Meiji Restoration

industrialization of JapanRestorationMeijirestoration of imperial ruleMeiji governmentreformsImperial RestorationMeiji ReformsMeiji Revolutionpre-Meiji
The Meiji Restoration, also known as the Meiji Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.wikipedia
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Empire of Japan

JapaneseJapanImperial Japan
The Meiji Restoration, also known as the Meiji Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.
The Empire of Japan was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

Bakumatsu

opening of Japanlate Tokugawa shogunateJapan
The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure and spanned both the late Edo period (often called the Bakumatsu) and the beginning of the Meiji period.
Bakumatsu refers to the final years of the Edo period when the Tokugawa shogunate ended.

Edo period

Edo-periodEdoTokugawa
The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure and spanned both the late Edo period (often called the Bakumatsu) and the beginning of the Meiji period.
The period came to an end with the Meiji Restoration on May 3, 1868, after the fall of Edo.

Meiji period

MeijiMeiji eraMeiji-period
The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure and spanned both the late Edo period (often called the Bakumatsu) and the beginning of the Meiji period.
Imperial restoration occurred the next year on January 3, 1868, with the formation of the new government.

Itō Hirobumi

ItōItō ShunsukeItō administration
The main leaders of this were Itō Hirobumi, Matsukata Masayoshi, Kido Takayoshi, Itagaki Taisuke, Yamagata Aritomo, Mori Arinori, Ōkubo Toshimichi, and Yamaguchi Naoyoshi.
A London-educated samurai of the Chōshū Domain and an influential figure in the early Meiji Restoration government, he chaired the bureau which drafted the Meiji Constitution in the 1880s.

Kido Takayoshi

Katsura Kogorōhistorical figure of the same nameTakayoshi Kido
The main leaders of this were Itō Hirobumi, Matsukata Masayoshi, Kido Takayoshi, Itagaki Taisuke, Yamagata Aritomo, Mori Arinori, Ōkubo Toshimichi, and Yamaguchi Naoyoshi. The foundation of the Meiji Restoration was the 1866 Satsuma-Chōshū Alliance between Saigō Takamori and Kido Takayoshi, leaders of the reformist elements in the Satsuma Domain and Chōshū Domain.
Kido Takayoshi (born Wada Kogorō ; August 11, 1833 – May 26, 1877), also referred to as Kido Kōin, was a Japanese statesman of the Meiji Restoration.

Emperor Meiji

MeijiMeiji EmperorMutsuhito
The Meiji Restoration, also known as the Meiji Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.
After the emperor's death in 1912, the Japanese Diet passed a resolution to commemorate his role in the Meiji Restoration.

Charter Oath

Five Charter Oath御定五ヶ条
The goals of the restored government were expressed by the new Emperor in the Charter Oath.
This second motivation was especially important in the early stages of the Restoration as a means to keep domains from joining the Tokugawa remnant in the Boshin War.

Ōkubo Toshimichi

historical figure of the same nameOkubo ShōsukeOkubo Toshimichi
The main leaders of this were Itō Hirobumi, Matsukata Masayoshi, Kido Takayoshi, Itagaki Taisuke, Yamagata Aritomo, Mori Arinori, Ōkubo Toshimichi, and Yamaguchi Naoyoshi.
statesman, a samurai of Satsuma, and one of the three great nobles who led the Meiji Restoration.

Saigō Takamori

Kichinosuke SaigōDai SaigōNanshū
The foundation of the Meiji Restoration was the 1866 Satsuma-Chōshū Alliance between Saigō Takamori and Kido Takayoshi, leaders of the reformist elements in the Satsuma Domain and Chōshū Domain.
Saigō Takamori (Takanaga) was one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history and one of the three great nobles who led the Meiji Restoration.

Satchō Alliance

imperial armiesSatsuma-Chōshū Allianceimperial army
The foundation of the Meiji Restoration was the 1866 Satsuma-Chōshū Alliance between Saigō Takamori and Kido Takayoshi, leaders of the reformist elements in the Satsuma Domain and Chōshū Domain.
The Satsuma-Chōshū Alliance, or Satchō Alliance was a military alliance between the feudal domains of Satsuma and Chōshū formed in 1866 to combine their efforts to restore Imperial rule and overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan.

Matsukata Masayoshi

Matsukatafirst Matsukata administrationMatsukata Fiscal Policy
The main leaders of this were Itō Hirobumi, Matsukata Masayoshi, Kido Takayoshi, Itagaki Taisuke, Yamagata Aritomo, Mori Arinori, Ōkubo Toshimichi, and Yamaguchi Naoyoshi.
At the time of the Meiji Restoration, he helped maintain order in Nagasaki after the collapse of the Tokugawa bakufu.

Yamagata Aritomo

YamagataAritomo Yamagatafirst Yamagata administration
The main leaders of this were Itō Hirobumi, Matsukata Masayoshi, Kido Takayoshi, Itagaki Taisuke, Yamagata Aritomo, Mori Arinori, Ōkubo Toshimichi, and Yamaguchi Naoyoshi.
During the Boshin War, the revolution of 1867 and 1868 often called the Meiji Restoration, he was a staff officer.

Itagaki Taisuke

Taisuke ItagakiItagaki’s
The main leaders of this were Itō Hirobumi, Matsukata Masayoshi, Kido Takayoshi, Itagaki Taisuke, Yamagata Aritomo, Mori Arinori, Ōkubo Toshimichi, and Yamaguchi Naoyoshi.
He disagreed with the domain’s official policy of kōbu gattai (reconciliation between the Imperial Court and the Tokugawa shogunate), and in 1867–1868, he met with Saigō Takamori of the Satsuma Domain, and agreed to pledge Tosa's forces in the effort to overthrow the shōgun in the upcoming Meiji Restoration.

Mori Arinori

Arinori MoriArinori Mori (森有礼)Mori'' Arinori
The main leaders of this were Itō Hirobumi, Matsukata Masayoshi, Kido Takayoshi, Itagaki Taisuke, Yamagata Aritomo, Mori Arinori, Ōkubo Toshimichi, and Yamaguchi Naoyoshi.
He returned to Japan just after the start of the Meiji Restoration and took on a number of governmental positions within the new Meiji government.

Emperor Kōmei

KōmeiEmperorImperial Court
These two leaders supported the Emperor Kōmei (Emperor Meiji's father) and were brought together by Sakamoto Ryōma for the purpose of challenging the ruling Tokugawa shogunate (bakufu) and restoring the Emperor to power.
His reign would continue to be dominated by insurrection and partisan conflicts eventually culminating in the collapse of the Tokugawa shogunate shortly after his death and the Meiji Restoration in the beginning of the reign of his son and successor Emperor Meiji.

Boshin War

Boshin Civil WarJapanese Revolution1868 rebellion against the shogunate
Shortly thereafter in January 1868, the Boshin War (War of the Year of the Dragon) started with the Battle of Toba–Fushimi in which Chōshū and Satsuma's forces defeated the ex-shōguns army.
Defeat at the Battle of Hakodate broke this last holdout and left the imperial rule supreme throughout the whole of Japan, completing the military phase of the Meiji Restoration.

Government of Meiji Japan

Meiji governmentnational assemblyJapanese government
All Tokugawa lands were seized and placed under "imperial control", thus placing them under the prerogative of the new Meiji government.
After the Meiji Restoration, the leaders of the samurai who overthrew the Tokugawa shogunate had no clear agenda or pre-developed plan on how to run Japan.

Battle of Toba–Fushimi

Battle of Toba-Fushimiresisted only brieflyToba–Fushimi
Shortly thereafter in January 1868, the Boshin War (War of the Year of the Dragon) started with the Battle of Toba–Fushimi in which Chōshū and Satsuma's forces defeated the ex-shōguns army.
On 4 January 1868, the restoration of imperial rule was formally proclaimed.

Daimyō

feudal lordlorddaimyo
In 1869, the daimyōs of the Tosa, Hizen, Satsuma and Chōshū Domains, who were pushing most fiercely against the shogunate, were persuaded to "return their domains to the Emperor".
The daimyō era ended soon after the Meiji Restoration with the adoption of the prefecture system in 1871.

Hijikata Toshizō

Toshizō HijikataHijikataToshizo Hijikata
The defeat of the armies of the former shōgun (led by Enomoto Takeaki and Hijikata Toshizō) marked the final end of the Tokugawa shogunate, with the Emperor's power fully restored.
As Vice-Commander of the Shinsengumi, he resisted the Meiji Restoration.

Hokkaido

HokkaidōHokkaido PrefectureHokkaido, Japan
Some shogunate forces escaped to Hokkaidō, where they attempted to set up a breakaway Republic of Ezo; however, forces loyal to the Emperor ended this attempt in May 1869 with the Battle of Hakodate in Hokkaidō.
Leading up to the Meiji Restoration, the Tokugawa Shogunate realized there was a need to prepare northern defenses against a possible Russian invasion and took over control of most of Ezochi.

Battle of Hakodate

HakodateSiege of Hakodate
Some shogunate forces escaped to Hokkaidō, where they attempted to set up a breakaway Republic of Ezo; however, forces loyal to the Emperor ended this attempt in May 1869 with the Battle of Hakodate in Hokkaidō.
The Meiji government defeated the forces of the Shōgun at the Battle of Toba–Fushimi and subsequently occupied the Shōgun's capital at Edo.

Republic of Ezo

EzoEzo RepublicPresident of the Republic of Ezo
Some shogunate forces escaped to Hokkaidō, where they attempted to set up a breakaway Republic of Ezo; however, forces loyal to the Emperor ended this attempt in May 1869 with the Battle of Hakodate in Hokkaidō.
After the defeat of the forces of the Tokugawa shogunate in the Boshin War (1869) of the Meiji Restoration, a part of the former shōguns navy led by Admiral Enomoto Takeaki fled to the northern island of Ezo (now known as Hokkaido), together with several thousand soldiers and a handful of French military advisers and their leader, Jules Brunet.

Abolition of the han system

abolishedabolition of the ''han'' systemabolition of the domains
Finally, by 1872, the daimyōs, past and present, were summoned before the Emperor, where it was declared that all domains were now to be returned to the Emperor.
The abolition of the han system in the Empire of Japan and its replacement by a system of prefectures in 1871 was the culmination of the Meiji Restoration begun in 1868, starting year of Meiji period (currently, there are 47 prefectures from Hokkaido to Okinawa in Japan).