Meridiungulata

meridiungulatemeridiungulatesSouth American ungulatenative ungulatenative ungulatesSouth American hoofed mammalsungulates of native originMeridungulates.South American endemic ungulatesSouth American ungulates
Meridiungulata is an extinct clade with the rank of cohort or superorder, containing the South American ungulates Pyrotheria (possibly including Xenungulata), Astrapotheria, Notoungulata and Litopterna.wikipedia
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Pyrotheria

pyrotherespyrothere
Meridiungulata is an extinct clade with the rank of cohort or superorder, containing the South American ungulates Pyrotheria (possibly including Xenungulata), Astrapotheria, Notoungulata and Litopterna.
Pyrotheria is an order of extinct meridiungulate mammals.

Xenungulata

xenungulatesxenungulate
Meridiungulata is an extinct clade with the rank of cohort or superorder, containing the South American ungulates Pyrotheria (possibly including Xenungulata), Astrapotheria, Notoungulata and Litopterna.
Xenungulata ("strange ungulates") is an order of extinct and primitive South American hoofed mammals that lived from the Late Paleocene to Early Eocene (Itaboraian to Casamayoran in the SALMA classification).

Astrapotheria

astrapotheresastrapothereAstrapotheria indet.
Meridiungulata is an extinct clade with the rank of cohort or superorder, containing the South American ungulates Pyrotheria (possibly including Xenungulata), Astrapotheria, Notoungulata and Litopterna.
This taxonomy of this order is not clear, but it may belong to Meridiungulata (along with Notoungulata, Litopterna, Pyrotheria and Xenungulata).

Great American Interchange

Great American Biotic Interchangefaunal exchangefaunal interchange
Most Meridiungulata died out following the invasion of South America by North American ungulates and predators during the Great American Interchange, but a few of the largest species of notoungulates and litopterns survived until the end-Pleistocene extinctions.
Its endemic mammals initially consisted primarily of metatherians (marsupials and sparassodonts), xenarthrans, and a diverse group of native ungulates: notoungulates (the "southern ungulates"), litopterns, astrapotheres, pyrotheres and xenungulates.

Litopterna

litopternLitopterna indet.litopterns
Meridiungulata is an extinct clade with the rank of cohort or superorder, containing the South American ungulates Pyrotheria (possibly including Xenungulata), Astrapotheria, Notoungulata and Litopterna.
A proposed clade containing these groups is the Meridiungulata.

Notoungulata

notoungulatenotoungulatesNotoungulata indet.
Meridiungulata is an extinct clade with the rank of cohort or superorder, containing the South American ungulates Pyrotheria (possibly including Xenungulata), Astrapotheria, Notoungulata and Litopterna.
This order is united with other South American ungulates in the super-order Meridiungulata.

Ungulate

ungulatesunguligradeEuungulata
Meridiungulata is an extinct clade with the rank of cohort or superorder, containing the South American ungulates Pyrotheria (possibly including Xenungulata), Astrapotheria, Notoungulata and Litopterna.
The South American meridiungulates contain the somewhat tapir-like pyrotheres and astrapotheres, the mesaxonic litopterns and the diverse notoungulates.

Wastebasket taxon

wastebin taxonwastebin genuswastebasket taxa
Relationships between the orders inside Meridiungulata remain unresolved and it could well be a "wastebasket taxon".

Condylarth

CondylarthracondylarthsCondylarthra indet.
Meridiungulata might have originated in South America from a North American condylarth ancestor, and they may be members of the clade Laurasiatheria, related to other ungulates, including artiodactyls and perissodactyls.
Besides these, several extinct animals also belong to this group, especially the endemic South American orders of ungulates, (Meridiungulata).

Toxodonta

Toxodontia indet.Toxodontiatoxodont
Toxodonta or Toxodontia is a suborder of the meridiungulate order Notoungulata.

Macrauchenia

Macrauchenia patachonicagiant llamaMacrauchenia latidens
Results from the sequencing of collagen from Pleistocene fossils of the notoungulate Toxodon and the litoptern Macrauchenia have indicated that at least these two orders are indeed laurasiatheres, and so form a sister group to odd-toed ungulates.
Litopterna was one of the five (four in some classifications) ancient orders of endemic South American mammals collectively called Meridungulates. Their relationships with other mammal groups outside South America have been poorly understood, as their early evolutionary history would have been in Western Gondwana, and outside of South America this area is now Antarctica.

Didolodus

DidolodontidaedidolodontidDidolodontidae indet.
It is an ungulate mammal of uncertain affinities, possibly related to Litopterna, though this is uncertain due to the lack of reliable post-cranial remains, and for now remains Meridiungulata incertae sedis.

Odd-toed ungulate

Perissodactylaperissodactylsperissodactyl
Meridiungulata might have originated in South America from a North American condylarth ancestor, and they may be members of the clade Laurasiatheria, related to other ungulates, including artiodactyls and perissodactyls. Results from the sequencing of collagen from Pleistocene fossils of the notoungulate Toxodon and the litoptern Macrauchenia have indicated that at least these two orders are indeed laurasiatheres, and so form a sister group to odd-toed ungulates.
According to studies published in March 2015, odd-toed ungulates are in a close family relationship with at least some of the so-called Meridiungulata, a very diverse group of mammals living from the Paleocene to the Pleistocene in South America, whose systematic unity is largely unexplained.

Laurasiatheria

laurasiathereLaurasiatherescows
Meridiungulata might have originated in South America from a North American condylarth ancestor, and they may be members of the clade Laurasiatheria, related to other ungulates, including artiodactyls and perissodactyls.

Mesaxonia

Panperissodactyla
Panperissodactyla has been proposed as the name of an unranked clade to include perissodactyls and their extinct South American ungulate relatives.
Recent work in morphological cladistics and ancient DNA suggests that several extinct lineages, like the Desmostylia and some of the South American ungulates of Meridiungulata (both groups traditionally seen as Afrotherian relatives) are related to the perissodactyls.

Macraucheniidae

macraucheniidMacraucheniidae indet.Mesorhinus
Macraucheniidae is a family in the extinct South American ungulate order Litopterna, that resembled various camelids.

Trigonostylops

TrigonostylopidaeTrigonostylops sp.Trigonostylopidae indent
Trigonostylops is an extinct genus of South American meridiungulatan ungulate, from the Late Paleocene to Late Eocene (Itaboraian to Tinguirirican in the SALMA classification) of South America (Argentina and Peru) and Antarctica (Seymour Island).

Carodnia

CarodniidaeCarodnia feruglioiCarodnia inexpectans
Carodnia is an extinct genus of South American ungulate known from the Early Eocene of Brazil, Argentina, and Peru.

Proterotheriidae

Proterotheriidae indet.proterotheriidNeocaliphrium

Extinction

extinctspecies extinction
Meridiungulata is an extinct clade with the rank of cohort or superorder, containing the South American ungulates Pyrotheria (possibly including Xenungulata), Astrapotheria, Notoungulata and Litopterna.

South America

South AmericanSouthSouth-America
Meridiungulata is an extinct clade with the rank of cohort or superorder, containing the South American ungulates Pyrotheria (possibly including Xenungulata), Astrapotheria, Notoungulata and Litopterna. Meridiungulata might have originated in South America from a North American condylarth ancestor, and they may be members of the clade Laurasiatheria, related to other ungulates, including artiodactyls and perissodactyls.

Quaternary extinction event

extinctionoverkill hypothesisextinct
Most Meridiungulata died out following the invasion of South America by North American ungulates and predators during the Great American Interchange, but a few of the largest species of notoungulates and litopterns survived until the end-Pleistocene extinctions.

North America

NorthNorth AmericanNA
Meridiungulata might have originated in South America from a North American condylarth ancestor, and they may be members of the clade Laurasiatheria, related to other ungulates, including artiodactyls and perissodactyls.

Even-toed ungulate

artiodactyleven-toed ungulatesCetartiodactyla
Meridiungulata might have originated in South America from a North American condylarth ancestor, and they may be members of the clade Laurasiatheria, related to other ungulates, including artiodactyls and perissodactyls.

Atlantogenata

atlantogenates
It has, however, been suggested the Meridiungulata are part of a different macro-group of placental mammals called Atlantogenata.