Melanesia

Geography of MelanesiaHistory of MelanesiaMelanesianMelanesian population054Island MelanesiaIslands of MelanesiaMelanesoidnearby islandssmall island states
Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Tonga.wikipedia
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Oceania

South PacificPacificSouthwest Pacific
Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Tonga.
Oceania is a geographic region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia.

Fiji

Fiji IslandsRepublic of FijiFijian
The region includes the four independent countries of Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea, as well as the French special collectivity of New Caledonia, and the Indonesian region of Western New Guinea. For instance, the Melanesian Spearhead Group preferential trade agreement is a regional trade treaty among Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, and Fiji. The nation of Fiji is composed of two main islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, and smaller islands, including the Lau Islands.
Fiji (Viti ; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य; Fiji Gaṇarājya), is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about 1100 nmi northeast of New Zealand's North Island.

Pacific Ocean

PacificSouth PacificWestern Pacific
Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Tonga.
About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines, Indonesia, and maritime Southeast Asia; west towards Madagascar; southeast towards New Guinea and Melanesia (intermarrying with native Papuans); and east to the islands of Micronesia, Oceania and Polynesia.

Micronesia

MicronesiansMicronesianFSM
The name Melanesia (in French Mélanésie) was first used by Jules Dumont d'Urville in 1832 to denote an ethnic and geographical grouping of islands whose inhabitants he thought were distinct from those of Micronesia and Polynesia.
It has a close shared cultural history with two other island regions: Polynesia to the east and Island Melanesia to the south; as well as the wider Austronesian peoples.

New Guinea

PapuaIrianPapua New Guinean
Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Tonga. The limit of this ancient migration was Sahul, the continent formed when Australia and New Guinea were united by a land bridge as a result of low sea levels. A distinction is often made between the island of New Guinea and what is known as Island Melanesia, which consists of "the chain of archipelagos, islands, atolls, and reefs forming the outer bounds of the sheltered oval-shaped coral sea".
Anthropologically, New Guinea is considered part of Melanesia.

Melanesians

MelanesianMelanesian peopleMelanesian peoples
In the first half of the nineteenth century Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent and Jules Dumont d'Urville identified Melanesians as a distinct racial group.
Melanesians are the predominant and indigenous inhabitants of Melanesia, in a wide area from New Guinea to as far east as the islands of Vanuatu and Fiji.

Jules Dumont d'Urville

Dumont d'UrvilleDumont d’UrvilleD'Urville
The name Melanesia (in French Mélanésie) was first used by Jules Dumont d'Urville in 1832 to denote an ethnic and geographical grouping of islands whose inhabitants he thought were distinct from those of Micronesia and Polynesia. In the first half of the nineteenth century Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent and Jules Dumont d'Urville identified Melanesians as a distinct racial group.
During his later travels in the Pacific, thanks to his prodigious memory, he would acquire some knowledge of an immense number of dialects of Polynesia and Melanesia.

Mana

mana whenuaimunumagic energy
It was in these works that Codrington introduced the cultural concept of mana to the West.
Mana is not universal to all of Melanesia and is not found in simpler tribes.

Melanesian Spearhead Group

MSG
For instance, the Melanesian Spearhead Group preferential trade agreement is a regional trade treaty among Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, and Fiji.
The Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG) is an intergovernmental organization, composed of the four Melanesian states of Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, and the Kanak and Socialist National Liberation Front of New Caledonia.

Polynesia

South SeasSouth Sea IslandsPolynesian Islands
The name Melanesia (in French Mélanésie) was first used by Jules Dumont d'Urville in 1832 to denote an ethnic and geographical grouping of islands whose inhabitants he thought were distinct from those of Micronesia and Polynesia.
However, in essence, Polynesia is a cultural term referring to one of the three parts of Oceania (the others being Micronesia and Melanesia).

Australia (continent)

AustraliaAustralian continentSahul
The limit of this ancient migration was Sahul, the continent formed when Australia and New Guinea were united by a land bridge as a result of low sea levels.
New Zealand and Australia are both part of the Oceanian sub-region known as Australasia, with New Guinea being in Melanesia.

Australia

AUSAustralianCommonwealth of Australia
The limit of this ancient migration was Sahul, the continent formed when Australia and New Guinea were united by a land bridge as a result of low sea levels.
The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas.

Robert Henry Codrington

Robert CodringtonCodringtonCodrington, Robert Henry
In the nineteenth century Robert Codrington, a British missionary, produced a series of monographs on "the Melanesians" based on his long-time residence in the region.
Robert Henry Codrington (15 September 1830, Wroughton, Wiltshire – 11 September 1922) was an Anglican priest and anthropologist who made the first study of Melanesian society and culture.

Vanuatu

Republic of Vanuatuni-VanuatuNew Hebrides
The region includes the four independent countries of Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea, as well as the French special collectivity of New Caledonia, and the Indonesian region of Western New Guinea. For instance, the Melanesian Spearhead Group preferential trade agreement is a regional trade treaty among Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, and Fiji.
The ni-Vanuatu are primarily (98.5%) of Melanesian descent, with the remainder made up of a mix of Europeans, Asians and other Pacific islanders.

Subregion

Sub-regionregionsubregions
Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Tonga.

Austronesian languages

AustronesianAustronesian languageAustronesian language family
Nevertheless, the study still found a small Austronesian genetic signature (below 20%) in some of the Melanesian groups who speak Austronesian languages, and which was entirely absent in Papuan-speaking groups.
He posited 40 first-order subgroups, with the highest degree of diversity found in the area of Melanesia.

Island Melanesia

A distinction is often made between the island of New Guinea and what is known as Island Melanesia, which consists of "the chain of archipelagos, islands, atolls, and reefs forming the outer bounds of the sheltered oval-shaped coral sea".
Island Melanesia is a sub-region of Melanesia in Oceania.

Dark skin

dark-skinnedblackblack skin
The name Melanesia, from Greek μέλας, black, and νῆσος, island, etymologically means "islands of black [people]", in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants.
Dark-skinned populations inhabiting Africa, Australia, Melanesia, Papua New Guinea and South Asia all live in some of the areas with the highest UV radiation in the world, and have evolved very dark skin pigmentations as protection from the harmful sun rays.

Papua New Guinea

Papua-New GuineaPapua New GuineanPNG
The region includes the four independent countries of Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea, as well as the French special collectivity of New Caledonia, and the Indonesian region of Western New Guinea. For instance, the Melanesian Spearhead Group preferential trade agreement is a regional trade treaty among Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, and Fiji.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;, also ; Papua Niugini; Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea (Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a sovereign state in Oceania that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.

Solomon Islands

SolomonsSolomon IslandSolomon
The region includes the four independent countries of Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea, as well as the French special collectivity of New Caledonia, and the Indonesian region of Western New Guinea. For instance, the Melanesian Spearhead Group preferential trade agreement is a regional trade treaty among Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, and Fiji.
The country takes its name from the Solomon Islands archipelago, which is a collection of Melanesian islands that also includes the North Solomon Islands (part of Papua New Guinea), but excludes outlying islands, such as Rennell and Bellona, and the Santa Cruz Islands.

New Caledonia

New-CaledoniaNouvelle-CalédonieNCL
The region includes the four independent countries of Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea, as well as the French special collectivity of New Caledonia, and the Indonesian region of Western New Guinea.
The archipelago, part of the Melanesia subregion, includes the main island of Grande Terre, the Loyalty Islands, the Chesterfield Islands, the Belep archipelago, the Isle of Pines, and a few remote islets.

Haplogroup M-P256

MHaplogroup MM-P256
Their most common Y-chromosome haplogroup is M-P256.
It is also found in neighbouring parts of Melanesia, Indonesia and among indigenous Australians.

Lau Islands

LauLau GroupLau Archipelago
The nation of Fiji is composed of two main islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, and smaller islands, including the Lau Islands.
Since they lie between Melanesian Fiji and Polynesian Tonga, the Lau Islands are a meeting point of the two cultural spheres.

Austronesian peoples

AustronesianAustronesiansAustronesian people
Particularly along the north coast of New Guinea and in the islands north and east of New Guinea, the Austronesian people, who had migrated into the area somewhat more than 3,000 years ago, came into contact with these pre-existing populations of Papuan-speaking peoples.
However, the Malayo-Polynesian language family initially excluded Melanesia and Micronesia, due to what they perceived were marked physical differences between the inhabitants of these regions from the Malayo-Polynesian speakers.

Indigenous people of New Guinea

PapauansPapuansPapuan
In linguistics, "Papuan languages" is a cover term for the diverse mutually unrelated non-Austronesian language families spoken in Melanesia, the Torres Strait Islands and parts of Wallacea.