Megathrust earthquake

megathrustmegathrust typemegathrust earthquakesmegathrust eventThrustmagnitude 9 earthquakemajor subduction zone earthquakemassive earthquakesthe Big Onethrust earthquake
Megathrust earthquakes occur at subduction zones at destructive convergent plate boundaries, where one tectonic plate is forced underneath another.wikipedia
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earthquakesseismic activityseismic
Since 1900, all earthquakes of magnitude 9.0 or greater have been megathrust earthquakes.
Reverse faults, particularly those along convergent plate boundaries are associated with the most powerful earthquakes, megathrust earthquakes, including almost all of those of magnitude 8 or more.

Sunda megathrust

Sunda subduction megathrust
The term megathrust does not have a widely accepted rigorous definition, but is used to refer to an extremely large thrust fault, typically formed at the plate interface along a subduction zone such as the Sunda megathrust.
It is a megathrust, located at a convergent plate boundary where it forms the interface between the overriding Eurasian plate and the subducting Indo-Australian plate.

Nankai megathrust earthquakes

Megathrust earthquakes on this structureHakuhou Nankai earthquakelarge
In Japan, the Nankai megathrust under the Nankai Trough is responsible for Nankai megathrust earthquakes and associated tsunamis.
Nankai megathrust earthquakes are great megathrust earthquakes that occur along the Nankai megathrust – the fault under the Nankai Trough – which forms the plate interface between the subducting Philippine Sea Plate and the overriding Amurian Plate (part of the Eurasian Plate), which dips beneath southwestern Honshu, Japan.

1700 Cascadia earthquake

Cascadia earthquakeCascadia earthquake of 17001700
The megathrust earthquake involved the Juan de Fuca Plate from mid-Vancouver Island, south along the Pacific Northwest coast as far as northern California.


tsunamistidal waveseaquake
Since these earthquakes deform the ocean floor, they often generate a significant series of tsunami waves.
The 1960 Valdivia earthquake (M w 9.5), 1964 Alaska earthquake (M w 9.2), 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake (M w 9.2), and 2011 Tōhoku earthquake (M w 9.0) are recent examples of powerful megathrust earthquakes that generated tsunamis (known as teletsunamis) that can cross entire oceans.


subduction zonesubductedsubducting
Megathrust earthquakes occur at subduction zones at destructive convergent plate boundaries, where one tectonic plate is forced underneath another.
Furthermore, plate subduction zones are associated with very large megathrust earthquakes, making the effects on using any specific site for disposal unpredictable and possibly adverse to the safety of longterm disposal.

Interplate earthquake

These interplate earthquakes are the planet's most powerful, with moment magnitudes (M w ) that can exceed 9.0.
Interplate earthquakes associated at a subduction boundary are called megathrust earthquake Major Earthquakes (Magnitude >= 9.0) Since 1900

Kamchatka earthquakes

occurred off the coast1737 Kamchatka earthquakesearthquake
Three earthquakes, which occurred off the coast of Kamchatka Peninsula in far eastern Russia and the Soviet Union in 1737, 1923 and 1952, were megathrust earthquakes and caused tsunamis.

1960 Valdivia earthquake

Great Chilean earthquakeValdivia earthquake1960
The epicenter of this megathrust earthquake was near Lumaco, approximately 570 km south of Santiago, with Valdivia being the most affected city.

1964 Alaska earthquake

Good Friday earthquake1964 earthquakeGreat Alaska earthquake
Lasting four minutes and thirty-eight seconds, the magnitude 9.2 megathrust earthquake remains the most powerful earthquake recorded in North American history, and the second most powerful earthquake recorded in world history.

1730 Valparaíso earthquake

earthquake17301730 Valparaiso earthquake
Chile has been at a convergent plate boundary that generates megathrust earthquakes since the Paleozoic (500 million years ago).

1707 Hōei earthquake

earthquake of 17071707 Hoei earthquake1707 tsunami
Movement on this convergent plate boundary leads to many earthquakes, some of them of megathrust type.

1746 Lima–Callao earthquake

1746 Lima-Callao earthquakeearthquake1746 earthquake
The 1746 earthquake is interpreted to be a megathrust event that ruptured the whole of the northern segment of the plate interface within this zone.

2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami

2004 Indian Ocean earthquake2004 Indian Ocean tsunami2004 tsunami
It was an undersea megathrust earthquake that registered a magnitude of 9.1–9.3, reaching a Mercalli intensity up to IX in certain areas.

1868 Arica earthquake

13 August 18681868Arica earthquake
The coasts of Peru and Chile have a history of great megathrust earthquakes originating from this plate boundary, such as the 1960 Valdivia earthquake and the 2010 Chile earthquake.

Juan de Fuca Plate

Juan de FucaJuan de Fuca tectonic plateJuan de Fuca oceanic plate
The last megathrust earthquake at the Cascadia subduction zone was the 1700 Cascadia earthquake, estimated to have a moment magnitude of 8.7 to 9.2.

Okhotsk Plate

Many strong megathrust earthquakes occurred here, some of them among the largest on world record, including the Kamchatka earthquakes of 1737 (estimated M9.0~9.3) and 1952 (M9.0).

2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami

2011 Tōhoku earthquakeTōhoku earthquake and tsunami2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami
The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku was a magnitude 9.0–9.1 (M w ) undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday 11 March 2011, with the epicentre approximately 70 km east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 29 km. The earthquake is often referred to in Japan as the Great East Japan Earthquake and is also known as the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, and the 3.11 earthquake.

2006 Kuril Islands earthquake

15 November 200620062006 Kuril Islands earthquake and tsunami
The 2006 Kuril Islands earthquake occurred on November 15 at 8:14:16 pm JST with a magnitude of 8.3 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of IV (Light). This megathrust earthquake was the largest event in the central Kuril Islands since 1915 and generated a small tsunami that affected the northern Japanese coast.

1906 Ecuador–Colombia earthquake

1906 Ecuador–Colombia1906 Ecuador-Colombia earthquakeA major earthquake in 1906
The coastal parts of Ecuador and Colombia have a history of strong megathrust earthquakes originating from this Malpelo-North Andes plate boundary.

1877 Iquique earthquake

Iquique Earthquake1877An earthquake on May 9, 1877
This boundary has been the site of many great megathrust earthquakes, in addition to events caused by faulting within both the subducting and over-riding plates.

1965 Rat Islands earthquake

1965 Rat Islands (M8.7)1965 Rat Islands earthquake and tsunami1965-02-04
This plate boundary, the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust, has been the location of many megathrust earthquakes.

2010 Chile earthquake

2010 Chilean earthquakeearthquake8.8 magnitude earthquake
Chile has been at a convergent plate boundary that generates megathrust earthquakes since the Paleozoic era (500 million years ago).

1963 Kuril Islands earthquake

19638.5 earthquakemagnitude 8.5 earthquake
This convergent boundary has been the site of many large megathrust earthquakes.

2014 Iquique earthquake

2014 Iquique (M8.2)8.2 earthquake8.2 magnitude earthquake
The megathrust earthquake triggered a tsunami of up to 2.11 m that hit Iquique at 21:05 local time (00:05 UTC, 2 April).