A report on Memphis, Egypt

Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses II at Mit Rahina
Memphis and its necropolis Saqqara as seen from the International Space Station
Ritualistic object depicting the god Nefertem, who was mainly worshipped in Memphis, The Walters Art Museum
Rameses II flanked by Ptah and Sekhmet
Sculpture from the Middle Kingdom restored in the name of Rameses II
Relief representing the High Priest of Ptah, Shoshenq
Ruins of the palace of Apries, in Memphis
Alexander at the Temple of Apis in Memphis, by Andre Castaigne (1898–1899)
Artist's depiction of the western forecourt of the Great Temple of Ptah at Memphis
Column depicting Merenptah making an offering to Ptah
The ruins of the temple of Hathor of Memphis
A statue of the sacred bull, Apis, found at the Serapeum of Saqqara.
Ankhefenmut kneels before the royal cartouche of Siamun, on a lintel from the Temple of Amun in Memphis
The colossus of Rameses II in the open-air museum
The famed stepped Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara, the Memphis necropolis
The ruins of the palace of Apries, overlooking Memphis
James Rennell's map of Memphis and Cairo in 1799, showing the changes in the course of the Nile river
Statue of Rameses II, uncovered in Memphis by Joseph Hekekyan
Museum worker in the process of cleaning the Rameses II colossus
Depiction of Ptah found on the walls of the Temple of Hathor
The alabaster sphinx found outside the Temple of Ptah
Statue of Rameses II in the open-air museum
Closeup of the sphinx outside the Temple of Ptah
Colossus of Rameses II

The ancient capital of Inebu-hedj, the first nome of Lower Egypt that was known as mḥw ("north").

- Memphis, Egypt
Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses II at Mit Rahina

106 related topics with Alpha

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The pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of ancient Egypt civilization.

Ancient Egypt

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Civilization in ancient Northeast Africa, situated in the Egyptian Nile Valley in the country Egypt.

Civilization in ancient Northeast Africa, situated in the Egyptian Nile Valley in the country Egypt.

The pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of ancient Egypt civilization.
Map of ancient Egypt, showing major cities and sites of the Dynastic period (c. 3150 BC to 30 BC)
A typical Naqada II jar decorated with gazelles (Predynastic Period)
Early tomb painting from Nekhen, c. 3500 BC, Naqada, possibly Gerzeh, culture
The Narmer Palette depicts the unification of the Two Lands.
Khafre enthroned
Amenemhat III, the last great ruler of the Middle Kingdom
The Egyptian Empire c. 1450 BC
Four colossal statues of Ramesses II flank the entrance of his temple Abu Simbel
Statues of two pharaohs of Egypt's Twenty-Fifth Dynasty and several other Kushite kings. From left to right: Tantamani, Taharqa (rear), Senkamanisken, again Tantamani (rear), Aspelta, Anlamani, again Senkamanisken. Kerma Museum.
Assyrian siege of an Egyptian fortified city, a scene from the Assyrian conquest of Egypt, probably referring to the capture of Memphis in 667 BC. Sculpted in 645–635 BC, under Ashurbanipal. British Museum.
Portrait of Ptolemy VI Philometor wearing the double crown of Egypt
The Fayum mummy portraits epitomize the meeting of Egyptian and Roman cultures.
The pharaoh was usually depicted wearing symbols of royalty and power.
Painted limestone relief of a noble member of Ancient Egyptian society during the New Kingdom
Punishment in ancient Egypt
The Seated Scribe from Saqqara, Fifth dynasty of Egypt; scribes were elite and well educated. They assessed taxes, kept records, and were responsible for administration.
A tomb relief depicts workers plowing the fields, harvesting the crops, and threshing the grain under the direction of an overseer, painting in the tomb of Nakht.
Measuring and recording the harvest is shown in a wall painting in the tomb of Menna, at Thebes (Eighteenth Dynasty).
Sennedjem plows his fields with a pair of oxen, used as beasts of burden and a source of food.
Hatshepsut's trading expedition to the Land of Punt
Hieroglyphs on stela in Louvre, c. 1321 BC
The Rosetta Stone (c. 196 BC) enabled linguists to begin the process of deciphering ancient Egyptian scripts.
Ostrakon: hunting a lion with spear and dog
Lower-class occupations
Egyptians celebrated feasts and festivals accompanied by music and dance.
Ruins of Deir el-Medina. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
The Bust of Nefertiti, by the sculptor Thutmose, is one of the most famous masterpieces of ancient Egyptian art
The Book of the Dead was a guide to the deceased's journey in the afterlife.
The Ka statue provided a physical place for the Ka to manifest.
Anubis was the ancient Egyptian god associated with mummification and burial rituals; here, he attends to a mummy.
Pharaohs' tombs were provided with vast quantities of wealth, such as the golden mask from the mummy of Tutankhamun.
A chariot
Glassmaking was a highly developed art.
Ancient Egyptian medical instruments depicted in a Ptolemaic period inscription on the temple at Kom Ombo
Edwin Smith surgical papyrus (c. 16th century BC), written in hieratic, describes anatomy and medical treatments.
Seagoing ship from Hateshepsut's Deir el-Bahari temple relief of a Punt Expedition
Astronomical chart in Senemut's tomb, 18th dynasty
Model of a household porch and garden, c. 1981–1975 BC
The Temple of Dendur, completed by 10 BC, made of aeolian sandstone, temple proper: height: 6.4 m, width: 6.4 m; length: 12.5 m, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
The well preserved Temple of Isis from Philae is an example of Egyptian architecture and architectural sculpture
Illustration of various types of capitals, drawn by the Egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius
Egyptian tomb models as funerary goods. Egyptian Museum in Cairo
Kneeling portrait statue of Amenemhat holding a stele with an inscription; c. 1500 BC; limestone; Egyptian Museum of Berlin (Germany)
Fresco which depicts Nebamun hunting birds; 1350 BC; paint on plaster; 98 × 83 cm; British Museum (London)
Portrait head of pharaoh Hatshepsut or Thutmose III; 1480–1425 BC; most probably granite; height: 16.5 cm; Egyptian Museum of Berlin
Falcon box with wrapped contents; 332–30 BC; painted and gilded wood, linen, resin and feathers; 58.5 × 24.9 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Frontispiece of Description de l'Égypte, published in 38 volumes between 1809 and 1829.
Tourists at the pyramid complex of Khafre near the Great Sphinx of Giza

In the Early Dynastic Period, which began about 3000BC, the first of the Dynastic kings solidified control over lower Egypt by establishing a capital at Memphis, from which he could control the labour force and agriculture of the fertile delta region, as well as the lucrative and critical trade routes to the Levant.

Egypt

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Transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

Transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Temple of Derr ruins in 1960
The Giza Necropolis is the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.
Egyptian soldier of the Achaemenid army, c. 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
The Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII and her son by Julius Caesar, Caesarion, at the Temple of Dendera
The Amr ibn al-As mosque in Cairo, recognized as the oldest in Africa
The Ibn Tulun Mosque in Cairo, of Ahmad Ibn Tulun
The Al-Hakim Mosque in Cairo, of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the sixth caliph, as renovated by Dawoodi Bohra
Napoleon defeated the Mamluk troops in the Battle of the Pyramids, 21 July 1798, painted by Lejeune.
Egypt under Muhammad Ali dynasty
Muhammad Ali was the founder of the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the first Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
The battle of Tel el-Kebir in 1882 during the Anglo-Egyptian War
Female nationalists demonstrating in Cairo, 1919
Fuad I of Egypt with Edward, Prince of Wales, 1932
British infantry near El Alamein, 17 July 1942
Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser in Mansoura, 1960
Smoke rises from oil tanks beside the Suez Canal hit during the initial Anglo-French assault on Egypt, 5 November 1956.
Egyptian tanks advancing in the Sinai desert during the Yom Kippur War, 1973
Celebrating the signing of the 1978 Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat
Cairo grew into a metropolitan area with a population of over 20 million.
Women in Cairo wear face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt in March 2020.
Egypt's topography
The Qattara Depression in Egypt's north west
The Eastern Imperial Eagle is the national animal of Egypt.
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi is the current President of Egypt.
Egyptian honor guard soldiers during a visit of U.S. Navy Adm. Mike Mullen
President el-Sisi with US President Donald Trump, 21 May 2017
The High Court of Justice in Downtown Cairo
Protesters from the Third Square movement, which supported neither the former Morsi government nor the Armed Forces, 31 July 2013
Prominent Egyptian dissident Alaa Abd El-Fattah was sentenced to five years of imprisonment in December 2021.
1. Matrouh
2. Alexandria
3. Beheira
4. Kafr El Sheikh
5. Dakahlia
6. Damietta
7. Port Said
8. North Sinai
9. Gharbia
10. Monufia
11. Qalyubia
12. Sharqia
13. Ismailia
14. Giza
15. Faiyum
16. Cairo
17. Suez
18. South Sinai
19. Beni Suef
20. Minya
21. New Valley
22. Asyut
23. Red Sea
24. Sohag
25. Qena
26. Luxor
27. Aswan
Change in per capita GDP of Egypt, 1820–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Smart Village, a business district established in 2001 to facilitate the growth of high-tech businesses
The Suez Canal
Tourists riding an Arabian camel in front of Pyramid of Khafre. The Giza Necropolis is one of Egypt's main tourist attractions.
An offshore platform in the Darfeel Gas Field
The Cairo Metro (line 2)
The Suez Canal Bridge
Green irrigated land along the Nile amidst the desert and in the delta
Egypt's population density (people per km2)
St. Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria
Cairo University
Egyptian literacy rate among the population aged 15 years and older by UNESCO Institute of Statistics
Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt
Al-Azhar Park is listed as one of the world's sixty great public spaces by the Project for Public Spaces.
The "weighing of the heart" scene from the Book of the Dead
Naguib Mahfouz, the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature
Salah Zulfikar, film star
Soad Hosny, film star
Tanoura dancers performing in Wekalet El Ghoury, Cairo
The Egyptian Museum of Cairo
Tutankhamun's burial mask is one of the major attractions of the Egyptian Museum of Cairo.
Kushari, one of Egypt's national dishes
A crowd at Cairo Stadium watching the Egypt national football team

Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest.

Pillars of the Great Hypostyle Hall, in The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia

Thebes, Egypt

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Ancient Egyptian city located along the Nile about 800 km south of the Mediterranean.

Ancient Egyptian city located along the Nile about 800 km south of the Mediterranean.

Pillars of the Great Hypostyle Hall, in The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia
Population of Thebes 2000-900 BC
The Theban Necropolis
Serekh of Intef I inscribed posthumously for him by Mentuhotep II
Depiction of Asiatic (left) and Egyptian people (right). The Asiatic leader is labeled as "Ruler of foreign lands", Ibsha.
Statues of Memnon at Thebes during the flood, after David Roberts, c. 1845
Overhead illustration of the Karnak temple
The Ramesseum at Thebes, by John Frederick Lewis, c. 1845 (Yale Center for British Art, New Haven)
Polychromed column with bass-reliefs at the temple of Medinet Habu, dedicated to Rameses III
A column of Taharqa at the precinct of Amun-Re at Karnak Temple restored to full height
Relief in Hathor temple, Deir el-Medina (built during the Ptolemaic Dynasty)
The main entrance to Karnak flanked by ram-headed sphinxes
Obelisk, Ramesside colossi and great pylon of Luxor Temple with subtle orange glow
Sunshine illuminates Hatshepsut's mortuary temple in Deir al-Bahri
The entrance to KV19, tomb of Mentuherkhepeshef in the Valley of the Kings

According to George Modelski, Thebes had about 40,000 inhabitants in 2000 BC (compared to 60,000 in Memphis, the largest city in the world at the time).

The stepped Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara

Saqqara

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The stepped Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara
Relief from tomb (Louvre)
Map of the site
View of Saqqara necropolis, including Djoser's step pyramid (centre), the Pyramid of Unas (left) and the Pyramid of Userkaf (right)
Funerary complex of Djoser
Wooden statue of the scribe Kaaper, 5th or 4th dynasty of the Old Kingdom, from Saqqara, c. 2500 BC
Lantern Slide Collection: Views, Objects: Egypt. - Apis Tombs, passage showing Sarcophagi Recess, Sakkara., n.d., Brooklyn Museum Archives

Saqqara (سقارة, ), also spelled Sakkara or Saccara in English, is an Egyptian village in Giza Governorate, that contains ancient burial grounds of Egyptian royalty, serving as the necropolis for the ancient Egyptian capital, Memphis.

Plutarch linked Manetho with the Ptolemaic cult of Serapis. This is the head of an anonymous priest of Serapis in the Altes Museum, Berlin.

Manetho

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Believed to have been an Egyptian priest from Sebennytos who lived in the Ptolemaic Kingdom in the early third century BC, during the Hellenistic period.

Believed to have been an Egyptian priest from Sebennytos who lived in the Ptolemaic Kingdom in the early third century BC, during the Hellenistic period.

Plutarch linked Manetho with the Ptolemaic cult of Serapis. This is the head of an anonymous priest of Serapis in the Altes Museum, Berlin.
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However, he did not use the term in the modern sense, by bloodlines, but rather, introduced new dynasties whenever he detected some sort of discontinuity, whether geographical (Dynasty Four from Memphis, Dynasty Five from Elephantine), or genealogical (especially in Dynasty One, he refers to each successive king as the "son" of the previous to define what he means by "continuity").

Province of Aegyptus in AD 125

Roman Egypt

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Subdivision of the Roman Empire from Rome's annexation of the Ptolemaic Kingdom in 30 BC to its loss by the Byzantine Empire to the Islamic conquests in AD 641.

Subdivision of the Roman Empire from Rome's annexation of the Ptolemaic Kingdom in 30 BC to its loss by the Byzantine Empire to the Islamic conquests in AD 641.

Province of Aegyptus in AD 125
A 1st-century AD Roman emperor wearing nemes with a uraeus, as pharaoh (Louvre)
The first generations of the imperial Severan dynasty depicted on the "Severan Tondo" from Egypt (Antikensammlung Berlin)
Statue of an orator, wearing a himation, from Heracleopolis Magna, in Middle Egypt (Egyptian Museum, Cairo)
Bronze statue of a nude youth, from Athribis in Lower Egypt (British Museum, London)
A 2nd-century AD Roman emperor wearing nemes, as pharaoh (, Bad Deutsch-Altenburg)
Encaustic and tempera painted mummy portrait of a Roman officer c. 160, with a green sagum, gold fibula, white tunic, and red leather balteus (British Museum)
Encaustic painted mummy portrait of a Roman officer c. 130, with a blue sagum, silver fibula, white tunic, and red balteus, with related grave goods (Antikensammlung Berlin)
Encaustic mummy portrait of a Roman officer c. 100, with a blue sagum, fibula, white tunic with purple angusticlavus, and red balteus (Antikensammlung Berlin)
1st-century AD mummy excavated by William Flinders Petrie
Bust of Roman Nobleman, c. 30 BC–50 AD, Brooklyn Museum
Roman trade with India started from Aegyptus according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century).
Kushan ruler Huvishka with seated Roman-Egyptian god Serapis (ϹΑΡΑΠΟ, "Sarapo") wearing the modius.
Roman emperor Trajan making offerings to Egyptian Gods, on the Roman Mammisi at the Dendera Temple complex, Egypt.
North apse of the Red Monastery of Sohag
Possible personification of the province of Egypt from the Temple of Hadrian in Rome (National Roman Museum)
Nilus, the river god of Egypt's Nile, with cornucopia, wheatsheaf, sphinx, and crocodile (Braccio Nuovo). Sculpture from Rome's Temple of Isis and Serapis.
Enthroned statue of the syncretic god Serapis with Cerberus, from Pozzuoli (National Archaeological Museum, Naples)
4th-century relief of the god Horus as a Roman cavalryman killing the crocodile, Setekh (Louvre)
2nd-century relief of Anubis as a Roman infantryman in the Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa
Copper-alloy statuettes of Egyptian gods Anubis (left) and Horus (centre) as Roman officers with contrapposto stances (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)
5th-century Christian relief (Staatliche Sammlung für Ägyptische Kunst)
A possible 2nd-century papyrus fragment of the Gospel of Peter, from the Oxyrhynchus Papyri (P. Oxy. LX 4009, Sackler Library)
Coptic cross and chi-rho carved into older reliefs at the Temple of Isis at Philae
Roman-era Christian-themed wool-and-linen Egyptian textile (Louvre)
Trilingual stela of G. Cornelius Gallus from Philae (Egyptian Museum)
Granite statue of Caracalla wearing nemes and uraeus cobra headdress (Alexandria National Museum)
"Pompey's Pillar", a monument erected by Diocletian ((r. 284 – 305)) in the Serapeum of Alexandria, represented in a mosaic from Sepphoris in Roman Palestine
4th-century pendant with portrait of Alexander the Great as Zeus-Ammon with repoussé border (Walters Art Museum)
Folio 6 verso from the Golenischev papyrus of the Alexandrian World Chronicle, showing Theophilus of Alexandria standing triumphantly on top of the Serapeum with its bust of Serapis
The Carmagnola, an Egyptian porphyry head on Venice's St Mark's Basilica thought to represent Justinian I
A map of the Near East in 565, showing Byzantine Egypt and its neighbors.
Augustan-era krater in Egyptian alabaster, found in a Roman necropolis at San Prisco in 1897 (National Archaeological Museum, Naples)
The Byzantine Empire in 629 after Heraclius had reconquered Syria, Palestine and Egypt from the Sassanid Empire.
The Mediterranean world in 650, after the Arabs had conquered Egypt and Syria from the Byzantines.
Mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Walters Art Museum)
1st-century mummy portrait from Hawara (Cleveland Museum of Art)
1st/2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
2nd century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Walters Art Museum)
Mummy portrait (Antikensammlung Berlin)
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Walters Art Museum)
2nd-century mummy portrait from Faiyum (Galerie Cybèle, Paris)
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Antikensammlung Berlin)
3rd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Brooklyn Museum)
2nd-century mummy portrait (Getty Villa)
2nd-century mummy portrait (Pushkin Museum)
2nd-century mummy portrait (Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art)
2nd–4th-century mummy portrait from Hawara (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
2nd/3rd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Walters Art Museum)
2nd-century mummy portrait (Harvard Art Museums)
2nd-century mummy portrait probably from er-Rubayat (Getty Villa)
Mummy Mask of a Man, early 1st century AD, 72.57, Brooklyn Museum
Canopic jar from the 3rd or 4th century (National Archaeological Museum, Florence)
Funerary masks uncovered in Faiyum, 1st century.
2nd-century statuette of Horus as Roman general (Louvre)
1st–4th-century statuette of Horus as a Roman soldier (Louvre)
2nd-century statuette of Isis–Aphrodite (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
2nd-century statuette of Isis–Aphrodite from Lower Egypt (Louvre)
1st–4th-century statuette of Isis lactans (Louvre)
Isis lactans: the mother goddess suckles Harpocrates (Pio-Clementino Museum)
1st/2nd-century Parian marble statue of Anubis (Gregorian Egyptian Museum)
2nd/3rd-century mosaic of Anubis from Ariminum (Museo della Città, Rimini)
6th- or 7th-century Christian sandstone grave stela (Luxor Museum)
6th- or 7th-century Christian sandstone stela (Luxor Museum)
6th- or 7th-century Christian sandstone relief (Luxor Museum)
Hadrian coin celebrating Aegyptus Province, struck c. 135. In the obverse, Egypt is personified as a reclining woman holding the sistrum of Hathor. Her left elbow rests on a basket of grain, while an ibis stands on the column at her feet.
Zenobia coin reporting her title as queen of Egypt (Augusta), and showing her diademed and draped bust on a crescent. The obverse shows a standing figure of Ivno Regina (Juno) holding a patera in her right hand and a sceptre in her left hand, with a peacock at her feet and a brilliant star on the left.

Soon after the Roman annexation, a new epistrategy was formed, encompassing the area just south of Memphis and the Faiyum region and named "the Heptanomia and the Arsinoite nome".

Plan of Alexandria c. 30 BC

Alexandria

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Mediterranean port city in Egypt.

Mediterranean port city in Egypt.

Plan of Alexandria c. 30 BC
Alexander the Great
The Lighthouse of Alexandria on coins minted in Alexandria in the second century (1: reverse of a coin of Antoninus Pius, and 2: reverse of a coin of Commodus).
Alexandria in the late 18th century, by Luigi Mayer
Entry of General Bonaparte into Alexandria, oil on canvas, 365 x,, Versailles
The Battle of Abukir, by Antoine-Jean Gros 1806
Alexandria: bombardment by British naval forces
Map of the city in the 1780s, by Louis-François Cassas.
Macedonian Army, shown on the Alexander Sarcophagus.
Engraving by L. F. Cassas of the Canopic Street in Alexandria, Egypt made in 1784.
Satellite image of Alexandria and other cities show its surrounding coastal plain
Lake Mariout
Egypt – Obelisk, Alexandria. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection.
Roman Amphitheater
Roman Pompey's Pillar
Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral
Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa
Side view of The Temple of Taposiris Magna.
Citadel of Qaitbay
Jewish girls during Bat Mitzva in Alexandria
Collège Saint Marc
Lycée Français d'Alexandrie
Borg El Arab International Airport
Alexandria port
Misr Railway Station
An Alexandria tram
The Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Alexandria Stadium
The Italian consulate in Saad Zaghloul Square
Shalalat Gardens
Montaza Garden
Alexandria Art Centre
Alexandria Opera House
Fawzia Fahmy Palace
Alexander the Great's statue
Monument of the Unknown Navy Soldier
Montaza Palace
Al Qa'ed Ibrahim Mosque

Founded in c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great, Alexandria grew rapidly and became a major centre of Hellenic civilisation, eventually replacing Memphis, in present-day Greater Cairo, as Egypt's capital.

Cairo

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Capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world.

Capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world.

Remains of a circular Roman tower at the Babylon Fortress (late 3rd century) in Old Cairo
Excavated ruins of Fustat (2004 photo)
The Mosque of Ibn Tulun, built by Ahmad Ibn Tulun in 876–879 AD
A plan of Cairo before 1200 AD, as reconstructed by Stanley Lane-Poole (1906), showing the location of Fatimid structures, Saladin's Citadel, and earlier sites (Fustat not shown)
The Cairo Citadel, seen above in the late 19th century, was begun by Saladin in 1176
Mausoleum-Madrasa-Hospital complex of Sultan Qalawun, built in 1284–1285 in the center of Cairo, over the remains of a Fatimid palace
Funerary complex of Sultan Qaytbay, built in 1470–1474 in the Northern Cemetery (seen in lithograph from 1848)
Map of Cairo in 1809, from the Description de l'Égypte.
Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848–1933). On the Way between Old and New Cairo, Citadel Mosque of Mohammed Ali, and Tombs of the Mamelukes, 1872. Oil on canvas. Brooklyn Museum
Qasr El Nil Bridge
Aerial view 1904 from a balloon where the Egyptian Museum appears to the right side.
A panoramic view of Cairo, 1950s
Everyday life in Cairo, 1950s
A protester holding an Egyptian flag during the protests that started on 25 January 2011.
The river Nile flows through Cairo, here contrasting ancient customs of daily life with the modern city of today.
Aerial view looking south, with the Zamalek and Gezira districts on Gezira Island, surrounded by the Nile
Cairo seen from Spot Satellite
Cairo weather observations by French savants
View of the 6th October Bridge and the Cairo skyline.
Cairo University is the largest university in Egypt, and is located in Giza.
Library building at the new campus of the American University of Cairo in New Cairo
The interior of Ramses Station
The Autostrade in Nasr City
Cairo International Stadium with 75,100 seats
Cairo Opera House, at the National Cultural Center, Zamalek district.
Khedivial Opera House, 1869.
Solomon Schechter studying documents from the Cairo Geniza, c. 1895.
Statue of Talaat Pasha Harb, the father of the modern Egyptian economy, in Downtown Cairo
The NBE towers as viewed from the Nile
View of Tahrir Square (in 2008)
Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum, located at Tahrir Square
Cairo Tower at night
The Hanging Church in Old Cairo
Al-Muizz Street in Islamic Cairo
Al-Azhar Mosque, view of Fatimid-era courtyard and Mamluk minarets
Mosque-Madrasa of Sultan Hassan and the al-Rifa'i Mosque, seen from the Citadel
The Citadel of Cairo, with the Mosque of Muhammad Ali
A medieval gateway in Khan al-Khalili
Smog in Cairo
Traffic in Cairo
View of the Nile and the Cairo skyline.
6th October Bridge in Cairo
Cairo International Stadium with 75,100 seats
View of Tahrir Square (in 2020)
Smog in Cairo
Traffic in Cairo

Cairo is associated with ancient Egypt, as the Giza pyramid complex and the ancient cities of Memphis and Heliopolis are located in its geographical area.

During the Old Kingdom of Egypt (circa 2700 BC – circa 2200 BC), Egypt consisted of the Nile River region south to Abu (also known as Elephantine), as well as Sinai and the oases in the western desert. with Egyptian control/rule over Nubia reaching to the area south of the third cataract.

Old Kingdom of Egypt

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Period spanning c. 2700–2200 BC. It is also known as the "Age of the Pyramids" or the "Age of the Pyramid Builders", as it encompasses the reigns of the great pyramid-builders of the Fourth Dynasty, such as King Sneferu, who perfected the art of pyramid-building, and the kings Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure, who constructed the pyramids at Giza.

Period spanning c. 2700–2200 BC. It is also known as the "Age of the Pyramids" or the "Age of the Pyramid Builders", as it encompasses the reigns of the great pyramid-builders of the Fourth Dynasty, such as King Sneferu, who perfected the art of pyramid-building, and the kings Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure, who constructed the pyramids at Giza.

During the Old Kingdom of Egypt (circa 2700 BC – circa 2200 BC), Egypt consisted of the Nile River region south to Abu (also known as Elephantine), as well as Sinai and the oases in the western desert. with Egyptian control/rule over Nubia reaching to the area south of the third cataract.
The Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara.
Temple of Djoser at Saqqara
Head of a King, c. 2650–2600 BC, Brooklyn Museum. The earliest representations of Egyptian Kings are on a small scale. From the Third Dynasty, statues were made showing the ruler life-size; this head wearing the crown of Upper Egypt even surpasses human scale.
The Great Sphinx of Giza in front of the Great Pyramid of Giza
Khufu, the builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza
False Door from the Tomb of Metjetji. ca. 2353–2323 BC, Dynasty 5–6, Old Kingdom. Tomb of Metjetji at Saqqara.
Statue of Menkaure with Hathor and Anput from the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Demonstrates a group statue of graywacke with Old Kingdom features and proportions.

Not only was the last king of the Early Dynastic Period related to the first two kings of the Old Kingdom, but the "capital", the royal residence, remained at Ineb-Hedj, the Ancient Egyptian name for Memphis.

Achaemenid Empire

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Ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia that was founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC. It reached its greatest extent under Xerxes I, who conquered most of northern and central ancient Greece.

Ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia that was founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC. It reached its greatest extent under Xerxes I, who conquered most of northern and central ancient Greece.

The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Family tree of the Achaemenid rulers.
Map of the expansion process of Achaemenid territories
Cyrus the Great is said, in the Bible, to have liberated the Hebrew captives in Babylon to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.
The tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire. At Pasargadae, Iran.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, c. 500 BC
The Persian queen Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great, sister-wife of Cambyses II, Darius the Great's wife, and mother of Xerxes the Great
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
Achaemenid gold ornaments, Brooklyn Museum
Persian Empire timeline including important events and territorial evolution – 550–323 BC
Relief showing Darius I offering lettuces to the Egyptian deity Amun-Ra Kamutef, Temple of Hibis
The 24 countries subject to the Achaemenid Empire at the time of Darius, on the Egyptian statue of Darius I.
The Battle of Issus, between Alexander the Great on horseback to the left, and Darius III in the chariot to the right, represented in a Pompeii mosaic dated 1st century BC – Naples National Archaeological Museum
Alexander's first victory over Darius, the Persian king depicted in medieval European style in the 15th century romance The History of Alexander's Battles
Frataraka dynasty ruler Vadfradad I (Autophradates I). 3rd century BC. Istakhr (Persepolis) mint.
Dārēv I (Darios I) used for the first time the title of mlk (King). 2nd century BC.
Winged sphinx from the Palace of Darius in Susa, Louvre
Daric of Artaxerxes II
Volume of annual tribute per district, in the Achaemenid Empire, according to Herodotus.
Achaemenid tax collector, calculating on an Abax or Abacus, according to the Darius Vase (340–320 BC).
Letter from the Satrap of Bactria to the governor of Khulmi, concerning camel keepers, 353 BC
Relief of throne-bearing soldiers in their native clothing at the tomb of Xerxes I, demonstrating the satrapies under his rule.
Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. c. 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Persian soldiers (left) fighting against Scythians. Cylinder seal impression.
Color reconstruction of Achaemenid infantry on the Alexander Sarcophagus (end of 4th century BC).
Seal of Darius the Great hunting in a chariot, reading "I am Darius, the Great King" in Old Persian (𐎠𐎭𐎶𐏐𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁𐎴 𐏋, "adam Dārayavaʰuš xšāyaθiya"), as well as in Elamite and Babylonian. The word "great" only appears in Babylonian. British Museum.
Achaemenid calvalryman in the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Armoured cavalry: Achaemenid Dynast of Hellespontine Phrygia attacking a Greek psiloi, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Reconstitution of Persian landing ships at the Battle of Marathon.
Greek ships against Achaemenid ships at the Battle of Salamis.
Iconic relief of lion and bull fighting, Apadana of Persepolis
Achaemenid golden bowl with lioness imagery of Mazandaran
The ruins of Persepolis
A section of the Old Persian part of the trilingual Behistun inscription. Other versions are in Babylonian and Elamite.
A copy of the Behistun inscription in Aramaic on a papyrus. Aramaic was the lingua franca of the empire.
An Achaemenid drinking vessel
Bas-relief of Farvahar at Persepolis
Tomb of Artaxerxes III in Persepolis
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven wonders of the ancient world, was built by Greek architects for the local Persian satrap of Caria, Mausolus (Scale model)
Achamenid dynasty timeline
Reconstruction of the Palace of Darius at Susa. The palace served as a model for Persepolis.
Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace, Louvre
Ruins of Throne Hall, Persepolis
Apadana Hall, Persian and Median soldiers at Persepolis
Lateral view of tomb of Cambyses II, Pasargadae, Iran
Plaque with horned lion-griffins. The Metropolitan Museum of Art

He was soundly defeated by the Persians in the Battle of Pelusium before fleeing to Memphis, where the Persians defeated him and took him prisoner.