A bottle of raloxifene.
Tamoxifen, a nonsteroidal triphenylethylene antiestrogen and a widely used drug in the treatment of breast cancer.
Symptoms of menopause
Figure 2: Nolvadex (tamoxifen) 20-milligram tablets (UK)
Size of the vaginal canal before and after menopause, demonstrating vaginal atrophy.
Figure 3: The domain structures of ERα and ERβ, including some of the known phosphorylation sites involved in ligand-independent regulation.
Bone loss due to menopause occurs due to changes in a woman's hormone levels.
Figure 4: Structural basis for the mechanism of estrogen receptor agonist and antagonist action. The structures shown here are of the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the estrogen receptor (green cartoon diagram) complexed with either the agonist diethylstilbestrol (top, ) or antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen (bottom, ). The ligands are depicted as space filling spheres (white = carbon, red = oxygen). When an agonist is bound to a nuclear receptor, the C-terminal alpha helix of the LBD (H12; light blue) is positioned such that a coactivator protein (red) can bind to the surface of the LBD. Shown here is just a small part of the coactivator protein, the so-called NR box containing the LXXLL amino acid sequence motif. Antagonists occupy the same ligand binding cavity of the nuclear receptor. However antagonist ligands in addition have a sidechain extension which sterically displaces H12 to occupy roughly the same position in space as coactivators bind. Hence coactivator binding to the LBD is blocked.
Figure 5: 4-hydroxytamoxifen (red) overlaid with 17β-estradiol (black)
Figure 6: Trans-form of clomifene with the triphenylethylene structure in red.
Figure 8: Chemical structure of toremifene
Figure 9: Raloxifene has a benzothiophene group (red) and is connected with a flexible carbonyl hinge to a phenyl 4-piperidinoethoxy side chain (green).
Figure 10: Chemical structure of nafoxidine with the dihydronapthalene group in red.
Figure 11: Chemical structure of lasofoxifene shows cis-oriented phenyls.
Figure 12: Bazedoxifene includes an indole system (red) which is connected to an amine through a benzyloxyethyl chain (green).
Figure 13: Chemical structure of ospemifene. Ethoxy side chain ends with a hydroxy group (red) instead of a dimethylamino group as with first-generation SERMs.
Figure 14: The ABCD steroid ring system in 17β-estradiol.
Figure 15: "A ring" (A) and "D ring" (D) marked in raloxifene.

Raloxifene, sold under the brand name Evista among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and those on glucocorticoids.

- Raloxifene

Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and therefore a mixed agonist–antagonist of the estrogen receptor (ER).

- Raloxifene

Raloxifene is used for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and breast cancer prevention in high-risk postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

- Selective estrogen receptor modulator

SERMs are a category of drugs, either synthetically produced or derived from a botanical source, that act selectively as agonists or antagonists on the estrogen receptors throughout the body.

- Menopause

The most commonly prescribed SERMs are raloxifene and tamoxifen.

- Menopause

Ospemifene was approved on February 26, 2013, for the treatment of moderate to severe dyspareunia, which is a symptom, due to menopause, of vulvar and vaginal atrophy.

- Selective estrogen receptor modulator
A bottle of raloxifene.

1 related topic with Alpha


Nolvadex (tamoxifen) 20 mg tablets.


0 links

Nolvadex (tamoxifen) 20 mg tablets.
Crystallographic structure of afimoxifene (carbon = white, oxygen = red, nitrogen = blue) complexed with ligand binding domain of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) (cyan ribbon).

Tamoxifen, sold under the brand name Nolvadex among others, is a selective estrogen receptor modulator used to prevent breast cancer in women and treat breast cancer in women and men.

Tamoxifen is used for the treatment of both early and advanced estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive or ER+) breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women.

In 2006, the large STAR clinical study concluded that raloxifene is also effective in reducing the incidence of breast cancer.