Meningitis

spinal meningitisbacterial meningitiscerebral meningitiscerebrospinal meningitiseosinophilic meningitisinfant meningitismeningitis, bacterialAcute meningitiscerebro-spinal meningitisChronic meningitis
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.wikipedia
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Fever

pyrexiafebrileague
The most common symptoms are fever, headache, and neck stiffness.
This includes viral, bacterial and parasitic infections such as the common cold, urinary tract infections, meningitis, malaria and appendicitis among others.

Meningococcal disease

meningococcal meningitismeningococcemiameningococcal septicaemia
If a rash is present, it may indicate a particular cause of meningitis; for instance, meningitis caused by meningococcal bacteria may be accompanied by a characteristic rash.
While best known as a cause of meningitis, it can also result in sepsis, which is an even more damaging and dangerous condition.

Inflammation

inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.

Lumbar puncture

spinal tapspinal tapsspinal puncture
A lumbar puncture, in which a needle is inserted into the spinal canal to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), can diagnose or exclude meningitis.
Examples of these conditions include meningitis and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Meningococcal vaccine

meningococcal conjugate vaccineMenactrameningococcal
Some forms of meningitis are preventable by immunization with the meningococcal, mumps, pneumococcal, and Hib vaccines.
They result in a decrease in meningitis and sepsis among populations where they are widely used.

Hib vaccine

ActHIBHibHaemophilus influenzae
Some forms of meningitis are preventable by immunization with the meningococcal, mumps, pneumococcal, and Hib vaccines.
It has therefore resulted in a decrease in the rate of meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis.

Cerebrospinal fluid

cerebral spinal fluidCSFspinal fluid
A lumbar puncture, in which a needle is inserted into the spinal canal to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), can diagnose or exclude meningitis.
This can reveal the intracranial pressure, as well as indicate diseases including infections of the brain or its surrounding meninges.

Neisseria meningitidis

meningococcusN. meningitidismeningococcal
Meningitis caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (known as "meningococcal meningitis") can be differentiated from meningitis with other causes by a rapidly spreading petechial rash, which may precede other symptoms.
Neisseria meningitidis, often referred to as meningococcus, is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia, a life-threatening sepsis.

African meningitis belt

meningitis beltmeningitis outbreak
Outbreaks of bacterial meningitis occur between December and June each year in an area of sub-Saharan Africa known as the meningitis belt.
The African meningitis belt is a region in sub-Saharan Africa where the rate of incidence of meningitis is very high.

Hydrocephalus

hydrocephalyhydrocephalicobstructive hydrocephalus
Meningitis can lead to serious long-term consequences such as deafness, epilepsy, hydrocephalus, or cognitive deficits, especially if not treated quickly.
Other causes include meningitis, brain tumors, traumatic brain injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Pneumococcal vaccine

pneumococcalpneumococcal vaccinationStreptococcus pneumoniae
Some forms of meningitis are preventable by immunization with the meningococcal, mumps, pneumococcal, and Hib vaccines.
Their use can prevent some cases of pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis.

Headache

headacheschronic headacheheadach
The most common symptoms are fever, headache, and neck stiffness.
Just as in adults, most headaches are benign, but when head pain is accompanied with other symptoms such as speech problems, muscle weakness, and loss of vision, a more serious underlying cause may exist: hydrocephalus, meningitis, encephalitis, abscess, hemorrhage, tumor, blood clots, or head trauma.

Meningism

meningismusneck stiffnessstiff neck
This is called meningism or pseudomeningitis.
Meningism is a set of symptoms similar to those of meningitis but not caused by meningitis.

Brudziński's sign

Brudzinski's signBrudzinski's neck signBrudziński cheek sign
Other signs include the presence of positive Kernig's sign or Brudziński sign.
Brudziński's sign or a Brudziński sign is any of three medical signs, all of which may occur in meningitis or meningism.

Purpura

purpuricFood-induced purpuraPurpura secondary to clotting disorders
Meningitis caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (known as "meningococcal meningitis") can be differentiated from meningitis with other causes by a rapidly spreading petechial rash, which may precede other symptoms.
Purpura is common with typhus and can be present with meningitis caused by meningococci or septicaemia.

Epilepsy

epilepticseizure disorderepilepsies
Meningitis can lead to serious long-term consequences such as deafness, epilepsy, hydrocephalus, or cognitive deficits, especially if not treated quickly.
The risk of epilepsy following meningitis is less than 10%; that disease more commonly causes seizures during the infection itself.

Lyme disease

borreliosisLyme borreliosisLyme
Aseptic meningitis may also result from infection with spirochetes, a group of bacteria that includes Treponema pallidum (the cause of syphilis) and Borrelia burgdorferi (known for causing Lyme disease).
If untreated, symptoms may include loss of the ability to move one or both sides of the face, joint pains, severe headaches with neck stiffness, or heart palpitations, among others.

Neck stiffness

nuchal rigiditystiff neckinability to flex the neck fully
The most common symptoms are fever, headache, and neck stiffness.
Possible causes include muscle strain or sprain, cervical spine disorders, meningitis, and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Tuberculous meningitis

tubercular meningitisT.B. spineTB meningitis
Tuberculous meningitis, which is meningitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is more common in people from countries in which tuberculosis is endemic, but is also encountered in persons with immune problems, such as AIDS.
Tuberculous meningitis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the meninges—the system of membranes which envelop the central nervous system.

Cerebral edema

cerebral oedemabrain swellingswelling of the brain
The brain tissue may swell, pressure inside the skull may increase and the swollen brain may herniate through the skull base.
Cerebral edema can result from brain trauma or from nontraumatic causes such as ischemic stroke, cancer, or brain inflammation due to meningitis or encephalitis.

Confusion

mental confusionconfusedconfusing
Other symptoms include confusion or altered consciousness, vomiting, and an inability to tolerate light or loud noises.

Aseptic meningitis

meningitis, asepticasepticaseptic (non-infectious) meningitis
The term aseptic meningitis refers to cases of meningitis in which no bacterial infection can be demonstrated.
The symptoms are the same for both meningitis and aseptic meningitis but the severity of the symptoms and the treatment can depend on the certain cause.

Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndromeHemorrhagic adrenalitis
Severe meningococcal and pneumococcal infections may result in hemorrhaging of the adrenal glands, leading to Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, which is often fatal.
In this form of meningococcal disease, meningitis generally does not occur.

Infection

infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfections
Meningitis is typically caused by an infection with microorganisms.

Sepsis

septicaemiablood poisoningseptic
The infection may trigger sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response syndrome of falling blood pressure, fast heart rate, high or abnormally low temperature, and rapid breathing.
In common clinical usage, neonatal sepsis refers to a bacterial blood stream infection in the first month of life, such as meningitis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, or gastroenteritis, but neonatal sepsis also may be due to infection with fungi, viruses, or parasites.