A report on MesoamericaMexico and Toltec

Mesoamerica and its cultural areas
An expressive orange-ware clay vessel in the Toltec style, from the American Museum of Natural History collection.
Ballgame court at Monte Albán
Pyramid C at Tula, Hidalgo
A pair of swinging Remojadas figurines, Classic Veracruz culture, 300 to 900 CE.
Depiction of the founding myth of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Codex Mendoza. The eagle perched on a cactus has been incorporated into the Mexican flag since its independence, and was a motif in colonial-era art.
Tempo Tlahuizcalpantecuhtl (Pyramid B) is the largest and best known structure at the archaeological site of Tula. Atlantean figures are situated on the apex of the pyramid.
Page 9 of the Dresden Codex (from the 1880 Förstermann edition)
Stucco relief at Tula, Hidalgo depicting Coyotes, Jaguars and Eagles feasting on human hearts.
El Mirador flourished from 600 BCE to 100 CE, and may have had a population of over 100,000.
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan with first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
Carved relief of a jaguar at Tula, Hidalgo
Landscape of the Mesoamerican highlands
Cultivation of maize, shown in the Florentine Codex (1576) drawn by an indigenous scribe, with text in Nahuatl on this folio
Depiction of an anthropomorphic bird-snake deity, probably Quetzalcoatl at the Temple of Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli at Tula, Hidalgo
Yojoa Lake in Honduras.
1945 mural by Diego Rivera depicting the view from the Tlatelolco markets into Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the largest city in the Americas at the time
View of the columns of the burned palace at Tula Hidalgo. The second ballcourt is in the background.
Tikal is one of the largest archaeological sites, urban centers, and tourist attractions of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. It is located in the archaeological region of the Petén Basin in what is now northern Guatemala.
Hernán Cortés and his multilingual cultural translator, Doña Marina ("Malinche"), meeting Moctezuma II from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, a document created ca. 1550 by the Tlaxcalans to remind the Spanish of their loyalty and the importance of Tlaxcala during the conquest of the Aztec Empire.
Toltec warriors represented by the famous Atlantean figures in Tula.
Olmec Colossal Head No. 3 1200–900 BCE
Smallpox depicted by an indigenous artist in the 1576 Florentine Codex
Pyramid of the Moon viewed from atop of the Pyramid of the Sun.
View of the Plaza Mayor (today Zócalo) in Mexico City (ca. 1695) by Cristóbal de Villalpando
Xochicalco, Temple of the Feathered Serpent, 650–900 CE
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
Detail of the Nunnery Quadrangle at Uxmal, 10th century
Silver peso mined and minted in colonial Mexico, which became a global currency
Mesoamerica and Central America in the 16th century before Spanish arrival
Viceroyalty of New Spain following the signing of the 1819 Adams-Onís Treaty
Examples of the diversity of maize
Luis de Mena, Virgin of Guadalupe and castas, showing race mixture and hierarchy as well as fruits of the realm, ca. 1750
The Aztec Empire in 1512
Father Hidalgo used this banner of the Virgin of Guadalupe as their emblem
K'inich Kan B'alam II, the Classic period ruler of Palenque, as depicted on a stele
Siege of the Alhondiga de Granaditas, Guanajuato, 28 Sept. 1810.
Illustration that recreates the structures of the archaeological site of Yarumela or El Chircal in Honduras, this place reflects the Olmec influence that existed in Central America in the pre-classic period.
Flag of the Army of the Three Guarantees, the force formed by ex-royalist Iturbide and insurgent Vicente Guerrero in February 1821
"Head Variant" or "Patron Gods" glyphs for Maya days
Flag of the First Mexican Empire under Agustín I, 1822-23, with the eagle wearing a crown
The emblem glyph of Tikal (Mutal)
Flag of the First Republic of Mexico, with the eagle without a crown, signaling the new republic
One of the earliest examples of the Mesoamerican writing systems, the Epi-Olmec script on the La Mojarra Stela 1 dated to around 150 CE. Mesoamerica is one of the five places in the world where writing has developed independently.
General Antonio López de Santa Anna
The xoloitzcuintle is one of the naguales of the god Quetzalcoatl. In this form, it helps the dead cross the Chicnahuapan, a river that separates the world of the living from the dead.
Portrait of Liberal President Benito Juárez
Zapotec mask of the Bat God.
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian, 19 June 1867. Gen. Tomás Mejía, left, Maximiian, center, Gen. Miguel Miramón, right. Painting by Édouard Manet 1868.
Ritual human sacrifice portrayed in Codex Laud
President Porfirio Díaz linking himself to independence hero Hidalgo and liberal hero Juárez September 1910.
A small ceremonial ballcourt at Uaxactun.
Francisco I. Madero, who challenged Díaz in the fraudulent 1910 election and was elected president when Díaz was forced to resign in May 1911.
Ballgame marker from the classic Lowland Maya site of Chinkultic, Mexico depicting a ballplayer in full gear
Revolutionary Generals Pancho Villa (left) and Emiliano Zapata (right)
The Avenue of the Dead in Teotihuacan, an example of a Mesoamerican settlement planned according to concepts of directionality
General Álvaro Obregón (far left) shown with a cigar in his left hand and his right arm missing, center with the white beard is First Chief Venustiano Carranza
Art with ideological and political meaning: depiction of an Aztec tzompantli (skull-rack) from the Ramirez Codex
Logo of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which incorporates the colors of the Mexican flag
Holy Spirit Grotto
Pemex, the national oil company created in 1938 for reasons of economic nationalism; it continues to provide major revenues for the government
Joya de Cerén
NAFTA signing ceremony, October 1992. From left to right: (standing) President Carlos Salinas de Gortari (Mexico), President George H. W. Bush (U.S.), and Prime Minister Brian Mulroney (Canada)
Tazumal
Zapatista leader Comandanta Ramona
Casa Blanca
Vicente Fox and his opposition National Action Party won the 2000 general election, ending one-party rule.
San Andres
Topographic map of Mexico
Cihuatán
Mexico map of Köppen climate classification
Sculpture of "The Acrobat" from Tlatilco
Mexican wolf
Pyramid of the archaeological site of La Venta 1000-400 BCE
Gray whale
Cuicuilco 800–600 BCE
The National Palace on the east side of Plaza de la Constitución or Zócalo, the main square of Mexico City; it was the residence of viceroys and Presidents of Mexico and now the seat of the Mexican government.
The partly excavated main structure of San José Mogote 1500–500 BCE
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
Monte Albán, Building J in the foreground. 200 BCE – 200 CE
Alfonso García Robles diplomat who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982
Great Goddess of Teotihuacan 200–500 CE
A Mexican Navy Eurocopter
A reconstruction of Guachimontones, flourished from 200 to 400 CE
Demonstration on 26 September 2015, in the first anniversary of the disappearance of the 43 students in the Mexican town of Iguala
Temple of the Owl, Dzibanche 200–600 CE
The territorial evolution of Mexico after independence: secession of Central America (purple), Chiapas annexed from Guatemala (blue), losses to the U.S. (red, white and orange) and the reannexation of the Republic of Yucatán (red)
Acanceh, 200–300 CE<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mesoweb.com/features/acanceh/history.html|title=Mesoweb Articles|work=mesoweb.com}}</ref>
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.
Mask located on the "Temple of the Masks" Kohunlich c. 500 CE
Historical GDP per capita development of Mexico
Main palace of Palenque, 7th century AD
Mexican Stock Exchange building
K'inich Janaab Pakal I of Palenque 603–683 AD
Telmex Tower, Mexico City.
Copan Stela H commissioned by Uaxaclajuun Ubʼaah Kʼawiil 695–738 AD
The Central Eólica Sureste I, Fase II in Oaxaca. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the region of Mexico with the highest capacity for wind energy. (see Tehuantepecer, a strong wind that affects the region)
Jaina Island type figure (Maya) 650–800 AD
Guillermo Haro Observatory in Cananea, Sonora.
Cacaxtla, Mural depicting the Bird Man 650–900 AD
Cancun and the Riviera Maya is the most visited region in Latin America
Chichen Itza, Temple of the Jaguars 900–1000 AD
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
Governor's Palace rear view and details, 10th century CE, Uxmal
El Cajon Dam
Codz Poop, 7th–10th centuries CE Kabah
Mexican states by population density
Sayil, three-story palace, 600–900 CE
Las castas. Casta painting showing 16 racial groupings. Anonymous, 18th century, oil on canvas, 148×104 cm, Museo Nacional del Virreinato, Tepotzotlán, Mexico.
Chichen Itza, "Temple of Three Dintels" 600–1000 CE
Colonial caste painting of Mexican family in Viceroyalty of New Spain
Palace of Mitla, Oaxaca 12th century
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1981 Miguel de Cervantes Prize, the 1982 Neustadt International Prize for Literature, and the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature.
The Calendar temple of Tlatelolco, 1200 CE
Our Lady of Guadalupe, patron saint of Mexico. This painting of her at the Basilica of Guadalupe is among her most notable depictions. Scientists debate if it should be dated 1531, the year of the first apparition was said to appear, or the 1550s.
Detail of page 20 from the Codex Zouche-Nuttall, 14–15th century
Cathedral of Zacatecas
Pectoral mixtec, Shield of Yanhuitlan.
General Hospital of Mexico in Mexico City.
Aztec sun stone, early 16th century
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
A small ceremonial ballcourt at Tikal.
Olga Sánchez Cordero, Minister of the Interior (Gobernacion) in President López Obrador's cabinet
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Mexican Muralism. A cultural expression starting in the 1920s created by a group of Mexican painters after the Mexican Revolution.
Monument to Cuauhtémoc, Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City (1887)
Teotihuacán, State of Mexico
The colonial-era Cathedral Mexico City dominates one side of the main square of the capital
Museo Soumaya in Mexico City building
David Alfaro Siqueiros by Héctor García Cobo at Lecumberri prison, Mexico City, 1960.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, "The Tenth Muse." Posthmous portrait Juan Cabrera
Actress Dolores del Río, Hollywood star in the 1920s and 1930s and prominent figure of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema in the 1940s and 1950s
Mole sauce, which has dozens of varieties across the Republic, is seen as a symbol of Mexicanidad and is considered Mexico's national dish.
Portrait of composer Carlos Chávez by Carl van Vechten
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
Logo for the 1968 Mexico Olympics
Plaque in Mexico City commemorating Lucha libre as an intangible cultural heritage
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan, the first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
View of the Pyramid of the Sun in the ancient city-state of Teotihuacan, which was the 6th largest city in the world at its peak (1 AD to 500 AD)
Temple of Kukulcán (El Castillo) in the maya city of Chichen Itza
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.
Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his Troops (1848)
Telmex Tower, Mexico City.
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
The Baluarte Bridge was the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and is the highest bridge in the Americas.
Map of the First Mexican Empire
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Students in a burned bus during the protests of 1968
Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, two of the most famous mexican artists
Pico de Orizaba, the highest mountain in Mexico
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Congress of Mexico
Alfonso Cuarón, the first mexican filmmaker to win the Academy Award for Best Director
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
Televisa headquarters in Mexico City
Headquarters of the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs
El Santo, one of the most iconic Mexican luchadores
Mexican Federal Police celebration.
Mexico City, the financial center of Mexico
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Large Millimeter Telescope in Puebla.
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
Lake Chapala is Mexico's largest freshwater lake.
Regional variation of ancestry according to a study made by Ruiz-Linares in 2014, each dot represents a volunteer, with most coming from south Mexico and Mexico City.
Map for the year 2000 of the indigenous languages of Mexico having more than 100,000 speakers.
Mexico–United States barrier between San Diego's border patrol offices in California, USA (left) and Tijuana, Mexico (right)
Secretary of Health, Mexico City, Mexico.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Frida Kahlo, the most famous woman artist in Mexican history.
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
El Santo, one of the most famous and iconic Mexican luchadores

The Toltec culture (/ˈtɒltɛk/) was a pre-Columbian Mesoamerican culture that ruled a state centered in Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico during the Epiclassic and the early Post-Classic period of Mesoamerican chronology, reaching prominence from 950 to 1150 CE.

- Toltec

It extends from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica.

- Mesoamerica

In particular, the Mesoamerican region was home to many intertwined civilizations; including the Olmec, Maya, Zapotec, Teotihuacan, and Purepecha.

- Mexico

During the early post-Classic period, Central Mexico was dominated by the Toltec culture, and Oaxaca by the Mixtec.

- Mesoamerica

1000–1519 CE), Central Mexico was dominated by the Toltec culture, Oaxaca by the Mixtec, and the lowland Maya area had important centers at Chichén Itzá and Mayapán.

- Mexico
Mesoamerica and its cultural areas

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Overall

The Aztec Empire in 1519 within Mesoamerica

Aztecs

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The Aztec Empire in 1519 within Mesoamerica
Aztec metal axe blades. Prior of the arrival of the European settlers, see: Metallurgy in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica
Large ceramic statue of an Aztec eagle warrior
A page from the Codex Boturini depicting the departure from Aztlán
The Valley of Mexico with the locations of the main city states in 1519
The coronation of Motecuzuma I, Tovar Codex
Ahuitzotl in Codex Mendoza
The meeting of Moctezuma II and Hernán Cortés, with his cultural translator La Malinche, 8 November 1519, as depicted in the Lienzo de Tlaxcala
"The Martyrdom of Cuauhtémoc", (1892) painting by Leandro Izaguirre
Folio from the Codex Mendoza showing a commoner advancing through the ranks by taking captives in war. Each attire can be achieved by taking a certain number of captives.
Jaguar warrior uniform as tax pay method, from Codex Mendoza
Folio from the Codex Mendoza showing the rearing and education of Aztec boys and girls in an ages list, how they were instructed in different types of labor, and how they were harshly punished for misbehavior
Pre-Hispanic "Tepeyac" Road of city-state of Tlatelolco ruins with semi-underground unidentified small and simply built buildings, probably houses (left). Tlatelolco archaeological site.
The maximal extent of the Aztec Empire
Cultivation of maize, the main foodstuff, using simple tools. Florentine Codex
Typical Aztec black on orange ceramic ware
Diorama model of the Aztec market at Tlatelolco
A folio from the Codex Mendoza showing the tribute paid to Tenochtitlan in exotic trade goods by the altepetl of Xoconochco on the Pacific coast
Map of the Island city of Tenochtitlan
Mexico-Tenochtitlan urban standard, Templo Mayor Museum
Great Temple in Historic center of Mexico City
The deity Tezcatlipoca depicted in the Codex Borgia, one of the few extant pre-Hispanic codices
Aztec cosmological drawing with the god Xiuhtecuhtli, the lord of fire in the center and the four corners of the cosmos marked by four trees with associated birds, deities and calendar names, and each direction marked by a dismembered limb of the god Tezcatlipoca. From the Codex Fejérváry-Mayer
The "Aztec calendar stone" or "Sun Stone", a large stone monolith unearthed in 1790 in Mexico City depicting the five eras of Aztec mythical history, with calendric images.
Ritual human sacrifice as shown in the Codex Magliabechiano
Ma (hand) and pach (moss). In Nahuatl, handmoss is synonym of raccoon.
Frame drum huehuetl played by a youth in Aztec-themed costume in Amecameca, State of Mexico, 2010
Page from the pre-Columbian Codex Borgia a folding codex painted on deer skin prepared with gesso
The Coatlicue statue in the National Museum of Anthropology
Aztec feather shield displaying the "stepped fret" design called xicalcoliuhqui in Nahuatl (c. 1520, Landesmuseum Württemberg)
Codex Kingsborough, showing the abuse by Spaniards of a Nahua under the encomienda Spanish labor system
Depiction of smallpox during the Spanish conquest in Book XII of the Florentine Codex
José Sarmiento de Valladares, Count of Moctezuma, viceroy of Mexico
Motecuhzoma II's Teocalli of the Sacred War emblem, this depiction mythologically describes the reason when Aztecs searched an eagle on a cactus hunting a rattlesnake for begin the new city, the founding myth of Mexica.
Tezontle is a material for elements in architectural styles.
Virgin of Guadalupe and the symbols of the founding of Tenochtitlan, Josefus De Ribera Argomanis. (1778)
Monument to Cuauhtémoc, inaugurated 1887 by Porfirio Díaz in Mexico City
Detail of Diego Rivera's mural depicting the Aztec market of Tlatelolco at the Mexican National palace
President Porfirio Díaz in 1910 at the National Museum of Anthropology with the Aztec Calendar Stone. The International Congress of Americanists met in Mexico City in 1910 on the centennial of Mexican independence.
Metro Moctezuma, with a stylized feathered crown as its logo
Las Tortilleras, an 1836 lithograph after a painting by Carl Nebel of women grinding corn and making tortillas.
Chapulines, grasshoppers toasted and dusted with chilis, continue to be a popular delicacy.
Urban standard details; Mexico-Tenochtitlan wall remnants stone bricks in Templo Mayor Museum (Mexico City)
The Mask of Xiuhtecuhtli; 1400–1521; cedrela wood, turquoise, pine resin, mother-of-pearl, conch shell, cinnabar; height: {{convert|16.8|cm|in|abbr=on}}, width: {{convert|15.2|cm|in|abbr=on}}; British Museum (London)
The Mask of Tezcatlipoca; 1400–1521; turquoise, pyrite, pine, lignite, human bone, deer skin, conch shell and agave; height: {{convert|19|cm|in|abbr=on}}, width: {{convert|13.9|cm|in|abbr=on}}, length: {{convert|12.2|cm|in|abbr=on}}; British Museum
Double-headed serpent; 1450–1521; Spanish cedar wood (Cedrela odorata), turquoise, shell, traces of gilding & 2 resins are used as adhesive (pine resin and Bursera resin); height: {{convert|20.3|cm|in|abbr=on}}, width: {{convert|43.3|cm|in|abbr=on}}, depth: {{convert|5.9|cm|in|abbr=on}}; British Museum
Chalchihuite relief of Ehecatl Temple; basalt; overall: {{convert|31.4|x|33.82|cm|in|abbr=on}}; discovered in August 2005 during repairs on the Mexico City Cathedral's floor; Ehecatl Temple in Cathedral archeological site (Mexico City)
Page 12 of the Codex Borbonicus, (in the big square): Tezcatlipoca (night and fate) and Quetzalcoatl (feathered serpent); before 1500; bast fiber paper; height: {{convert|38|cm|in|abbr=on}}, length of the full manuscript: {{convert|142|cm|in|abbr=on}}; Bibliothèque de l'Assemblée nationale (Paris)
Aztec calendar stone; 1502–1521; basalt; diameter: {{convert|3.58|m|ft|abbr=on}}; thick: {{convert|98|cm|in|abbr=on}}; discovered on 17 December 1790 during repairs on the Mexico City Cathedral; National Museum of Anthropology (Mexico City)
Underground Great Temple's Chacmool statue; 1440–1469; painted earthenware; length: {{convert|1.26|m|ft|abbr=on}}; Templo Mayor (Mexico City)
Tlāloc effigy vessel; 1440–1469; painted earthenware; height: {{convert|35|cm|in|abbr=on}}; Templo Mayor Museum (Mexico City)
Kneeling female figure; 15th–early 16th century; painted stone; overall: {{convert|54.61|x|26.67|cm|in|abbr=on}}; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Frog-shaped necklace ornaments; 15th–early 16th century; gold; height: {{convert|2.1|cm|in|abbr=on}}; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
The Coatlicue statue in the National Museum of Anthropology

The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.

The Aztec greatly appreciated the toltecayotl (arts and fine craftsmanship) of the Toltec, who predated the Aztec in central Mexico.

Nahua children in traditional clothes

Nahuas

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The Nahuas are a group of the indigenous people of Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.

The Nahuas are a group of the indigenous people of Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.

Nahua children in traditional clothes
Number of Nahuatl speakers per state, according to the 2000 Mexican census
Current distribution of Nahuatl variants
Ceramic sculpture of Nahua deity from Puebla
"Atlantean figures" from the Nahua culture of the Toltecs at Tula.
Depiction of Tlaxcaltec soldiers leading a Spaniard to Chalco from Lienzo de Tlaxcala
Depiction of Tlaxcaltecs and Spanish at the founding of the Colonial Province of Tlaxcala in 1545.
Nahua man of Morelos ploughing a bean field by mule

The Mexica (Aztecs) were descended of Nahua ancestry, and the Toltecs are often thought to have been as well, though in the pre-Columbian period Nahuas were subdivided into many groups that did not necessarily share a common identity.

Through their integration in the Mesoamerican cultural area the Nahuas adopted many cultural traits including maize agriculture and urbanism, religious practices including a ritual calendar of 260 days and the practice of human sacrifices and the construction of monumental architecture and the use of logographic writing.

With the achievement of Mexican independence in 1821, the casta system, which divided the population into racial categories with differential rights, was eliminated and the term "Indian" (indio) was no longer used by government, although it continued to be used in daily speech.

Nahuatl

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Language or, by some definitions, a group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.

Language or, by some definitions, a group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.

Tree diagram of the relation between the Nahuan languages and the rest of the Uto-Aztecan language family, based on the internal classification of Nahuan given by Terrence
Page 51 of Book IX from the Florentine Codex. The text is in Nahuatl written in the Latin alphabet.
Map showing the areas of Mexico where Nahuatl is spoken today
The Aztecs called (red) tomatoes xitōmatl, whereas the green tomatillo was called tōmatl; the latter is the source for the English word tomato.
The place names Mapachtepec ('Raccoon Hill'), Mazatlan ('Deer Place') and Huitztlan ('Thorn Place') written in the Aztec writing system, from the Codex Mendoza
Page of Book IV from the Florentine Codex. The text is in Nahuatl written in the Latin alphabet.
Illustrated alphabet of the Nahuatl, Aztec or Mexicano language.

Varieties of Nahuatl are spoken by about 1.7 million Nahua peoples, most of whom live mainly in Central Mexico and have smaller population in the United States.

The people of the Toltec culture of Tula, which was active in central Mexico around the 10th century, are thought to have been Nahuatl speakers.

Starting in the 1970s, scholars of Mesoamerican ethnohistory have analyzed local-level texts in Nahuatl and other indigenous languages to gain insight into cultural change in the colonial era via linguistic changes, known at present as the New Philology.

The Maya area within Mesoamerica

Maya civilization

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The Maya area within Mesoamerica
Remains in Joya de Cerén, a Classic-era settlement in El Salvador buried under volcanic ash around 600 AD. Its preservation has greatly helped in the study of everyday life in a Maya farming community.
Maya area
Stela D from Quiriguá, representing king Kʼakʼ Tiliw Chan Yopaat
Calakmul was one of the most important Classic period cities.
Chichen Itza was the most important city in the northern Maya region.
Zaculeu was capital of the Postclassic Mam kingdom in the Guatemalan Highlands.
Mayapan was an important Postclassic city in the northern Yucatán Peninsula.
Page from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala showing the Spanish conquest of Iximche, known as Cuahtemallan in the Nahuatl language
Drawing by Frederick Catherwood of the Nunnery complex at Uxmal
1892 photograph of the Castillo at Chichen Itza, by Teoberto Maler
Stela from Toniná, representing the 6th-century king Bahlam Yaxuun Tihl
Classic period sculpture showing sajal Aj Chak Maax presenting captives before ruler Itzamnaaj Bʼalam III of Yaxchilan
Lintel 16 from Yaxchilán, depicting king Yaxun Bʼalam in warrior garb
The Puuc-style Labna gateway. The passage is formed by a corbel arch, a common element in Maya architecture.
Reconstruction of the urban core of Tikal in the 8th century AD
Fired bricks with animal designs from Comalcalco. Made from brick since there was a lack of readily available stone, it is unique among major Maya sites.
Terminal Classic palace complex at Sayil, in northern Yucatán
Temple I, at Tikal, was a funerary temple in honour of king Jasaw Chan Kʼawiil I.
Model of a triadic pyramid at Caracol, Belize
Map of Mayan language migration routes
Pages from the Postclassic period Paris Codex, one of the few surviving Maya books in existence
Maya script on Cancuén Panel 3 describes the installation of two vassals at Machaquilá by Cancuén king Taj Chan Ahk.
Ceramic vessel painted with Maya script in the Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin
Reading order of Maya hieroglyphic text
Representation of an astronomer from the Madrid Codex
Relief sculpture of a decapitated ballplayer, adorning the Great Ballcourt at Chichen Itza
Maize was a staple of the Maya diet.
The Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología, in Guatemala City

The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and highly developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.

The Maya civilization developed in the area that today comprises southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador.

The Maya city of Chichen Itza and the distant Toltec capital of Tula had an especially close relationship.

Hidalgo (state)

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Cave paintings in Huichapan
Atlantes at the Tula archeological site
Monastery of San Francisco in Pachuca.
Lord's Prayer written in Spanish and Otomi at the Church of San Miguel in Ixmiquilpan
Baked pasties for sale in Pachuca
The original statue of Diana Cazadora is located in Ixmiquilpan.
Canyon south of Peña del Aire, in Huasca de Ocampo, a part of the Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphere Reserve.
Basaltic Prisms of Santa María Regla
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt in the Municipality of Apan, southern Hidalgo.
Tulancingo Valley, temperate zone.
Tula River, in the municipality of Mixquiahuala.
The former Acosta mine, now a museum
Grain silos in Acatlán
Display of bottled pulque at the Feria de Pachuca
Ceramics by Nicolas Vita Hernandez of Chililco, Huejutla

Hidalgo, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Hidalgo (Estado Libre y Soberano de Hidalgo) is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, constitute the 32 federal entities of Mexico.

The modern day state of Hidalgo is located within the pre-Hispanic region of Mesoamerica.

The Toltecs initially settled in Xochicoatlán, now the municipality of Molango, at the beginning of the 7th century.

Temple of Kukulcán (El Castillo) dominates the center of the archeological site

Chichen Itza

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Large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period.

Large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period.

Temple of Kukulcán (El Castillo) dominates the center of the archeological site
A feathered serpent sculpture at the base of one of the stairways of Kukulcán (El Castillo)
Aerial view of a small portion of Chichen Itza
Columns in the Temple of a Thousand Warriors
The Grand Ballcourt structures
A photograph of Chichen Itza in 1859–1860 by Désiré Charnay, before vegetation was removed
The Kukulcán Temple, photograph by Teobert Maler, 1892
Chichen Itza, Carnegie Project staff, 1924: left to right, J.O. Kilmartin, engineer, U.S. Geological Survey; Monroe Amsden, assistant archeologist; Earl H. Morris, archeologist in charge of excavations; Ann Axtell Morris, artist; S.G. Morley, Carnegie Institution associate in charge
Excavations next to the Temple of Kukulcán ("El Castillo") began in 2009
A map of central Chichen Itza
The Jaguar Throne inside the Temple of Kukulcán ("El Castillo") pyramid is red and inlaid with jade
The Great Ball Court
The Sacred Cenote
A small temple bearing many masks in the Las Monjas complex ("La Iglesia")
The observatory temple ("El Caracol")
Composite laser scan image of Chichen Itza's Cave of Balankanche, showing how the shape of its great limestone column is strongly evocative of the World Tree in Maya mythological belief systems, data from a National Science Foundation/CyArk research partnership
1938 painting of one of the reliefs found on lower terrace columns of the Temple of the Warriors, by Octavio Medellin
El Caracol, observatory of Chichen Itza
Temple of the Warriors in 1986 - note that the Temple of the Big Tables, immediately to the left, was unrestored at that time
Stone Ring located {{convert|9|m|ft|abbr=on}} above the floor of the Great Ballcourt
Platform of Venus in the Great Plaza
Kukulcán pyramid
Mosaic mask on the western face of La Iglesia
Elaborate mosaic masks

The archeological site is located in Tinúm Municipality, Yucatán State, Mexico.

Chichen Itza was one of the largest Maya cities and it was likely to have been one of the mythical great cities, or Tollans, referred to in later Mesoamerican literature.

It is built in a combination Maya and Toltec styles, with a staircase ascending each of its four sides.