Mental model

mental modelsmodelinternal modelmental models and reasoningmental generationmental models theorymodelingmodelsneurophysiological modelspersonal model of reality
A mental model is an explanation of someone's thought process about how something works in the real world.wikipedia
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Mental Models

(see the book: Mental Models).
According to the acknowledgment of the book, it resulted from a workshop on mental models held at the University of California, San Diego in October 1980, that was jointly sponsored by the Office of Naval Research and the Sloan Foundation.

Psychology of reasoning

reasoninglogichow people reason
Mental models are based on a small set of fundamental assumptions (axioms), which distinguish them from other proposed representations in the psychology of reasoning (Byrne and Johnson-Laird, 2009).
A third view is that people rely on mental models, that is, mental representations that correspond to imagined possibilities.

Counterfactual conditional

counterfactualcounterfactualscounterfactual conditionals
However, mental models can represent what is false, temporarily assumed to be true, for example, in the case of counterfactual conditionals and counterfactual thinking (Byrne, 2005).
According to the mental model theory of reasoning, they construct mental models of the alternative possibilities, as described in Deduction (Johnson-Laird and Byrne, 1991).

Kenneth Craik

Craik
Kenneth Craik suggested in 1943 that the mind constructs "small-scale models" of reality that it uses to anticipate events.
In this book he first laid the foundation for the concept of mental models, that the mind forms models of reality and uses them to predict similar future events.

Cognitive map

cognitive mapscognitive mappingcognitive script
A cognitive map (sometimes called a mental map or mental model) is a type of mental representation which serves an individual to acquire, code, store, recall, and decode information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in their everyday or metaphorical spatial environment.

Mental model theory of reasoning

Philip Johnson-Laird and Ruth M.J. Byrne developed their mental model theory of reasoning which makes the assumption that reasoning depends, not on logical form, but on mental models (Johnson-Laird and Byrne, 1991).
Ongoing research on mental models and reasoning has led the theory to be extended to account for probabilistic inference (e.g., Johnson-Laird, 2006) and counterfactual thinking (Byrne, 2005).

Conceptual model

modelmodelsschema
In cognitive psychology and philosophy of mind, a mental model is a representation of something in the mind, but a mental model may also refer to a nonphysical external model of the mind itself.

System dynamics

systems dynamicsdynamicsbusiness systems
In the simplification of reality, creating a model can find a sense of reality, seeking to overcome systemic thinking and system dynamics.

Map–territory relation

The map is not the territoryMap-territory relationit is never identical with what it models

Thought

thinkingthoughtsthink
A mental model is an explanation of someone's thought process about how something works in the real world.

Behavior

behaviourbehavioralbehaviors
Mental models can help shape behaviour and set an approach to solving problems (similar to a personal algorithm) and doing tasks.

Algorithm

algorithmsalgorithm designcomputer algorithm
Mental models can help shape behaviour and set an approach to solving problems (similar to a personal algorithm) and doing tasks.

Cognition

cognitivecognitive functioncognitive process
A mental model is a kind of internal symbol or representation of external reality, hypothesized to play a major role in cognition, reasoning and decision-making.

Reason

reasoningratiocinationhuman reason
A mental model is a kind of internal symbol or representation of external reality, hypothesized to play a major role in cognition, reasoning and decision-making.

Decision-making

decision makingdecisionsdecision
A mental model is a kind of internal symbol or representation of external reality, hypothesized to play a major role in cognition, reasoning and decision-making.

Jay Wright Forrester

Jay W. ForresterJay ForresterUrban Dynamics
Jay Wright Forrester defined general mental models as:

Mental representation

representationrepresentationsRepresentational theory of mind
In psychology, the term mental models is sometimes used to refer to mental representations or mental simulation generally.

Philip Johnson-Laird

Philip N. Johnson-LairdPhilip Nicholas Johnson-LairdJohnson-Laird
Philip Johnson-Laird and Ruth M.J. Byrne developed their mental model theory of reasoning which makes the assumption that reasoning depends, not on logical form, but on mental models (Johnson-Laird and Byrne, 1991). At other times it is used to refer to and to the mental model theory of reasoning developed by Philip Johnson-Laird and Ruth M.J. Byrne.

Ruth M. J. Byrne

Ruth M.J. Byrne
Philip Johnson-Laird and Ruth M.J. Byrne developed their mental model theory of reasoning which makes the assumption that reasoning depends, not on logical form, but on mental models (Johnson-Laird and Byrne, 1991). At other times it is used to refer to and to the mental model theory of reasoning developed by Philip Johnson-Laird and Ruth M.J. Byrne.

Jean Piaget

PiagetPiagetianPiaget, J.
Georges-Henri Luquet in Le dessin enfantin (Children's drawings), published in 1927 by Alcan, Paris, argued that children construct internal models, a view that influenced, among others, child psychologist Jean Piaget.

Dedre Gentner

Analogical Constraint Mapping EngineAnalogical Retrieval Constraint System
In the same year, Dedre Gentner and Albert Stevens edited a collection of chapters in a book also titled Mental Models.

Albert Stevens

In the same year, Dedre Gentner and Albert Stevens edited a collection of chapters in a book also titled Mental Models.