The resulting vegetation of Mediterranean climates are the garrigue or maquis in the Mediterranean Basin, the chaparral in California, the fynbos in South Africa, the mallee in Australia, and the matorral in Chile.
This area is predominantly winter rainfall coastal and mountainous areas with a Mediterranean climate.

Garrigue

gariguephryganabatha and phrygana
The resulting vegetation of Mediterranean climates are the garrigue or maquis in the Mediterranean Basin, the chaparral in California, the fynbos in South Africa, the mallee in Australia, and the matorral in Chile.
It is found on limestone soils in southern France and around the Mediterranean Basin, generally near the seacoast where the moderated Mediterranean climate provides annual summer drought.

Matorral

matasMatorral shrublandsmatorrales
The resulting vegetation of Mediterranean climates are the garrigue or maquis in the Mediterranean Basin, the chaparral in California, the fynbos in South Africa, the mallee in Australia, and the matorral in Chile.
It is used in naming and describing a Mediterranean climate ecosystem in Southern Europe.

Los Angeles

Los Angeles, CaliforniaLos Angeles, CALA
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, including Athens, Algiers, Barcelona, Beirut, İzmir, Jerusalem, Marseille, Rome and Tunis, lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, as do major cities outside the Mediterranean basin, such as Adelaide, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Lisbon, Perth, San Francisco and Santiago. For instance, in the case of winters, Valencia and Los Angeles experience mild temperatures in the winter, with frost and snowfall almost unknown, whereas Tashkent has colder winters with annual frosts and snowfall.
Nicknamed the "City of Angels" partly because of its name's Spanish meaning, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, Hollywood, and the entertainment industry, and sprawling metropolis.

Marseille

MassiliaMassaliaMarseille, France
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, including Athens, Algiers, Barcelona, Beirut, İzmir, Jerusalem, Marseille, Rome and Tunis, lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, as do major cities outside the Mediterranean basin, such as Adelaide, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Lisbon, Perth, San Francisco and Santiago.
Marseille has a hot Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa) with mild, humid winters and warm to hot, mostly dry summers.

Barcelona

Barcelona, Spaincity of BarcelonaBarcino
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, including Athens, Algiers, Barcelona, Beirut, İzmir, Jerusalem, Marseille, Rome and Tunis, lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, as do major cities outside the Mediterranean basin, such as Adelaide, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Lisbon, Perth, San Francisco and Santiago.
According to the Köppen climate classification, Barcelona has a maritime Mediterranean climate (Csa), with mild winters and warm to hot summers, while the rainiest seasons are autumn and spring.

Köppen climate classification

ClimateKöppenCfb
Under the Köppen climate classification, "hot dry-summer" climates (classified as Csa) and "cool dry-summer" climates (classified as Csb) are often referred to as "Mediterranean".
Csa = Hot-summer Mediterranean climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (or -3 °C), at least one month's average temperature above 22 °C, and at least four months averaging above 10 °C. At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm.

Cape Town

Cape Town, South AfricaCapeCape Town, Western Cape
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, including Athens, Algiers, Barcelona, Beirut, İzmir, Jerusalem, Marseille, Rome and Tunis, lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, as do major cities outside the Mediterranean basin, such as Adelaide, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Lisbon, Perth, San Francisco and Santiago.
Cape Town has a warm Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb),

Casablanca

Casablanca, MoroccoDar-el-Beidaad-Dār al-Bayḍāʼ الدار البيضاء
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, including Athens, Algiers, Barcelona, Beirut, İzmir, Jerusalem, Marseille, Rome and Tunis, lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, as do major cities outside the Mediterranean basin, such as Adelaide, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Lisbon, Perth, San Francisco and Santiago.
Casablanca has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa). The cool Canary Current off the Atlantic coast moderates temperature variation, which results in a climate remarkably similar to that of coastal Los Angeles, with similar temperature ranges.

Adelaide

Adelaide, South AustraliaAdelaide metropolitan areaAdelaide, Australia
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, including Athens, Algiers, Barcelona, Beirut, İzmir, Jerusalem, Marseille, Rome and Tunis, lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, as do major cities outside the Mediterranean basin, such as Adelaide, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Lisbon, Perth, San Francisco and Santiago.
Adelaide has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa), with warm to hot dry summers and cool to mild winters and with most precipitation falling in the winter months, leading to the suggestion that the climate be classified as a "cold monsoon".

Perth

Perth, AustraliaPerth, Western AustraliaPerth, WA
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, including Athens, Algiers, Barcelona, Beirut, İzmir, Jerusalem, Marseille, Rome and Tunis, lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, as do major cities outside the Mediterranean basin, such as Adelaide, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Lisbon, Perth, San Francisco and Santiago.
Winters are mild and wet, giving Perth a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa).

Dushanbe

StalinabadDushanbe / ДушанбеDushanbe city
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, including Athens, Algiers, Barcelona, Beirut, İzmir, Jerusalem, Marseille, Rome and Tunis, lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, as do major cities outside the Mediterranean basin, such as Adelaide, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Lisbon, Perth, San Francisco and Santiago.
Dushanbe features a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa), with strong continental climate influences (Köppen: Dsa).

Algiers

AlgerAlgiers, AlgeriaAl-Jazā'ir
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, including Athens, Algiers, Barcelona, Beirut, İzmir, Jerusalem, Marseille, Rome and Tunis, lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, as do major cities outside the Mediterranean basin, such as Adelaide, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Lisbon, Perth, San Francisco and Santiago.
Algiers has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa). Its proximity to the Mediterranean Sea aids in moderating the city's temperatures.

Subtropics

subtropicalsub-tropicalsubtropical climate
Under Trewartha's system, at least eight months must have average temperatures of 10 C or higher (subtropical), and the average annual precipitation must not exceed 900 mm. Thus, under this system, many Csb zones in the Köppen system become Do (temperate oceanic), and the rare Csc zones become Eo (subpolar oceanic), with only the classic dry-summer to warm winter, low annual rainfall locations included in the Mediterranean type climate.
Most subtropical climates fall into two basic types: humid subtropical, where rainfall is often concentrated in the warmest months (for example Brisbane, Queensland or Jacksonville, Florida), and dry summer climate or (Mediterranean), where seasonal rainfall is concentrated in the cooler months (for example Naples, Italy or Los Angeles, California).

Beirut

Beirut, LebanonBerytusBayrūt
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, including Athens, Algiers, Barcelona, Beirut, İzmir, Jerusalem, Marseille, Rome and Tunis, lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, as do major cities outside the Mediterranean basin, such as Adelaide, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Lisbon, Perth, San Francisco and Santiago.
Beirut has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa) characterized by mild days and nights.

Juan Fernández Islands

Juan FernándezJuan FernandezJuan Fernandez Islands
Additional highland areas in the subtropics also meet Cs requirements, though they, too, are not normally associated with Mediterranean climates, as do a number of oceanic islands such as Madeira, the Juan Fernández Islands, the western part of the Canary Islands, and the eastern part of the Azores.
The islands have a subtropical Mediterranean climate, moderated by the cold Humboldt Current, which flows northward to the east of the islands, and the southeast trade winds.

Tunis

Tunis, TunisiaTunesTūnis تونس
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, including Athens, Algiers, Barcelona, Beirut, İzmir, Jerusalem, Marseille, Rome and Tunis, lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, as do major cities outside the Mediterranean basin, such as Adelaide, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Lisbon, Perth, San Francisco and Santiago.
Tunis has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa), characterized by a hot and dry season and mild winters with moderate rainfall.

Valencia

Valencia, Spaincity of ValenciaValencian
For instance, in the case of winters, Valencia and Los Angeles experience mild temperatures in the winter, with frost and snowfall almost unknown, whereas Tashkent has colder winters with annual frosts and snowfall.
Valencia has a subtropical Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa) with short, very mild winters and long, hot and dry summers.

San Francisco

San Francisco, CaliforniaSan Francisco, CACity and County of San Francisco
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, including Athens, Algiers, Barcelona, Beirut, İzmir, Jerusalem, Marseille, Rome and Tunis, lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, as do major cities outside the Mediterranean basin, such as Adelaide, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Lisbon, Perth, San Francisco and Santiago.
San Francisco has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb) characteristic of California's coast, with moist mild winters and dry summers.

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub

Mediterranean-type shrubby vegetationMediterranean forestMediterranean shrubby vegetation
The Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome is closely associated with Mediterranean climate zones, as are unique freshwater communities.
The Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome mostly occurs in, but not limited to, the Mediterranean climate zones, in the mid-latitudes:

Rome

RomanRomaRome, Italy
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, including Athens, Algiers, Barcelona, Beirut, İzmir, Jerusalem, Marseille, Rome and Tunis, lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, as do major cities outside the Mediterranean basin, such as Adelaide, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Lisbon, Perth, San Francisco and Santiago.
Rome has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa), with cool, humid winters and warm, dry summers.

Santiago

Santiago de ChileSantiago, ChileGreater Santiago
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, including Athens, Algiers, Barcelona, Beirut, İzmir, Jerusalem, Marseille, Rome and Tunis, lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, as do major cities outside the Mediterranean basin, such as Adelaide, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Lisbon, Perth, San Francisco and Santiago.
Santiago, in the airport area of Pudahuel, has a cool semi-arid climate (BSk according to the Köppen climate classification), with Mediterranean (Csb) patterns: warm dry summers (November to March) with temperatures reaching up to 35 °C on the hottest days; winters (June to August) are cool and humid, with cool to cold mornings; typical daily maximum temperatures of 14 °C, and low temperatures near 0 °C. In climate station of Quinta Normal (near downtown) the precipitation average is 312 mm, and in climate station of Tobalaba (in higher grounds near Andes Mountains) the precipitation average is 347 mm. In both the climate observed is "warm temperate with long dry season", that is a Mediterranean (Csb) climate.