Melanosome

melanosomes
A melanosome is an organelle found in animal cells and is the site for synthesis, storage and transport of melanin, the most common light-absorbing pigment found in the animal kingdom.wikipedia
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Melanocyte

melanocytesmelanogenesismelanocytic
Melanosomes are synthesised in the skin in melanocyte cells, as well as the eye in choroidal melanocytes and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells.
Once synthesized, melanin is contained in special organelles called melanosomes which can be transported to nearby keratinocytes to induce pigmentation.

Tyrosinase

TYRmonophenol monooxygenaseEC 1.14.18.1
Melanosomes are dependent for their pigment on certain enzymes, especially tyrosinase, that synthesise the large polymers of melanin within the cell.
It is found inside melanosomes which are synthesised in the skin melanocytes.

Organelle

organellescell organellescell organelle
A melanosome is an organelle found in animal cells and is the site for synthesis, storage and transport of melanin, the most common light-absorbing pigment found in the animal kingdom.

Melanin

eumelaninpheomelaninphaeomelanin
Melanosomes are dependent for their pigment on certain enzymes, especially tyrosinase, that synthesise the large polymers of melanin within the cell. A melanosome is an organelle found in animal cells and is the site for synthesis, storage and transport of melanin, the most common light-absorbing pigment found in the animal kingdom.
Melanocytes insert granules of melanin into specialized cellular vesicles called melanosomes.

Albinism

albinoalbinisticalbinos
Dysfunction or absence of the melanin-synthesising enzymes (in conditions such as Chédiak–Higashi syndrome) leads to various patterns of albinism.
Melanosomes block harmful electromagnetic radiation from the sun while allowing beneficial frequencies to enter the body.

Keratinocyte

keratinocytesskin cellsdead skin cells
The pseudopodial process (aka the tanning process) happens slowly in dermal melanocytes in response to ultraviolet light and to production of new melanosomes and increased donation of melanosomes to adjacent keratinocytes, which are typical skin surface cells.
Keratinocytes contribute to protecting the body from ultraviolet radiation (UVR) by taking up melanosomes, vesicles containing the endogenous photoprotectant melanin, from epidermal melanocytes.

PMEL (gene)

PMEL17gp100PMEL
Melanosomes are believed to template melanin polymerization by way of amyloidogenesis of the protein Pmel17, which is present in abundant quantities in melanosomes.
It is then targeted to precursors of the pigment organelle, the melanosome, where it is proteolytically processed to several small fragments.

Amyloid

amyloid plaquesamyloid plaqueamyloids
Melanosomes are believed to template melanin polymerization by way of amyloidogenesis of the protein Pmel17, which is present in abundant quantities in melanosomes.

Animal

Animaliaanimalsmetazoa
A melanosome is an organelle found in animal cells and is the site for synthesis, storage and transport of melanin, the most common light-absorbing pigment found in the animal kingdom.

Choroid

choroidalchorioretinalchoroid diseases
Melanosomes are synthesised in the skin in melanocyte cells, as well as the eye in choroidal melanocytes and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells.

Retinal pigment epithelium

retinal pigmented epitheliumpigment epitheliumretinal pigment epithelial
Melanosomes are synthesised in the skin in melanocyte cells, as well as the eye in choroidal melanocytes and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells.

Chromatophore

melanophorechromatophoresmelanophores
In lower vertebrates, they are found in melanophores or chromatophores.

Nanometre

nmnanometernanometers
Melanosomes are relatively large organelles, measuring up to 500 nm in diameter.

Lipid bilayer

phospholipid bilayerlipid membranelipid bilayers
They are bound by a bilipid membrane and are, in general, rounded, sausage-like, or cigar-like in shape.

Ultrastructure

ultrastructuralultrastructural morphology
They have a characteristic ultrastructure on electron microscopy, which varies according to the maturity of the melanosome, and for research purposes a numeric staging system is sometimes used.

Electron microscope

electron microscopyelectron microscopeselectron
They have a characteristic ultrastructure on electron microscopy, which varies according to the maturity of the melanosome, and for research purposes a numeric staging system is sometimes used.

Microscopy

light microscopymicroscopistmicroscopic
Before it generates sufficient pigment to be seen on light microscopy it is known as a pre-melanosome.

Chédiak–Higashi syndrome

Chédiak-Higashi syndromeChediak-Higashi syndromeChediak–Higashi syndrome
Dysfunction or absence of the melanin-synthesising enzymes (in conditions such as Chédiak–Higashi syndrome) leads to various patterns of albinism.

Pseudopodia

pseudopodpseudopodsaxopodia
In others the cell can extend its surface lengthwise as temporary projections known as pseudopodia, which carry melanosomes away from the center of the cell, thereby increasing the cell's effectiveness in absorbing light.

Ultraviolet

UVultraviolet lightultraviolet radiation
The pseudopodial process (aka the tanning process) happens slowly in dermal melanocytes in response to ultraviolet light and to production of new melanosomes and increased donation of melanosomes to adjacent keratinocytes, which are typical skin surface cells.

Dynein

cytoplasmic dyneincytoplasmic dyneinsdynein arms
Cytoplasmic dynein will carry the vesicles containing the melanin to the center of the cell, which causes melanosomes to sequester the keratinocyte's nucleus, providing optimal protection from UV rays.

Fish

fishesfinfishichthyofauna
In many species of fish, amphibians, crustaceans, and reptiles, melanosomes can be highly mobile within the cell in response to hormonal (or sometimes neural) control, which leads to visible changes in colour that are used for behavioural signaling or photoprotection.

Amphibian

Amphibiaamphibiansamphibious
In many species of fish, amphibians, crustaceans, and reptiles, melanosomes can be highly mobile within the cell in response to hormonal (or sometimes neural) control, which leads to visible changes in colour that are used for behavioural signaling or photoprotection.

Crustacean

Crustaceacrustaceanscarcinology
In many species of fish, amphibians, crustaceans, and reptiles, melanosomes can be highly mobile within the cell in response to hormonal (or sometimes neural) control, which leads to visible changes in colour that are used for behavioural signaling or photoprotection.

Reptile

reptilesReptiliaSauropsida
In many species of fish, amphibians, crustaceans, and reptiles, melanosomes can be highly mobile within the cell in response to hormonal (or sometimes neural) control, which leads to visible changes in colour that are used for behavioural signaling or photoprotection.