Melanoma

malignant melanomametastatic melanomamelanomasABCD guidelinemelanoblastomaMelanoma in situskinskin cancerulcerateABCDE rules
Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.wikipedia
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Uveal melanoma

ocular melanomachoroidal melanomauveal neoplasms
Melanomas typically occur in the skin, but may rarely occur in the mouth, intestines, or eye (uveal melanoma).
Uveal melanoma is a cancer (melanoma) of the eye involving the iris, ciliary body, or choroid (collectively referred to as the uvea).

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.
If skin cancer other than melanoma were included in total new cancer cases each year, it would account for around 40% of cases.

Sunscreen

SPFsunblocksun protection factor
Using sunscreen and avoiding UV light may prevent melanoma.
The routine use of sunscreens may also reduce the risk of melanoma.

Radiation therapy

radiotherapyradiation oncologyradiation
For those in whom melanoma has spread, immunotherapy, biologic therapy, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy may improve survival.
Renal cell cancer and melanoma are generally considered to be radioresistant but radiation therapy is still a palliative option for many patients with metastatic melanoma.

Dysplastic nevus syndrome

familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndromedysplastic nevus syndrome with familial melanomafamilial dysplastic nevi
People with dysplastic nevus syndrome, also known as familial atypical multiple mole melanoma (FAMMM), are at increased risk for the development of melanoma.
Dysplastic nevus syndrome is a cutaneous condition described in certain families, and characterized by unusual nevi and multiple inherited melanomas.

Indoor tanning

tanning bedtanning salontanning booth
Use of sunbeds (with deeply penetrating UVA rays) has been linked to the development of skin cancers, including melanoma.
Indoor tanning is a source of UV radiation, which is known to cause skin cancer, including melanoma and skin aging, and is associated with sunburn, photodrug reactions, infections, weakening of the immune system, and damage to the eyes, including cataracts, photokeratitis (snow blindness) and eye cancer.

Brain metastasis

brain metastasescerebral metastasis
Lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma patients were found to be at the highest risk of developing brain metastases.

Sunburn

sun burnburnSunburns
Occasional extreme sun exposure (resulting in "sunburn") is causally related to melanoma.
Ultraviolet radiation causes sunburns and increases the risk of three types of skin cancer: melanoma, basal-cell carcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma.

P16

CDKN2Ap16INK4ap16 INK4a
One class of mutations affects the gene CDKN2A.
p16 is also implicated in the prevention of melanoma, oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, cervical cancer, and esophageal cancer.

Cancer immunotherapy

immunotherapyimmunooncologyimmuno-oncology
For those in whom melanoma has spread, immunotherapy, biologic therapy, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy may improve survival.
As of 2019, pembrolizumab, which blocks PD-1, programmed cell death protein 1, has been used via intravenous infusion to treat inoperable or metastatic melanoma, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in certain situations, as a second-line treatment for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), after platinum-based chemotherapy, and for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with refractory classic Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL).

Chemotherapy

chemotherapeuticantineoplasticantineoplastic agent
For those in whom melanoma has spread, immunotherapy, biologic therapy, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy may improve survival.
Isolated limb perfusion (often used in melanoma), or isolated infusion of chemotherapy into the liver or the lung have been used to treat some tumors.

Dysplastic nevus

dysplastic neviAtypical (dysplastic) nevusdysplastic lesions
Fair- and red-haired people, persons with multiple atypical nevi or dysplastic nevi and persons born with giant congenital melanocytic nevi are at increased risk.
As seen in Caucasian individuals in the United States, those with dysplastic nevi have a lifetime risk of developing melanoma of greater than 10%, compared to less than 1% for those without any dysplastic nevus.

Ultraviolet

UVultraviolet lightultraviolet radiation
The primary cause of melanoma is ultraviolet light (UV) exposure in those with low levels of skin pigment.
The most deadly form of skin cancer, malignant melanoma, is mostly caused by DNA damage independent from UVA radiation.

Clark's level

Clark level
The Breslow's depth of the lesion is usually less than 1 mm, while the Clark level is usually 2.
Clark's level is a staging system, used in conjunction with Breslow's depth, which describes the level of anatomical invasion of the melanoma in the skin.

Nevus

molenevimoles
Fair- and red-haired people, persons with multiple atypical nevi or dysplastic nevi and persons born with giant congenital melanocytic nevi are at increased risk. About 25% of melanomas develop from moles.

Metastasis

metastaticmetastasesmetastasized
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) tests are often used to screen for metastases, although many patients with metastases (even end-stage) have a normal LDH; extraordinarily high LDH often indicates metastatic spread of the disease to the liver.
Malignant melanoma spreads to the brain, presumably because neural tissue and melanocytes arise from the same cell line in the embryo.

Mucosal melanoma

Mucosal melanoma is a rare condition characterized by a melanoma of the mucous membranes.

Acral lentiginous melanoma

type of malignant melanoma
Acral lentiginous melanoma is a kind of lentiginous skin melanoma.

Melanocortin 1 receptor

MC1RMC 1 extension gene
Some rare genes have a relatively high risk of causing melanoma; some more common genes, such as a gene called MC1R that causes red hair, have a relatively lower elevated risk.
It has been reported that variants of MC1R, even in heterozygotes and independent of their effects on pigmentation, are risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma A review has discussed the role of some MC1R variants in melanoma and basal and squamous cell carcinomas independent of pigment production.

Melanocytic nevus

molemolesmelanocytic nevi
To detect melanomas (and increase survival rates), it is recommended to learn to recognize them (see "ABCDE" mnemonic), to regularly examine moles for changes (shape, size, color, itching or bleeding) and to consult a qualified physician when a candidate appears.
Nonetheless, the U.S. National Cancer Institute estimated that 62,480 new cases of melanoma and 8,420 related deaths would appear in the United States in the year 2008.

MLANA

MART-1MART1Melan A
Examples of melanoma specific genes are tyrosinase, MLANA, and PMEL.
These complexes can be found on the surface of melanoma cells.

Congenital melanocytic nevus

congenital melanocytic neviCongenital nevusGiant pigmented nevus
Fair- and red-haired people, persons with multiple atypical nevi or dysplastic nevi and persons born with giant congenital melanocytic nevi are at increased risk.
Benign congenital nevi can have histological characteristics resembling melanomas, often breaking most if not all of the ABCDE rules.

CDKN2A

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2ACycline-dependent kinase inhibitor 2Ap16Ink4a
Loss-of-function mutations often affect tumor suppressor genes such as NF1, TP53 and CDKN2A.
Germline mutations of CDKN2A are associated with familial melanoma, glioblastoma and pancreatic cancer.

Desmoplastic melanoma

Desmoplastic melanoma is a rare cutaneous condition characterized by a deeply infiltrating type of melanoma with an abundance of fibrous matrix.

Seborrheic keratosis

seborrheic keratosesfollicular keratosisKeratosis, seborrheic
Seborrheic keratosis may meet some or all of the ABCD criteria, and can lead to false alarms.
At clinical examination the differential diagnosis includes warts and melanoma.