Mercury battery

mercury batteriesMercury cellMercuric oxidemercury button cellmercury cell batteriesmercury chemical batteriesMercury oxideMercury oxide-zincMercury-oxidePX625
A mercury battery (also called mercuric oxide battery, or mercury cell) is a non-rechargeable electrochemical battery, a primary cell.wikipedia
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Button cell

coin cellLR44CR2032
Mercury batteries were used in the shape of button cells for watches, hearing aids, cameras and calculators, and in larger forms for other applications. Mercury oxide batteries were made in a range of sizes from miniature button cells used for hearing aids and electric wrist watches, cylindrical types used for portable electronic apparatus, rectangular batteries used for transistor radios, and large multicell packs used for industrial applications such as radio remote control for overhead crane systems.
Mercuric oxide button cells were formerly common, but are no longer available due to the toxicity and environmental effects of mercury.

Duracell

Duracell International
In the United States, mercury oxide batteries were manufactured by companies including P. R. Mallory and Co Inc, (now Duracell), Union Carbide Corporation (whose former battery division is now called Energizer Holdings), RCA Corporation, and Burgess Battery Company.
The company produced mercury batteries for military equipment, trumping the carbon-zinc batteries used then in virtually all applications.

Electric battery

batterybatteriesbattery-powered
A mercury battery (also called mercuric oxide battery, or mercury cell) is a non-rechargeable electrochemical battery, a primary cell.

Samuel Ruben

The mercury oxide-zinc battery system was known more than 100 years ago but did not become widely used until 1942, when Samuel Ruben developed a balanced mercury cell which was useful for military applications such as metal detectors, munitions, and walkie-talkies.
Ruben developed the mercury button cell in 1942 to replace the zinc-carbon batteries at a request from the Army Signal Corps.

Mercury (element)

mercuryquicksilverHg
For a time during and after World War II, batteries made with mercury became a popular power source for portable electronic devices.
The mercury battery is a non-rechargeable electrochemical battery, a primary cell, that was common in the middle of the 20th century. It was used in a wide variety of applications and was available in various sizes, particularly button sizes. Its constant voltage output and long shelf life gave it a niche use for camera light meters and hearing aids. The mercury cell was effectively banned in most countries in the 1990s due to concerns about the mercury contaminating landfills.

P. R. Mallory and Co Inc

Mallory BatteryMallory Battery CompanyMallory Capacitor Co.
In the United States, mercury oxide batteries were manufactured by companies including P. R. Mallory and Co Inc, (now Duracell), Union Carbide Corporation (whose former battery division is now called Energizer Holdings), RCA Corporation, and Burgess Battery Company.
In 1942 inventor Samuel Ruben with Mallory developed a practical balanced form of mercury battery which was used for portable electronic equipment during the Second World War.

Mercury(II) oxide

mercuric oxideHgOmercury oxide
Mercury batteries use either pure mercury(II) oxide (HgO)—also called mercuric oxide—or a mixture of HgO with manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) as the cathode.
It is also used as a material for cathodes for mercury batteries.

Electrochemistry

electrochemicalelectrochemistelectrochemical reaction
The first consists of an electrochemical reaction step:
The mercury battery using zinc and mercuric oxide provided higher levels of power and capacity than the original dry cell for early electronic devices, but has been phased out of common use due to the danger of mercury pollution from discarded cells.

Zinc–air battery

zinc-air batterieszinc-air batteryZinc–air
Alternatives used are zinc-air batteries, with similar discharge curve, high capacity, but much shorter lifetime (a few months), and poor performance in dry climates; alkaline batteries with voltage widely varying through their lifetime; and silver-oxide batteries with higher voltage (1.55 V) and very flat discharge curve, which makes them possibly the best, though expensive, replacement after recalibrating the meter to the new voltage.
Sizes range from very small button cells for hearing aids, larger batteries used in film cameras that previously used mercury batteries, to very large batteries used for electric vehicle propulsion.

Voltage reference

voltage standardbandgap referencesreference voltage
The voltage remains within 1% for several years at light load, and over a wide temperature range, making mercury batteries useful as a voltage reference in electronic instruments and in photographic light meters.
Formerly, mercury batteries were much used as convenient voltage references especially in portable instruments such as photographic light meters; mercury batteries had a very stable discharge voltage over their useful life.

List of battery sizes

AA batteries217002CR5
List of battery sizes
Mercury batteries had stable cell terminal voltages around 1.35 volts.

Silver-oxide battery

silver-zinc batteriessilver-zinc batterysilver-zinc
Alternatives used are zinc-air batteries, with similar discharge curve, high capacity, but much shorter lifetime (a few months), and poor performance in dry climates; alkaline batteries with voltage widely varying through their lifetime; and silver-oxide batteries with higher voltage (1.55 V) and very flat discharge curve, which makes them possibly the best, though expensive, replacement after recalibrating the meter to the new voltage.
Compared to other batteries, a silver-oxide battery has a higher open-circuit voltage than a mercury battery, and a flatter discharge curve than a standard alkaline battery.

Hearing aid

hearing aidshearing instrumentshearing technology
Mercury oxide batteries were made in a range of sizes from miniature button cells used for hearing aids and electric wrist watches, cylindrical types used for portable electronic apparatus, rectangular batteries used for transistor radios, and large multicell packs used for industrial applications such as radio remote control for overhead crane systems.
(Older hearing aids often used mercury battery cells, but these cells have become banned in most countries today.) Modern hearing aid button cell types are typically referred to by their common number name or the color of their packaging.

Primary cell

primary batteryprimaryprimary batteries
A mercury battery (also called mercuric oxide battery, or mercury cell) is a non-rechargeable electrochemical battery, a primary cell.

Zinc–carbon battery

zinc-carbon batteryzinc-carbon batterieszinc-carbon
The voltage during discharge remains practically constant at 1.35 volts, and the capacity is much greater than that of a similarly sized zinc carbon battery.

Mercury poisoning

mercurymercury toxicitymercury exposure
Due to the content of toxic mercury and environmental concerns about its disposal, the sale of mercury batteries is now banned in many countries.

American National Standards Institute

ANSIASAAmerican National Standard
Both ANSI and IEC have withdrawn their standards for mercury batteries.

International Electrotechnical Commission

IECInternational Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)(IEC)
Both ANSI and IEC have withdrawn their standards for mercury batteries.

Walkie-talkie

walkie talkiewalkie-talkiesradio
The mercury oxide-zinc battery system was known more than 100 years ago but did not become widely used until 1942, when Samuel Ruben developed a balanced mercury cell which was useful for military applications such as metal detectors, munitions, and walkie-talkies.

Remote control

remote-controlledremoteinfrared remote control
Mercury oxide batteries were made in a range of sizes from miniature button cells used for hearing aids and electric wrist watches, cylindrical types used for portable electronic apparatus, rectangular batteries used for transistor radios, and large multicell packs used for industrial applications such as radio remote control for overhead crane systems.

Union Carbide

Union Carbide CorporationUnion Carbide and Carbon CorporationPrest-O-Lite
In the United States, mercury oxide batteries were manufactured by companies including P. R. Mallory and Co Inc, (now Duracell), Union Carbide Corporation (whose former battery division is now called Energizer Holdings), RCA Corporation, and Burgess Battery Company.