Meiji period

MeijiMeiji eraMeiji-periodMeiji-era明治Meiji JapanMeiji governmentmodernization of JapanJapanMeiji-
The Meiji period, or Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from October 23, 1868, to July 30, 1912.wikipedia
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Empire of Japan

JapaneseJapanImperial Japan
This period represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which Japanese society moved from being an isolated feudal society to a Westernised form.
The Emperors during this time, which spanned the entire Meiji and Taishō, and the lesser part of the Shōwa era, are now known in Japan by their posthumous names, which coincide with those era names: Emperor Meiji (Mutsuhito), Emperor Taishō (Yoshihito), and Emperor Shōwa (Hirohito).

Emperor Meiji

MeijiMeiji EmperorMutsuhito
The period corresponded to the reign of Emperor Meiji and was succeeded upon the accession of Emperor Taishō by the Taishō period. On February 3, 1867, the 14-year-old Prince Mutsuhito succeeded his father, Emperor Kōmei, to the Chrysanthemum Throne as the 122nd emperor.
He presided over the Meiji period, a time of rapid change that witnessed the Empire of Japan rapidly transform from an isolationist feudal state to an industrialized world power.

Taishō period

TaishōTaishō democracyTaisho Era
The period corresponded to the reign of Emperor Meiji and was succeeded upon the accession of Emperor Taishō by the Taishō period.
Thus, the era is considered the time of the liberal movement known as the "Taishō democracy" in Japan; it is usually distinguished from the preceding chaotic Meiji period and the following militaristic-driven first part of the Shōwa period.

Emperor Kōmei

KōmeiEmperorImperial Court
On February 3, 1867, the 14-year-old Prince Mutsuhito succeeded his father, Emperor Kōmei, to the Chrysanthemum Throne as the 122nd emperor.
His reign would continue to be dominated by insurrection and partisan conflicts eventually culminating in the collapse of the Tokugawa shogunate shortly after his death and the Meiji Restoration in the beginning of the reign of his son and successor Emperor Meiji.

Meiji Restoration

industrialization of JapanRestorationMeiji
Imperial restoration occurred the next year on January 3, 1868, with the formation of the new government.
The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure and spanned both the late Edo period (often called the Bakumatsu) and the beginning of the Meiji period.

Japanese era name

nengōera nameera
The Meiji period, or Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from October 23, 1868, to July 30, 1912.
Prior to the Meiji period, era names were decided by court officials and were subjected to frequent change.

Charter Oath

Five Charter Oath御定五ヶ条
The first reform was the promulgation of the Five Charter Oath in 1868, a general statement of the aims of the Meiji leaders to boost morale and win financial support for the new government.
It remained influential, if less for governing than inspiring, throughout the Meiji era and into the twentieth century, and can be considered the first constitution of modern Japan.

Daimyō

feudal lordlorddaimyo
In a move critical for the consolidation of the new regime, most daimyōs voluntarily surrendered their land and census records to the Emperor in the abolition of the Han system, symbolizing that the land and people were under the Emperor's jurisdiction.
The daimyō were powerful Japanese feudal lords who, until their decline in the early Meiji period, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings.

Tokyo

Tokyo, JapanTokyo MetropolisTōkyō
To further dramatize the new order, the capital was relocated from Kyoto, where it had been situated since 794, to Tokyo (Eastern Capital), the new name for Edo.
During the early Meiji period, the city was also called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph.

Abolition of the han system

abolishedabolition of the ''han'' systemabolition of the domains
In a move critical for the consolidation of the new regime, most daimyōs voluntarily surrendered their land and census records to the Emperor in the abolition of the Han system, symbolizing that the land and people were under the Emperor's jurisdiction.
The abolition of the han system in the Empire of Japan and its replacement by a system of prefectures in 1871 was the culmination of the Meiji Restoration begun in 1868, starting year of Meiji period (currently, there are 47 prefectures from Hokkaido to Okinawa in Japan).

Shinbutsu-shūgō

shinbutsu shūgōShinto-Buddhistsyncretic
Since Shinto and Buddhism had molded into a syncretic belief in the prior one-thousand years and Buddhism had been closely connected with the shogunate, this involved the separation of Shinto and Buddhism (shinbutsu bunri) and the associated destruction of various Buddhist temples and related violence (haibutsu kishaku).
Shinbutsu-shūgō (神仏習合, "syncretism of kami and buddhas"), also called Shinbutsu-konkō (神仏混淆, "jumbling up" or "contamination of kami and buddhas"), is the syncretism of Buddhism and kami worship that was Japan's only organized religion up until the Meiji period.

Daijō-kan

Council of StateDepartment of Statecouncil
Besides providing for a new Council of State, legislative bodies, and systems of ranks for nobles and officials, it limited office tenure to four years, allowed public balloting, provided for a new taxation system, and ordered new local administrative rules.
In the early Meiji period, the appointed Imperial Daijo-kan was filled with princes, aristocrats, loyalists domain lords (daimyō), and samurai.

State Shinto

Shintostate religionfundamentalist shinto
Furthermore, a new State Shinto had to be constructed for the purpose.
The State Shinto ideology emerged at the start of the Meiji era, after government officials defined freedom of religion within the Meiji Constitution.

Edo

YedoEdo cityEdo Honmachi
To further dramatize the new order, the capital was relocated from Kyoto, where it had been situated since 794, to Tokyo (Eastern Capital), the new name for Edo.
Meiji 2: On the 23rd day of the 10th month (1868), the emperor went to Tokyo and Edo castle became an imperial palace.

Tokugawa Yoshinobu

Hitotsubashi YoshinobuYoshinobuHitotsubashi faction
On November 9, 1867, then-shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu tendered his resignation to the Emperor, and formally stepped down ten days later.
''Meiji (1868–1912)

Westernization

westernizedwesternisationwesternised
This period represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which Japanese society moved from being an isolated feudal society to a Westernised form.
After Commodore Perry's visit, Japan began to deliberately accept Western culture to the point of hiring Westerners to teach Western customs and traditions to the Japanese starting in the Meiji era.

Shinto

ShintōShinto-derivedFolk Shinto
In as much as the Meiji Restoration had sought to return the Emperor to a preeminent position, efforts were made to establish a Shinto-oriented state much like it was 1,000 years earlier.
The god was emphasised by the Daikyōin in the Meiji period, and worshiped by some Shinto sects.

Chōshū Domain

ChōshūChoshuChōshu
Officials from the favored former han, such as Satsuma, Chōshū, Tosa, and Hizen staffed the new ministries.
Thanks to this alliance, Chōshū and Satsuma natives enjoyed political and societal prominence well into the Meiji and even Taishō eras.

Aikokusha

organization of the same name
Dissatisfied with the pace of reform after having rejoined the Council of State in 1875, Itagaki organized his followers and other democratic proponents into the nationwide Aikokusha (Society of Patriots) to push for representative government in 1878.
The Aikokusha was a political party in Meiji-period Japan.

Land Tax Reform (Japan 1873)

Land Tax ReformLand Tax Reform of 1873land and tax laws
Between 1871 and 1873, a series of land and tax laws were enacted as the basis for modern fiscal policy.
The Japanese Land Tax Reform of 1873, or chisokaisei was started by the Meiji Government in 1873, or the 6th year of the Meiji period.

League for the Establishment of a National Assembly

In 1880 delegates from twenty-four prefectures held a national convention to establish the Kokkai Kisei Dōmei (League for the Establishment of a National Assembly).
The League for the Establishment of a National Assembly, later called the Great Japan Public Association of Volunteers for the Establishment of a National Assembly, was a Japanese political organization that played a central role during the Meiji period in the movement to establish a National Diet; it was also the forerunner of the Liberal Party.

Genrō

Genrothe elder statesmenCouncil of Elders
The Emperor declared that "constitutional government shall be established in gradual stages" as he ordered the Council of Elders to draft a constitution.
Genrō was an unofficial designation given to certain retired elder Japanese statesmen, considered the "founding fathers" of modern Japan, who served as informal extraconstitutional advisors to the emperor, during the Meiji, Taishō, and Shōwa periods in Japanese history.

Kokutai

state polityKokutai no Honginational character of Japan
The kokutai ideas of the Mito school were embraced, and the divine ancestry of the Imperial House was emphasized.
Katō Hiroyuki (1836–1916) and Fukuzawa Yukichi (1835–1901) were Meiji period scholars who analyzed the dominance of Western civilization and urged progress for the Japanese nation.

Tokugawa shogunate

TokugawabakufuJapan
The fall of Edo in the summer of 1868 marked the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, and a new era, Meiji, was proclaimed.
The late Tokugawa shogunate (幕末 Bakumatsu) was the period between 1853 and 1867, during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government.

Iwakura Tomomi

IwakuraIwakura'' Tomomi
Rejecting the British model, Iwakura and other conservatives borrowed heavily from the Prussian constitutional system.
Iwakura Tomomi was a Japanese statesman during the Bakumatsu and Meiji period.