Mesoamerica and its cultural areas
Conquest of Mexico by Cortés, oil on canvas Conquista de México por Cortés
Ballgame court at Monte Albán
Cortés and his counselor, the Nahua woman La Malinche, meet Moctezuma in Tenochtitlan, 8 November 1519
Depiction of the founding myth of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Codex Mendoza. The eagle perched on a cactus has been incorporated into the Mexican flag since its independence, and was a motif in colonial-era art.
A pair of swinging Remojadas figurines, Classic Veracruz culture, 300 to 900 CE.
The death of Moctezuma, depicted in the Florentine Codex
Page 9 of the Dresden Codex (from the 1880 Förstermann edition)
Smallpox depicted in Book XII on the conquest of Mexico in the Florentine Codex
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan with first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
El Mirador flourished from 600 BCE to 100 CE, and may have had a population of over 100,000.
The capture of Cuauhtemoc. 17th century, oil on canvas.
Cultivation of maize, shown in the Florentine Codex (1576) drawn by an indigenous scribe, with text in Nahuatl on this folio
Landscape of the Mesoamerican highlands
Bernal Díaz del Castillo's True History of the Conquest of Mexico
1945 mural by Diego Rivera depicting the view from the Tlatelolco markets into Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the largest city in the Americas at the time
Yojoa Lake in Honduras.
Tlaxcalan allies of the Spanish, showing their leaders, porters, as well as a Spanish warrior and a Spanish war dog. Lienzo de Tlaxcala
Hernán Cortés and his multilingual cultural translator, Doña Marina ("Malinche"), meeting Moctezuma II from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, a document created ca. 1550 by the Tlaxcalans to remind the Spanish of their loyalty and the importance of Tlaxcala during the conquest of the Aztec Empire.
Tikal is one of the largest archaeological sites, urban centers, and tourist attractions of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. It is located in the archaeological region of the Petén Basin in what is now northern Guatemala.
A comet seen by Moctezuma, interpreted as a sign of impending peril. Diego Durán's account from indigenous informants.
Smallpox depicted by an indigenous artist in the 1576 Florentine Codex
Olmec Colossal Head No. 3 1200–900 BCE
Aztec empire on the eve of the Spanish Invasion
View of the Plaza Mayor (today Zócalo) in Mexico City (ca. 1695) by Cristóbal de Villalpando
Pyramid of the Moon viewed from atop of the Pyramid of the Sun.
Diego de Velázquez, who commissioned Cortés's limited expedition of exploration in 1519
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
Xochicalco, Temple of the Feathered Serpent, 650–900 CE
Hernán Cortés in his later years; his coat of arms on the upper left corner. Painting reproduced in the book America (R. Cronau 19th century).
Silver peso mined and minted in colonial Mexico, which became a global currency
Detail of the Nunnery Quadrangle at Uxmal, 10th century
Map depicting Cortés' conquest route
Viceroyalty of New Spain following the signing of the 1819 Adams-Onís Treaty
Mesoamerica and Central America in the 16th century before Spanish arrival
Codex Azcatitlan depicting the Spanish-Tlaxcalan army, with Cortés and La Malinche, along with an African slave in front the meeting with Moctezuma. The facing page is no longer extant.
Luis de Mena, Virgin of Guadalupe and castas, showing race mixture and hierarchy as well as fruits of the realm, ca. 1750
Examples of the diversity of maize
Coat of arms of Villa Rica, Veracruz; the first town council founded by the Spanish. The tile mosaic is located in Mexico City.
Father Hidalgo used this banner of the Virgin of Guadalupe as their emblem
The Aztec Empire in 1512
Cortés scuttling fleet off Veracruz coast
Siege of the Alhondiga de Granaditas, Guanajuato, 28 Sept. 1810.
K'inich Kan B'alam II, the Classic period ruler of Palenque, as depicted on a stele
Meeting of Cortés and Xicotencatl
Flag of the Army of the Three Guarantees, the force formed by ex-royalist Iturbide and insurgent Vicente Guerrero in February 1821
Illustration that recreates the structures of the archaeological site of Yarumela or El Chircal in Honduras, this place reflects the Olmec influence that existed in Central America in the pre-classic period.
The massacre of Cholula. Lienzo de Tlaxcala
Flag of the First Mexican Empire under Agustín I, 1822-23, with the eagle wearing a crown
"Head Variant" or "Patron Gods" glyphs for Maya days
Cholula Massacre, by Felix Parra, 1877.
Flag of the First Republic of Mexico, with the eagle without a crown, signaling the new republic
The emblem glyph of Tikal (Mutal)
Map of the Valley of Mexico on the eve of the Spanish conquest
General Antonio López de Santa Anna
One of the earliest examples of the Mesoamerican writing systems, the Epi-Olmec script on the La Mojarra Stela 1 dated to around 150 CE. Mesoamerica is one of the five places in the world where writing has developed independently.
"Motecuhzuma receives Cortés. Mexican dances in the lake." by Juan González and Miguel González. 1698
Portrait of Liberal President Benito Juárez
The xoloitzcuintle is one of the naguales of the god Quetzalcoatl. In this form, it helps the dead cross the Chicnahuapan, a river that separates the world of the living from the dead.
Conquistadors and their Tlaxcalan allies enter Tenochtitlan
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian, 19 June 1867. Gen. Tomás Mejía, left, Maximiian, center, Gen. Miguel Miramón, right. Painting by Édouard Manet 1868.
Zapotec mask of the Bat God.
La Noche Triste depicted in the 17th century
President Porfirio Díaz linking himself to independence hero Hidalgo and liberal hero Juárez September 1910.
Ritual human sacrifice portrayed in Codex Laud
A page from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, depicting the battle of Otumba
Francisco I. Madero, who challenged Díaz in the fraudulent 1910 election and was elected president when Díaz was forced to resign in May 1911.
A small ceremonial ballcourt at Uaxactun.
"The Last Days of Tenochtitlan, Conquest of Mexico by Cortez", a 19th-century painting by William de Leftwich Dodge.
Revolutionary Generals Pancho Villa (left) and Emiliano Zapata (right)
Ballgame marker from the classic Lowland Maya site of Chinkultic, Mexico depicting a ballplayer in full gear
Hernan Cortés fight with two Aztecs.
General Álvaro Obregón (far left) shown with a cigar in his left hand and his right arm missing, center with the white beard is First Chief Venustiano Carranza
The Avenue of the Dead in Teotihuacan, an example of a Mesoamerican settlement planned according to concepts of directionality
Nuño de Guzmán, a rival of Cortés, led Spanish soldiers with Tlaxcalan allies in the conquest of Michoacan.
Logo of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which incorporates the colors of the Mexican flag
Art with ideological and political meaning: depiction of an Aztec tzompantli (skull-rack) from the Ramirez Codex
Pedro de Alvarado's death in 1541, depicted in the indigenous Codex Telleriano-Remensis. The glyph to the right of his head represents his Nahuatl name, Tonatiuh ("Sun").
Pemex, the national oil company created in 1938 for reasons of economic nationalism; it continues to provide major revenues for the government
Holy Spirit Grotto
Evangelization of Mexico
NAFTA signing ceremony, October 1992. From left to right: (standing) President Carlos Salinas de Gortari (Mexico), President George H. W. Bush (U.S.), and Prime Minister Brian Mulroney (Canada)
Joya de Cerén
Scene from the opera La Conquista, 2005
Zapatista leader Comandanta Ramona
Tazumal
Hernán Cortés in his later years; his coat of arms on the upper right corner (17th century).
Vicente Fox and his opposition National Action Party won the 2000 general election, ending one-party rule.
Casa Blanca
Topographic map of Mexico
San Andres
Mexico map of Köppen climate classification
Cihuatán
Mexican wolf
Sculpture of "The Acrobat" from Tlatilco
Gray whale
Pyramid of the archaeological site of La Venta 1000-400 BCE
The National Palace on the east side of Plaza de la Constitución or Zócalo, the main square of Mexico City; it was the residence of viceroys and Presidents of Mexico and now the seat of the Mexican government.
Cuicuilco 800–600 BCE
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
The partly excavated main structure of San José Mogote 1500–500 BCE
Alfonso García Robles diplomat who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982
Monte Albán, Building J in the foreground. 200 BCE – 200 CE
A Mexican Navy Eurocopter
Great Goddess of Teotihuacan 200–500 CE
Demonstration on 26 September 2015, in the first anniversary of the disappearance of the 43 students in the Mexican town of Iguala
A reconstruction of Guachimontones, flourished from 200 to 400 CE
The territorial evolution of Mexico after independence: secession of Central America (purple), Chiapas annexed from Guatemala (blue), losses to the U.S. (red, white and orange) and the reannexation of the Republic of Yucatán (red)
Temple of the Owl, Dzibanche 200–600 CE
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.
Acanceh, 200–300 CE<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mesoweb.com/features/acanceh/history.html|title=Mesoweb Articles|work=mesoweb.com}}</ref>
Historical GDP per capita development of Mexico
Mask located on the "Temple of the Masks" Kohunlich c. 500 CE
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Main palace of Palenque, 7th century AD
Telmex Tower, Mexico City.
K'inich Janaab Pakal I of Palenque 603–683 AD
The Central Eólica Sureste I, Fase II in Oaxaca. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the region of Mexico with the highest capacity for wind energy. (see Tehuantepecer, a strong wind that affects the region)
Copan Stela H commissioned by Uaxaclajuun Ubʼaah Kʼawiil 695–738 AD
Guillermo Haro Observatory in Cananea, Sonora.
Jaina Island type figure (Maya) 650–800 AD
Cancun and the Riviera Maya is the most visited region in Latin America
Cacaxtla, Mural depicting the Bird Man 650–900 AD
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
Chichen Itza, Temple of the Jaguars 900–1000 AD
El Cajon Dam
Governor's Palace rear view and details, 10th century CE, Uxmal
Mexican states by population density
Codz Poop, 7th–10th centuries CE Kabah
Las castas. Casta painting showing 16 racial groupings. Anonymous, 18th century, oil on canvas, 148×104 cm, Museo Nacional del Virreinato, Tepotzotlán, Mexico.
Sayil, three-story palace, 600–900 CE
Colonial caste painting of Mexican family in Viceroyalty of New Spain
Chichen Itza, "Temple of Three Dintels" 600–1000 CE
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1981 Miguel de Cervantes Prize, the 1982 Neustadt International Prize for Literature, and the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Palace of Mitla, Oaxaca 12th century
Our Lady of Guadalupe, patron saint of Mexico. This painting of her at the Basilica of Guadalupe is among her most notable depictions. Scientists debate if it should be dated 1531, the year of the first apparition was said to appear, or the 1550s.
The Calendar temple of Tlatelolco, 1200 CE
Cathedral of Zacatecas
Detail of page 20 from the Codex Zouche-Nuttall, 14–15th century
General Hospital of Mexico in Mexico City.
Pectoral mixtec, Shield of Yanhuitlan.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Aztec sun stone, early 16th century
Olga Sánchez Cordero, Minister of the Interior (Gobernacion) in President López Obrador's cabinet
A small ceremonial ballcourt at Tikal.
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Mexican Muralism. A cultural expression starting in the 1920s created by a group of Mexican painters after the Mexican Revolution.
Monument to Cuauhtémoc, Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City (1887)
Teotihuacán, State of Mexico
The colonial-era Cathedral Mexico City dominates one side of the main square of the capital
Museo Soumaya in Mexico City building
David Alfaro Siqueiros by Héctor García Cobo at Lecumberri prison, Mexico City, 1960.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, "The Tenth Muse." Posthmous portrait Juan Cabrera
Actress Dolores del Río, Hollywood star in the 1920s and 1930s and prominent figure of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema in the 1940s and 1950s
Mole sauce, which has dozens of varieties across the Republic, is seen as a symbol of Mexicanidad and is considered Mexico's national dish.
Portrait of composer Carlos Chávez by Carl van Vechten
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
Logo for the 1968 Mexico Olympics
Plaque in Mexico City commemorating Lucha libre as an intangible cultural heritage
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan, the first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
View of the Pyramid of the Sun in the ancient city-state of Teotihuacan, which was the 6th largest city in the world at its peak (1 AD to 500 AD)
Temple of Kukulcán (El Castillo) in the maya city of Chichen Itza
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.
Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his Troops (1848)
Telmex Tower, Mexico City.
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
The Baluarte Bridge was the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and is the highest bridge in the Americas.
Map of the First Mexican Empire
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Students in a burned bus during the protests of 1968
Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, two of the most famous mexican artists
Pico de Orizaba, the highest mountain in Mexico
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Congress of Mexico
Alfonso Cuarón, the first mexican filmmaker to win the Academy Award for Best Director
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
Televisa headquarters in Mexico City
Headquarters of the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs
El Santo, one of the most iconic Mexican luchadores
Mexican Federal Police celebration.
Mexico City, the financial center of Mexico
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Large Millimeter Telescope in Puebla.
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
Lake Chapala is Mexico's largest freshwater lake.
Regional variation of ancestry according to a study made by Ruiz-Linares in 2014, each dot represents a volunteer, with most coming from south Mexico and Mexico City.
Map for the year 2000 of the indigenous languages of Mexico having more than 100,000 speakers.
Mexico–United States barrier between San Diego's border patrol offices in California, USA (left) and Tijuana, Mexico (right)
Secretary of Health, Mexico City, Mexico.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Frida Kahlo, the most famous woman artist in Mexican history.
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
El Santo, one of the most famous and iconic Mexican luchadores

It extends from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica.

- Mesoamerica

In particular, the Mesoamerican region was home to many intertwined civilizations; including the Olmec, Maya, Zapotec, Teotihuacan, and Purepecha.

- Mexico

In 1521, the Spanish Empire and its indigenous allies conquered the Aztec Empire from its capital Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City), establishing the colony of New Spain.

- Mexico

The distinct Mesoamerican cultural tradition ended with the Spanish conquest in the 16th century.

- Mesoamerica

The fall of the Aztec Empire was the key event in the formation of the Spanish Empire overseas, with New Spain, which later became Mexico.

- Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire

Scholars who were part of a branch of Mesoamerican ethnohistory, more recently called the New Philology have, using indigenous texts in the indigenous languages, been able to examine in considerable detail how the indigenous lived during the era of Spanish colonial rule.

- Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire

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Nahuatl

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Language or, by some definitions, a group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.

Language or, by some definitions, a group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.

Tree diagram of the relation between the Nahuan languages and the rest of the Uto-Aztecan language family, based on the internal classification of Nahuan given by Terrence
Page 51 of Book IX from the Florentine Codex. The text is in Nahuatl written in the Latin alphabet.
Map showing the areas of Mexico where Nahuatl is spoken today
The Aztecs called (red) tomatoes xitōmatl, whereas the green tomatillo was called tōmatl; the latter is the source for the English word tomato.
The place names Mapachtepec ('Raccoon Hill'), Mazatlan ('Deer Place') and Huitztlan ('Thorn Place') written in the Aztec writing system, from the Codex Mendoza
Page of Book IV from the Florentine Codex. The text is in Nahuatl written in the Latin alphabet.
Illustrated alphabet of the Nahuatl, Aztec or Mexicano language.

Varieties of Nahuatl are spoken by about 1.7 million Nahua peoples, most of whom live mainly in Central Mexico and have smaller population in the United States.

During the centuries preceding the Spanish and Tlaxcalan conquest of the Aztec Empire, the Aztecs had expanded to incorporate a large part of central Mexico.

Starting in the 1970s, scholars of Mesoamerican ethnohistory have analyzed local-level texts in Nahuatl and other indigenous languages to gain insight into cultural change in the colonial era via linguistic changes, known at present as the New Philology.

Mexico City

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The city was the place of Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital.
Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his Troops (1848)
Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral's (1571–1813) 18th century painting. The cathedral was built by the Spaniards over the ruins of the main Aztec temple.
Mexico City in 1628
Palacio de Mineria, Mexico City. The elevation of silver mining as a profession and the ennoblement of silver miners was a development of the eighteenth-century Bourbon Reforms
A painting of the American assault on the Chapultepec Castle.
Mexican President and later dictator Porfirio Díaz (second from right) commissioned many of the ornate European style buildings constructed from the 1890–1910 and hoped for Mexico City to eventually rival European cities like Paris in opulence
Corpses in front of the National Palace during the Ten Tragic Days. Photographer, Manuel Ramos.
Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera house in San Ángel designed by Juan O'Gorman, an example of 20th-century Modernist architecture in Mexico
Students in a burned bus during the protests of 1968
First ladies Paloma Cordero of Mexico (left) and Nancy Reagan of the United States (right) with U.S. Ambassador to Mexico, John Gavin observing the damage done by the 1985 earthquake.
Satellite image of Mexico City
Trajineras in the canals of Xochimilco. Xochimilco and the historic center of Mexico City were declared a World Heritage Site in 1987.
Air pollution over Mexico City. Air quality is poorest during the winter.
The Chapultepec was an important park during the Aztecs whose access had been limited to its nobility, was declared open to the public by a decree of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in 1530, it is one of the world's largest city parks.
Lightning in the background of the Torre Mayor
Growth of Mexico city's area from 1900 to 2000
Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in La Villa de Guadalupe, the main Catholic pilgrimage site in the Americas. It houses the original image of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
Secretariat of Health building
Central Campus of the University City of the UNAM. Since 2007 the University City is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The National Palace of Mexico
Senate of the Republic
Legislative Palace of San Lázaro
Offices of the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs
Mexico City's Legislative Assembly building
The 16 boroughs of Mexico City
Federal Police headquarters in Mexico City
The Paseo de la Reforma is a wide avenue designed by Ferdinand von Rosenzweig in the 1860s and was modeled after the Champs-Élysées in Paris.
Palacio de Hierro store
The Turibus runs through many of the most important tourist attractions in the city.
The Art Nouveau/Neoclassical Palacio de Bellas Artes is the prominent cultural center in the city
Receptions Hall at the Museo Nacional de Arte
lReconstruction of the entrance to the Hochob temple in the National Museum of Anthropology
Museo Soumaya
The City Theatre built in 1918.
A guajolota, a tamale torta invention.
Televisa headquarters in Mexico City
Azteca Stadium, the 21st largest stadium in the world
Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez
Mexico City Arena
Mexico City Metro
Metrobús rapid transit bus stop station at Indios Verdes
The Anillo Periférico and Paseo de la Reforma in Miguel Hidalgo
Bicycles available for rental in Zona Rosa
Mexico City International Airport
Felipe Ángeles International Airport
Santa Fe is one of the centers of greatest economic activity in the city.
Central de Abasto is one of the two large wholesale markets in Mexico City, along with the Nueva Viga market, which specializes in fish and seafood.
Biblioteca Vasconcelos
Street tacos in Mexico City
A pesero or microbús

Mexico City (Ciudad de México, ; abbr.: CDMX; Nahuatl: Altepetl Mexico) is the capital and largest city of Mexico, and the most populous city in North America.

When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean.

While many pieces of pottery and stone-engraving have survived, the great majority of the Amerindian iconography was destroyed during the conquest of the Aztec Empire.

Veracruz

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Pico de Orizaba
Jamapa River
Mountain formation in the south of the state
Shore of Lake Catemaco
Bougainvillea
Olmec stone head
Playa Villa Rica, where the Spanish built the first city of Veracruz
Statue of rebel leader Yanga
Depiction of the Battle of Veracruz during the Mexican–American War
Vanilla beans
Petroleum tower in Poza Rica
A portion of the port of Veracruz
Huachinango (red snapper) a la Veracruzana
The Olmec San Martin Pajapan Monument 1 on exhibit in the Museum of Anthropology in Xalapa
Mural depicting the history of Papantla in the town square by Teodoro Cano García
Veracruz lighthouse
El Tajín, Niche pyramid

Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave , officially the Free and Sovereign State of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave (Estado Libre y Soberano de Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

Veracruz played an important part in the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire by Hernán Cortés and his expedition members.

It is believed to have originated with the Nahua, Huastec and Otomi peoples in central Mexico, and then spread throughout most of Mesoamerica.

Bernardino de Sahagún

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Fray Bernardino de Sahagún
Title page, Psalmodia Christiana, 1583
Aztec warriors as shown in the Florentine Codex.

Bernardino de Sahagún (c. 1499 – 5 February 1590) was a Franciscan friar, missionary priest and pioneering ethnographer who participated in the Catholic evangelization of colonial New Spain (now Mexico).

During the first decades of the Spanish conquest of Mesoamerica, many indigenous people converted to Christianity, at least superficially.

Between 1553 and 1555 he interviewed indigenous leaders in order to gain their perspective on the Conquest of Mexico.