A report on MesoamericaMexico and Puebla

Mesoamerica and its cultural areas
Ballgame court at Monte Albán
Lake and mountains in Necaxa
A pair of swinging Remojadas figurines, Classic Veracruz culture, 300 to 900 CE.
Depiction of the founding myth of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Codex Mendoza. The eagle perched on a cactus has been incorporated into the Mexican flag since its independence, and was a motif in colonial-era art.
Petlapa River
Page 9 of the Dresden Codex (from the 1880 Förstermann edition)
Fog in the mountains near Zacatlán
El Mirador flourished from 600 BCE to 100 CE, and may have had a population of over 100,000.
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan with first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
Ravines at Zacatlán
Landscape of the Mesoamerican highlands
Cultivation of maize, shown in the Florentine Codex (1576) drawn by an indigenous scribe, with text in Nahuatl on this folio
Pine forest near Huauchinango in the Sierra Norte
Yojoa Lake in Honduras.
1945 mural by Diego Rivera depicting the view from the Tlatelolco markets into Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the largest city in the Americas at the time
View from the summit of Pico de Orizaba
Tikal is one of the largest archaeological sites, urban centers, and tourist attractions of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. It is located in the archaeological region of the Petén Basin in what is now northern Guatemala.
Hernán Cortés and his multilingual cultural translator, Doña Marina ("Malinche"), meeting Moctezuma II from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, a document created ca. 1550 by the Tlaxcalans to remind the Spanish of their loyalty and the importance of Tlaxcala during the conquest of the Aztec Empire.
Olmec figurine of Las Bocas
Olmec Colossal Head No. 3 1200–900 BCE
Smallpox depicted by an indigenous artist in the 1576 Florentine Codex
Massacre of Cholula
Pyramid of the Moon viewed from atop of the Pyramid of the Sun.
View of the Plaza Mayor (today Zócalo) in Mexico City (ca. 1695) by Cristóbal de Villalpando
The Convento de San Miguel Arcángel in Huejotzingo, part of the Monasteries on the slopes of Popocatépetl.
Xochicalco, Temple of the Feathered Serpent, 650–900 CE
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
Former Franciscan monastery at Tecali de Herrera
Detail of the Nunnery Quadrangle at Uxmal, 10th century
Silver peso mined and minted in colonial Mexico, which became a global currency
Cuetzalan del Progreso
Mesoamerica and Central America in the 16th century before Spanish arrival
Viceroyalty of New Spain following the signing of the 1819 Adams-Onís Treaty
Mexican cavalry charge at the Battle of Puebla
Examples of the diversity of maize
Luis de Mena, Virgin of Guadalupe and castas, showing race mixture and hierarchy as well as fruits of the realm, ca. 1750
Nahuas in Zacatlán
The Aztec Empire in 1512
Father Hidalgo used this banner of the Virgin of Guadalupe as their emblem
Crafts of Puebla, México
K'inich Kan B'alam II, the Classic period ruler of Palenque, as depicted on a stele
Siege of the Alhondiga de Granaditas, Guanajuato, 28 Sept. 1810.
Shearing a sheep near Zacatlán
Illustration that recreates the structures of the archaeological site of Yarumela or El Chircal in Honduras, this place reflects the Olmec influence that existed in Central America in the pre-classic period.
Flag of the Army of the Three Guarantees, the force formed by ex-royalist Iturbide and insurgent Vicente Guerrero in February 1821
Farmers in a field in Puebla
"Head Variant" or "Patron Gods" glyphs for Maya days
Flag of the First Mexican Empire under Agustín I, 1822-23, with the eagle wearing a crown
Uriarte Talavera pottery workshop in Puebla, Mexico
The emblem glyph of Tikal (Mutal)
Flag of the First Republic of Mexico, with the eagle without a crown, signaling the new republic
Church of San Francisco Acatepec
One of the earliest examples of the Mesoamerican writing systems, the Epi-Olmec script on the La Mojarra Stela 1 dated to around 150 CE. Mesoamerica is one of the five places in the world where writing has developed independently.
General Antonio López de Santa Anna
Great Pyramid of Cholula.
The xoloitzcuintle is one of the naguales of the god Quetzalcoatl. In this form, it helps the dead cross the Chicnahuapan, a river that separates the world of the living from the dead.
Portrait of Liberal President Benito Juárez
Cantona
Zapotec mask of the Bat God.
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian, 19 June 1867. Gen. Tomás Mejía, left, Maximiian, center, Gen. Miguel Miramón, right. Painting by Édouard Manet 1868.
Tepexi el Viejo
Ritual human sacrifice portrayed in Codex Laud
President Porfirio Díaz linking himself to independence hero Hidalgo and liberal hero Juárez September 1910.
Cemita sandwich
A small ceremonial ballcourt at Uaxactun.
Francisco I. Madero, who challenged Díaz in the fraudulent 1910 election and was elected president when Díaz was forced to resign in May 1911.
mole poblano
Ballgame marker from the classic Lowland Maya site of Chinkultic, Mexico depicting a ballplayer in full gear
Revolutionary Generals Pancho Villa (left) and Emiliano Zapata (right)
Chile en nogada
The Avenue of the Dead in Teotihuacan, an example of a Mesoamerican settlement planned according to concepts of directionality
General Álvaro Obregón (far left) shown with a cigar in his left hand and his right arm missing, center with the white beard is First Chief Venustiano Carranza
Mural of the founding of Puebla by Roberto Cueva Del Río
Art with ideological and political meaning: depiction of an Aztec tzompantli (skull-rack) from the Ramirez Codex
Logo of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which incorporates the colors of the Mexican flag
Day of the Dead altar in the Sierra Mixteca
Holy Spirit Grotto
Pemex, the national oil company created in 1938 for reasons of economic nationalism; it continues to provide major revenues for the government
Woman in china poblana dress
Joya de Cerén
NAFTA signing ceremony, October 1992. From left to right: (standing) President Carlos Salinas de Gortari (Mexico), President George H. W. Bush (U.S.), and Prime Minister Brian Mulroney (Canada)
The exterior of the Biblioteca Palafoxiana in Puebla City, Mexico, is recognized by the UNESCO for being the first public library in the Americas. Founded in 1646 by Juan de Palafox y Mendoza.
Tazumal
Zapatista leader Comandanta Ramona
UDLAP library
Casa Blanca
Vicente Fox and his opposition National Action Party won the 2000 general election, ending one-party rule.
Hall of protocols of the State Government of Puebla, Puebla city.
San Andres
Topographic map of Mexico
Cihuatán
Mexico map of Köppen climate classification
Sculpture of "The Acrobat" from Tlatilco
Mexican wolf
Pyramid of the archaeological site of La Venta 1000-400 BCE
Gray whale
Cuicuilco 800–600 BCE
The National Palace on the east side of Plaza de la Constitución or Zócalo, the main square of Mexico City; it was the residence of viceroys and Presidents of Mexico and now the seat of the Mexican government.
The partly excavated main structure of San José Mogote 1500–500 BCE
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
Monte Albán, Building J in the foreground. 200 BCE – 200 CE
Alfonso García Robles diplomat who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982
Great Goddess of Teotihuacan 200–500 CE
A Mexican Navy Eurocopter
A reconstruction of Guachimontones, flourished from 200 to 400 CE
Demonstration on 26 September 2015, in the first anniversary of the disappearance of the 43 students in the Mexican town of Iguala
Temple of the Owl, Dzibanche 200–600 CE
The territorial evolution of Mexico after independence: secession of Central America (purple), Chiapas annexed from Guatemala (blue), losses to the U.S. (red, white and orange) and the reannexation of the Republic of Yucatán (red)
Acanceh, 200–300 CE<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mesoweb.com/features/acanceh/history.html|title=Mesoweb Articles|work=mesoweb.com}}</ref>
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.
Mask located on the "Temple of the Masks" Kohunlich c. 500 CE
Historical GDP per capita development of Mexico
Main palace of Palenque, 7th century AD
Mexican Stock Exchange building
K'inich Janaab Pakal I of Palenque 603–683 AD
Telmex Tower, Mexico City.
Copan Stela H commissioned by Uaxaclajuun Ubʼaah Kʼawiil 695–738 AD
The Central Eólica Sureste I, Fase II in Oaxaca. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the region of Mexico with the highest capacity for wind energy. (see Tehuantepecer, a strong wind that affects the region)
Jaina Island type figure (Maya) 650–800 AD
Guillermo Haro Observatory in Cananea, Sonora.
Cacaxtla, Mural depicting the Bird Man 650–900 AD
Cancun and the Riviera Maya is the most visited region in Latin America
Chichen Itza, Temple of the Jaguars 900–1000 AD
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
Governor's Palace rear view and details, 10th century CE, Uxmal
El Cajon Dam
Codz Poop, 7th–10th centuries CE Kabah
Mexican states by population density
Sayil, three-story palace, 600–900 CE
Las castas. Casta painting showing 16 racial groupings. Anonymous, 18th century, oil on canvas, 148×104 cm, Museo Nacional del Virreinato, Tepotzotlán, Mexico.
Chichen Itza, "Temple of Three Dintels" 600–1000 CE
Colonial caste painting of Mexican family in Viceroyalty of New Spain
Palace of Mitla, Oaxaca 12th century
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1981 Miguel de Cervantes Prize, the 1982 Neustadt International Prize for Literature, and the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature.
The Calendar temple of Tlatelolco, 1200 CE
Our Lady of Guadalupe, patron saint of Mexico. This painting of her at the Basilica of Guadalupe is among her most notable depictions. Scientists debate if it should be dated 1531, the year of the first apparition was said to appear, or the 1550s.
Detail of page 20 from the Codex Zouche-Nuttall, 14–15th century
Cathedral of Zacatecas
Pectoral mixtec, Shield of Yanhuitlan.
General Hospital of Mexico in Mexico City.
Aztec sun stone, early 16th century
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
A small ceremonial ballcourt at Tikal.
Olga Sánchez Cordero, Minister of the Interior (Gobernacion) in President López Obrador's cabinet
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Mexican Muralism. A cultural expression starting in the 1920s created by a group of Mexican painters after the Mexican Revolution.
Monument to Cuauhtémoc, Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City (1887)
Teotihuacán, State of Mexico
The colonial-era Cathedral Mexico City dominates one side of the main square of the capital
Museo Soumaya in Mexico City building
David Alfaro Siqueiros by Héctor García Cobo at Lecumberri prison, Mexico City, 1960.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, "The Tenth Muse." Posthmous portrait Juan Cabrera
Actress Dolores del Río, Hollywood star in the 1920s and 1930s and prominent figure of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema in the 1940s and 1950s
Mole sauce, which has dozens of varieties across the Republic, is seen as a symbol of Mexicanidad and is considered Mexico's national dish.
Portrait of composer Carlos Chávez by Carl van Vechten
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
Logo for the 1968 Mexico Olympics
Plaque in Mexico City commemorating Lucha libre as an intangible cultural heritage
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan, the first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
View of the Pyramid of the Sun in the ancient city-state of Teotihuacan, which was the 6th largest city in the world at its peak (1 AD to 500 AD)
Temple of Kukulcán (El Castillo) in the maya city of Chichen Itza
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.
Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his Troops (1848)
Telmex Tower, Mexico City.
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
The Baluarte Bridge was the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and is the highest bridge in the Americas.
Map of the First Mexican Empire
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Students in a burned bus during the protests of 1968
Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, two of the most famous mexican artists
Pico de Orizaba, the highest mountain in Mexico
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Congress of Mexico
Alfonso Cuarón, the first mexican filmmaker to win the Academy Award for Best Director
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
Televisa headquarters in Mexico City
Headquarters of the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs
El Santo, one of the most iconic Mexican luchadores
Mexican Federal Police celebration.
Mexico City, the financial center of Mexico
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Large Millimeter Telescope in Puebla.
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
Lake Chapala is Mexico's largest freshwater lake.
Regional variation of ancestry according to a study made by Ruiz-Linares in 2014, each dot represents a volunteer, with most coming from south Mexico and Mexico City.
Map for the year 2000 of the indigenous languages of Mexico having more than 100,000 speakers.
Mexico–United States barrier between San Diego's border patrol offices in California, USA (left) and Tijuana, Mexico (right)
Secretary of Health, Mexico City, Mexico.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Frida Kahlo, the most famous woman artist in Mexican history.
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
El Santo, one of the most famous and iconic Mexican luchadores

Puebla ( colony, settlement), officially Free and Sovereign State of Puebla (Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla), is one of the 32 states which comprise the Federal Entities of Mexico.

- Puebla

It extends from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica.

- Mesoamerica

In particular, the Mesoamerican region was home to many intertwined civilizations; including the Olmec, Maya, Zapotec, Teotihuacan, and Purepecha.

- Mexico

The tallest mountain in Mesoamerica is Pico de Orizaba, a dormant volcano located on the border of Puebla and Veracruz.

- Mesoamerica

By the Mesoamerican period, the area was inhabited by a number of ethnicities.

- Puebla

The Chipilo dialect, a variance of the Venetian language, is spoken in the town of Chipilo, located in the central state of Puebla, by around 2,500 people, mainly descendants of Venetians that migrated to the area in the late 19th century.

- Mexico
Mesoamerica and its cultural areas

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Overall

Veracruz

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Pico de Orizaba
Jamapa River
Mountain formation in the south of the state
Shore of Lake Catemaco
Bougainvillea
Olmec stone head
Playa Villa Rica, where the Spanish built the first city of Veracruz
Statue of rebel leader Yanga
Depiction of the Battle of Veracruz during the Mexican–American War
Vanilla beans
Petroleum tower in Poza Rica
A portion of the port of Veracruz
Huachinango (red snapper) a la Veracruzana
The Olmec San Martin Pajapan Monument 1 on exhibit in the Museum of Anthropology in Xalapa
Mural depicting the history of Papantla in the town square by Teodoro Cano García
Veracruz lighthouse
El Tajín, Niche pyramid

Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave , officially the Free and Sovereign State of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave (Estado Libre y Soberano de Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

It is located in eastern Mexico and is bordered by seven states, which are Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Hidalgo, Puebla, Oaxaca, Chiapas, and Tabasco.

It is believed to have originated with the Nahua, Huastec and Otomi peoples in central Mexico, and then spread throughout most of Mesoamerica.

Nahua children in traditional clothes

Nahuas

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The Nahuas are a group of the indigenous people of Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.

The Nahuas are a group of the indigenous people of Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.

Nahua children in traditional clothes
Number of Nahuatl speakers per state, according to the 2000 Mexican census
Current distribution of Nahuatl variants
Ceramic sculpture of Nahua deity from Puebla
"Atlantean figures" from the Nahua culture of the Toltecs at Tula.
Depiction of Tlaxcaltec soldiers leading a Spaniard to Chalco from Lienzo de Tlaxcala
Depiction of Tlaxcaltecs and Spanish at the founding of the Colonial Province of Tlaxcala in 1545.
Nahua man of Morelos ploughing a bean field by mule

However, their core area was Central Mexico, including the Valley of Mexico, the Toluca Valley, the eastern half of the Balsas River basin, and modern-day Tlaxcala and most of Puebla, although other linguistic and ethnic groups lived in these areas as well.

Through their integration in the Mesoamerican cultural area the Nahuas adopted many cultural traits including maize agriculture and urbanism, religious practices including a ritual calendar of 260 days and the practice of human sacrifices and the construction of monumental architecture and the use of logographic writing.

With the achievement of Mexican independence in 1821, the casta system, which divided the population into racial categories with differential rights, was eliminated and the term "Indian" (indio) was no longer used by government, although it continued to be used in daily speech.

Oaxaca

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Effigy Head Brazier (500 BC – 200 BC)
Looking southwest over the site of Monte Albán
Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption, the motherchurch of the Oaxacan Archdiocese
Benito Juárez
Protesters in Oaxaca, 2006
Workers campaigning in the historic 2010 state government election
Map of Oaxaca
Regions and districts of Oaxaca
800px
Mazateco children
Wax mannequin of woman in Mixtec dress
Popoloca woman
The conserved rainforest of Santiago Comaltepec, Oaxaca
Entrance to the crocodile nursery located inside the Lagunas de Chacahua National Park
Cerro de San Felipe, Benito Juárez National Park
Map marking the numerous municipalities of Oaxaca. Oaxaca de Juárez is highlighted.
Interior view of the old Oaxaca Government Palace and Capitol Building, which now houses the state museum
The Central Eólica Sureste I, Fase II in Asunción Ixtaltepec. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the region of Mexico with the highest capacity for wind energy.
Benito Juárez Market, Oaxaca
A market in Oaxaca
Xoxocotlán International Airport.
Two young people dancing a jarabe
Various sizes of Chapulines at the Mercado Benito Juárez in Oaxaca, Mexico
Ex-monastery of Santiago Apóstol in Cuilapan de Guerrero
View of Zipolite Beach
Barro negro pottery at the state crafts museum
Alebrijes at the Pochote Market in Oaxaca, México
Craftswoman making banana leaf bun in Tavehua, Oaxaca.
UABJO School of Languages.
The Cultural Universitario & Rectoria on the main campus of the Universidad Autónoma Benito Juárez de Oaxaca.

Oaxaca (, also , , from ), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca (Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 32 states that compose the Federative Entities of Mexico.

It is bordered by the states of Guerrero to the west, Puebla to the northwest, Veracruz to the north, and Chiapas to the east.

It has the largest ball court in the valley and stated to be the second largest in the Mesoamerican region.

Hidalgo (state)

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Cave paintings in Huichapan
Atlantes at the Tula archeological site
Monastery of San Francisco in Pachuca.
Lord's Prayer written in Spanish and Otomi at the Church of San Miguel in Ixmiquilpan
Baked pasties for sale in Pachuca
The original statue of Diana Cazadora is located in Ixmiquilpan.
Canyon south of Peña del Aire, in Huasca de Ocampo, a part of the Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphere Reserve.
Basaltic Prisms of Santa María Regla
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt in the Municipality of Apan, southern Hidalgo.
Tulancingo Valley, temperate zone.
Tula River, in the municipality of Mixquiahuala.
The former Acosta mine, now a museum
Grain silos in Acatlán
Display of bottled pulque at the Feria de Pachuca
Ceramics by Nicolas Vita Hernandez of Chililco, Huejutla

Hidalgo, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Hidalgo (Estado Libre y Soberano de Hidalgo) is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, constitute the 32 federal entities of Mexico.

Located in the eastern part of the country, Hidalgo is bordered by San Luis Potosí and Veracruz on the north, Puebla on the east, Tlaxcala and State of Mexico on the south and Querétaro on the west.

The modern day state of Hidalgo is located within the pre-Hispanic region of Mesoamerica.

Nahuatl

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Language or, by some definitions, a group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.

Language or, by some definitions, a group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.

Tree diagram of the relation between the Nahuan languages and the rest of the Uto-Aztecan language family, based on the internal classification of Nahuan given by Terrence
Page 51 of Book IX from the Florentine Codex. The text is in Nahuatl written in the Latin alphabet.
Map showing the areas of Mexico where Nahuatl is spoken today
The Aztecs called (red) tomatoes xitōmatl, whereas the green tomatillo was called tōmatl; the latter is the source for the English word tomato.
The place names Mapachtepec ('Raccoon Hill'), Mazatlan ('Deer Place') and Huitztlan ('Thorn Place') written in the Aztec writing system, from the Codex Mendoza
Page of Book IV from the Florentine Codex. The text is in Nahuatl written in the Latin alphabet.
Illustrated alphabet of the Nahuatl, Aztec or Mexicano language.

Varieties of Nahuatl are spoken by about 1.7 million Nahua peoples, most of whom live mainly in Central Mexico and have smaller population in the United States.

Starting in the 1970s, scholars of Mesoamerican ethnohistory have analyzed local-level texts in Nahuatl and other indigenous languages to gain insight into cultural change in the colonial era via linguistic changes, known at present as the New Philology.

The largest concentrations of Nahuatl speakers are found in the states of Puebla, Veracruz, Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, and Guerrero.