A report on Mexico and Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica and its cultural areas
Ballgame court at Monte Albán
Depiction of the founding myth of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Codex Mendoza. The eagle perched on a cactus has been incorporated into the Mexican flag since its independence, and was a motif in colonial-era art.
A pair of swinging Remojadas figurines, Classic Veracruz culture, 300 to 900 CE.
Page 9 of the Dresden Codex (from the 1880 Förstermann edition)
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan with first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
El Mirador flourished from 600 BCE to 100 CE, and may have had a population of over 100,000.
Cultivation of maize, shown in the Florentine Codex (1576) drawn by an indigenous scribe, with text in Nahuatl on this folio
Landscape of the Mesoamerican highlands
1945 mural by Diego Rivera depicting the view from the Tlatelolco markets into Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the largest city in the Americas at the time
Yojoa Lake in Honduras.
Hernán Cortés and his multilingual cultural translator, Doña Marina ("Malinche"), meeting Moctezuma II from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, a document created ca. 1550 by the Tlaxcalans to remind the Spanish of their loyalty and the importance of Tlaxcala during the conquest of the Aztec Empire.
Tikal is one of the largest archaeological sites, urban centers, and tourist attractions of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. It is located in the archaeological region of the Petén Basin in what is now northern Guatemala.
Smallpox depicted by an indigenous artist in the 1576 Florentine Codex
Olmec Colossal Head No. 3 1200–900 BCE
View of the Plaza Mayor (today Zócalo) in Mexico City (ca. 1695) by Cristóbal de Villalpando
Pyramid of the Moon viewed from atop of the Pyramid of the Sun.
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
Xochicalco, Temple of the Feathered Serpent, 650–900 CE
Silver peso mined and minted in colonial Mexico, which became a global currency
Detail of the Nunnery Quadrangle at Uxmal, 10th century
Viceroyalty of New Spain following the signing of the 1819 Adams-Onís Treaty
Mesoamerica and Central America in the 16th century before Spanish arrival
Luis de Mena, Virgin of Guadalupe and castas, showing race mixture and hierarchy as well as fruits of the realm, ca. 1750
Examples of the diversity of maize
Father Hidalgo used this banner of the Virgin of Guadalupe as their emblem
The Aztec Empire in 1512
Siege of the Alhondiga de Granaditas, Guanajuato, 28 Sept. 1810.
K'inich Kan B'alam II, the Classic period ruler of Palenque, as depicted on a stele
Flag of the Army of the Three Guarantees, the force formed by ex-royalist Iturbide and insurgent Vicente Guerrero in February 1821
Illustration that recreates the structures of the archaeological site of Yarumela or El Chircal in Honduras, this place reflects the Olmec influence that existed in Central America in the pre-classic period.
Flag of the First Mexican Empire under Agustín I, 1822-23, with the eagle wearing a crown
"Head Variant" or "Patron Gods" glyphs for Maya days
Flag of the First Republic of Mexico, with the eagle without a crown, signaling the new republic
The emblem glyph of Tikal (Mutal)
General Antonio López de Santa Anna
One of the earliest examples of the Mesoamerican writing systems, the Epi-Olmec script on the La Mojarra Stela 1 dated to around 150 CE. Mesoamerica is one of the five places in the world where writing has developed independently.
Portrait of Liberal President Benito Juárez
The xoloitzcuintle is one of the naguales of the god Quetzalcoatl. In this form, it helps the dead cross the Chicnahuapan, a river that separates the world of the living from the dead.
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian, 19 June 1867. Gen. Tomás Mejía, left, Maximiian, center, Gen. Miguel Miramón, right. Painting by Édouard Manet 1868.
Zapotec mask of the Bat God.
President Porfirio Díaz linking himself to independence hero Hidalgo and liberal hero Juárez September 1910.
Ritual human sacrifice portrayed in Codex Laud
Francisco I. Madero, who challenged Díaz in the fraudulent 1910 election and was elected president when Díaz was forced to resign in May 1911.
A small ceremonial ballcourt at Uaxactun.
Revolutionary Generals Pancho Villa (left) and Emiliano Zapata (right)
Ballgame marker from the classic Lowland Maya site of Chinkultic, Mexico depicting a ballplayer in full gear
General Álvaro Obregón (far left) shown with a cigar in his left hand and his right arm missing, center with the white beard is First Chief Venustiano Carranza
The Avenue of the Dead in Teotihuacan, an example of a Mesoamerican settlement planned according to concepts of directionality
Logo of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which incorporates the colors of the Mexican flag
Art with ideological and political meaning: depiction of an Aztec tzompantli (skull-rack) from the Ramirez Codex
Pemex, the national oil company created in 1938 for reasons of economic nationalism; it continues to provide major revenues for the government
Holy Spirit Grotto
NAFTA signing ceremony, October 1992. From left to right: (standing) President Carlos Salinas de Gortari (Mexico), President George H. W. Bush (U.S.), and Prime Minister Brian Mulroney (Canada)
Joya de Cerén
Zapatista leader Comandanta Ramona
Tazumal
Vicente Fox and his opposition National Action Party won the 2000 general election, ending one-party rule.
Casa Blanca
Topographic map of Mexico
San Andres
Mexico map of Köppen climate classification
Cihuatán
Mexican wolf
Sculpture of "The Acrobat" from Tlatilco
Gray whale
Pyramid of the archaeological site of La Venta 1000-400 BCE
The National Palace on the east side of Plaza de la Constitución or Zócalo, the main square of Mexico City; it was the residence of viceroys and Presidents of Mexico and now the seat of the Mexican government.
Cuicuilco 800–600 BCE
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
The partly excavated main structure of San José Mogote 1500–500 BCE
Alfonso García Robles diplomat who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982
Monte Albán, Building J in the foreground. 200 BCE – 200 CE
A Mexican Navy Eurocopter
Great Goddess of Teotihuacan 200–500 CE
Demonstration on 26 September 2015, in the first anniversary of the disappearance of the 43 students in the Mexican town of Iguala
A reconstruction of Guachimontones, flourished from 200 to 400 CE
The territorial evolution of Mexico after independence: secession of Central America (purple), Chiapas annexed from Guatemala (blue), losses to the U.S. (red, white and orange) and the reannexation of the Republic of Yucatán (red)
Temple of the Owl, Dzibanche 200–600 CE
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.
Acanceh, 200–300 CE<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mesoweb.com/features/acanceh/history.html|title=Mesoweb Articles|work=mesoweb.com}}</ref>
Historical GDP per capita development of Mexico
Mask located on the "Temple of the Masks" Kohunlich c. 500 CE
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Main palace of Palenque, 7th century AD
Telmex Tower, Mexico City.
K'inich Janaab Pakal I of Palenque 603–683 AD
The Central Eólica Sureste I, Fase II in Oaxaca. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the region of Mexico with the highest capacity for wind energy. (see Tehuantepecer, a strong wind that affects the region)
Copan Stela H commissioned by Uaxaclajuun Ubʼaah Kʼawiil 695–738 AD
Guillermo Haro Observatory in Cananea, Sonora.
Jaina Island type figure (Maya) 650–800 AD
Cancun and the Riviera Maya is the most visited region in Latin America
Cacaxtla, Mural depicting the Bird Man 650–900 AD
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
Chichen Itza, Temple of the Jaguars 900–1000 AD
El Cajon Dam
Governor's Palace rear view and details, 10th century CE, Uxmal
Mexican states by population density
Codz Poop, 7th–10th centuries CE Kabah
Las castas. Casta painting showing 16 racial groupings. Anonymous, 18th century, oil on canvas, 148×104 cm, Museo Nacional del Virreinato, Tepotzotlán, Mexico.
Sayil, three-story palace, 600–900 CE
Colonial caste painting of Mexican family in Viceroyalty of New Spain
Chichen Itza, "Temple of Three Dintels" 600–1000 CE
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1981 Miguel de Cervantes Prize, the 1982 Neustadt International Prize for Literature, and the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Palace of Mitla, Oaxaca 12th century
Our Lady of Guadalupe, patron saint of Mexico. This painting of her at the Basilica of Guadalupe is among her most notable depictions. Scientists debate if it should be dated 1531, the year of the first apparition was said to appear, or the 1550s.
The Calendar temple of Tlatelolco, 1200 CE
Cathedral of Zacatecas
Detail of page 20 from the Codex Zouche-Nuttall, 14–15th century
General Hospital of Mexico in Mexico City.
Pectoral mixtec, Shield of Yanhuitlan.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Aztec sun stone, early 16th century
Olga Sánchez Cordero, Minister of the Interior (Gobernacion) in President López Obrador's cabinet
A small ceremonial ballcourt at Tikal.
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Mexican Muralism. A cultural expression starting in the 1920s created by a group of Mexican painters after the Mexican Revolution.
Monument to Cuauhtémoc, Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City (1887)
Teotihuacán, State of Mexico
The colonial-era Cathedral Mexico City dominates one side of the main square of the capital
Museo Soumaya in Mexico City building
David Alfaro Siqueiros by Héctor García Cobo at Lecumberri prison, Mexico City, 1960.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, "The Tenth Muse." Posthmous portrait Juan Cabrera
Actress Dolores del Río, Hollywood star in the 1920s and 1930s and prominent figure of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema in the 1940s and 1950s
Mole sauce, which has dozens of varieties across the Republic, is seen as a symbol of Mexicanidad and is considered Mexico's national dish.
Portrait of composer Carlos Chávez by Carl van Vechten
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
Logo for the 1968 Mexico Olympics
Plaque in Mexico City commemorating Lucha libre as an intangible cultural heritage
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan, the first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
View of the Pyramid of the Sun in the ancient city-state of Teotihuacan, which was the 6th largest city in the world at its peak (1 AD to 500 AD)
Temple of Kukulcán (El Castillo) in the maya city of Chichen Itza
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.
Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his Troops (1848)
Telmex Tower, Mexico City.
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
The Baluarte Bridge was the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and is the highest bridge in the Americas.
Map of the First Mexican Empire
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Students in a burned bus during the protests of 1968
Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, two of the most famous mexican artists
Pico de Orizaba, the highest mountain in Mexico
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Congress of Mexico
Alfonso Cuarón, the first mexican filmmaker to win the Academy Award for Best Director
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
Televisa headquarters in Mexico City
Headquarters of the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs
El Santo, one of the most iconic Mexican luchadores
Mexican Federal Police celebration.
Mexico City, the financial center of Mexico
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Large Millimeter Telescope in Puebla.
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
Lake Chapala is Mexico's largest freshwater lake.
Regional variation of ancestry according to a study made by Ruiz-Linares in 2014, each dot represents a volunteer, with most coming from south Mexico and Mexico City.
Map for the year 2000 of the indigenous languages of Mexico having more than 100,000 speakers.
Mexico–United States barrier between San Diego's border patrol offices in California, USA (left) and Tijuana, Mexico (right)
Secretary of Health, Mexico City, Mexico.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Frida Kahlo, the most famous woman artist in Mexican history.
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
El Santo, one of the most famous and iconic Mexican luchadores

It extends from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica.

- Mesoamerica

In particular, the Mesoamerican region was home to many intertwined civilizations; including the Olmec, Maya, Zapotec, Teotihuacan, and Purepecha.

- Mexico

24 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Hidalgo (state)

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Cave paintings in Huichapan
Atlantes at the Tula archeological site
Monastery of San Francisco in Pachuca.
Lord's Prayer written in Spanish and Otomi at the Church of San Miguel in Ixmiquilpan
Baked pasties for sale in Pachuca
The original statue of Diana Cazadora is located in Ixmiquilpan.
Canyon south of Peña del Aire, in Huasca de Ocampo, a part of the Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphere Reserve.
Basaltic Prisms of Santa María Regla
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt in the Municipality of Apan, southern Hidalgo.
Tulancingo Valley, temperate zone.
Tula River, in the municipality of Mixquiahuala.
The former Acosta mine, now a museum
Grain silos in Acatlán
Display of bottled pulque at the Feria de Pachuca
Ceramics by Nicolas Vita Hernandez of Chililco, Huejutla

Hidalgo, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Hidalgo (Estado Libre y Soberano de Hidalgo) is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, constitute the 32 federal entities of Mexico.

The modern day state of Hidalgo is located within the pre-Hispanic region of Mesoamerica.

Conquest of Mexico by Cortés, oil on canvas Conquista de México por Cortés

Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire

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One of the primary events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

One of the primary events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Conquest of Mexico by Cortés, oil on canvas Conquista de México por Cortés
Cortés and his counselor, the Nahua woman La Malinche, meet Moctezuma in Tenochtitlan, 8 November 1519
The death of Moctezuma, depicted in the Florentine Codex
Smallpox depicted in Book XII on the conquest of Mexico in the Florentine Codex
The capture of Cuauhtemoc. 17th century, oil on canvas.
Bernal Díaz del Castillo's True History of the Conquest of Mexico
Tlaxcalan allies of the Spanish, showing their leaders, porters, as well as a Spanish warrior and a Spanish war dog. Lienzo de Tlaxcala
A comet seen by Moctezuma, interpreted as a sign of impending peril. Diego Durán's account from indigenous informants.
Aztec empire on the eve of the Spanish Invasion
Diego de Velázquez, who commissioned Cortés's limited expedition of exploration in 1519
Hernán Cortés in his later years; his coat of arms on the upper left corner. Painting reproduced in the book America (R. Cronau 19th century).
Map depicting Cortés' conquest route
Codex Azcatitlan depicting the Spanish-Tlaxcalan army, with Cortés and La Malinche, along with an African slave in front the meeting with Moctezuma. The facing page is no longer extant.
Coat of arms of Villa Rica, Veracruz; the first town council founded by the Spanish. The tile mosaic is located in Mexico City.
Cortés scuttling fleet off Veracruz coast
Meeting of Cortés and Xicotencatl
The massacre of Cholula. Lienzo de Tlaxcala
Cholula Massacre, by Felix Parra, 1877.
Map of the Valley of Mexico on the eve of the Spanish conquest
"Motecuhzuma receives Cortés. Mexican dances in the lake." by Juan González and Miguel González. 1698
Conquistadors and their Tlaxcalan allies enter Tenochtitlan
La Noche Triste depicted in the 17th century
A page from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, depicting the battle of Otumba
"The Last Days of Tenochtitlan, Conquest of Mexico by Cortez", a 19th-century painting by William de Leftwich Dodge.
Hernan Cortés fight with two Aztecs.
Nuño de Guzmán, a rival of Cortés, led Spanish soldiers with Tlaxcalan allies in the conquest of Michoacan.
Pedro de Alvarado's death in 1541, depicted in the indigenous Codex Telleriano-Remensis. The glyph to the right of his head represents his Nahuatl name, Tonatiuh ("Sun").
Evangelization of Mexico
Scene from the opera La Conquista, 2005
Hernán Cortés in his later years; his coat of arms on the upper right corner (17th century).

The fall of the Aztec Empire was the key event in the formation of the Spanish Empire overseas, with New Spain, which later became Mexico.

Scholars who were part of a branch of Mesoamerican ethnohistory, more recently called the New Philology have, using indigenous texts in the indigenous languages, been able to examine in considerable detail how the indigenous lived during the era of Spanish colonial rule.

Aztec Empire

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Alliance of three Nahua altepetl city-states: Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Tetzcoco, and Tlacopan.

Alliance of three Nahua altepetl city-states: Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Tetzcoco, and Tlacopan.

Maximum extent of the Aztec Empire
First page of the Codex Boturini, showing the migration of the Mexica.
Maximum extent of the Aztec Empire
Maximum extent of the Aztec Empire
Jaguar warriors in a flowery war from the Codex Zouche-Nuttall
Maximum extent of the Aztec Empire
Map of the expansion of the empire, showing the areas that have been conquered by the Aztec rulers.
The maximal extent of the Aztec Empire, according to María del Carmen Solanes Carraro and Enrique Vela Ramírez.
The Valley of Mexico at the time of the Spanish Conquest.
The Aztec Empire in 1519.
Codex Azcatitlan depicting the Spanish army, with Cortés and Malinche in front
Cristóbal de Olid led Spanish soldiers with Tlaxcalan allies in the conquests of Jalisco and Colima of West Mexico.
A tlacochcalcatl pictured in the Codex Mendoza. Mexico-Tenochtitlan kept the city-states under threat de facto just by military brute force.
The Huēyi Teōcalli ruins in Mexico-Tenochtitlan remnants, present-day Historic center of Mexico City.
Ehecatl Temple in the foundations of the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, Historic center of Mexico City.
This page from the westernized Codex Tovar depicts a scene of gladiatorial sacrificial rite, celebrated on the festival of Tlacaxipehualiztli.
The Nahuas placed Techcatl, the Aztec sacrifice altar, in the sacrifice paving, and the courtyard on the south side of Huēyi Teōcalli.
Aztec Empire territorial organization in 1519
Double Quetzalcoatl statues in the Huēyi Teōcalli ruins.
Coyolxauhqui killed after she tried kill her mother disc, sacrifice paving in the courtyard on the south side, Huēyi Teōcalli ruins.
The five Tlaloquê as depicted in the Codex Borgia.

The alliance controlled most of central Mexico at its height, as well as some more distant territories within Mesoamerica, such as the Xoconochco province, an Aztec exclave near the present-day Guatemalan border.

Central America

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Region of North America.

Region of North America.

Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Belize are historically the seven nations in Central America politically, geographically and culturally.
The seven countries of Central America and their capitals
Central America geography
El Chorreron in El Salvador
One of the hanging bridges of the skywalk at the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve in Monteverde, Costa Rica disappearing into the clouds
Central America and the Caribbean Plate
Linguistic variations of classic Central American Spanish.
Central America map of indigenous people before European contact
Coat of Arms of the Central American Parliament
Federal Republic of Central America, 4 Escudos (1835). Struck in the San Jose, Costa Rica mint (697 were minted)
Secretariat of Central American Economic Integration
The Great Blue Hole off the coast of Belize is a prime ecotourism destination. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Semuc Champey, Guatemala.
The city rail in La Ceiba, Honduras is one of the few remaining passenger train services in Central America
Ancient footprints of Acahualinca, Nicaragua
Stone spheres of Costa Rica
Tazumal, El Salvador
Tikal, Guatemala
Copan, Honduras
Altun Ha, Belize
The United Provinces of Central America
Federal Republic of Central America
National Representation of Central America
Greater Republic of Central America
Guatemala
El Salvador
Honduras
Nicaragua
Costa Rica
Panama
Belize
Belize
Montecristo National Park, El Salvador
Maderas forest, Nicaragua
Texiguat Wildlife Refuge Honduras
Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve, Costa Rica.
Parque Internacional la Amistad, Panama
Petén–Veracruz moist forests, Guatemala
Lycaste skinneri, Guatemala
Yucca gigantea, El Salvador
Rhyncholaelia digbyana, Honduras
Plumeria, Nicaragua
Guarianthe skinneri, Costa Rica
Peristeria elata, Panama
Prosthechea cochleata, Belize
Resplendent quetzal, Guatemala
Turquoise-browed motmot, El Salvador and Nicaragua
Keel-billed toucan, Belize
Scarlet macaw, Honduras
Clay-colored thrush, Costa Rica
Harpy eagle, Panama
Coatepeque Caldera, El Salvador
Lake Atitlán, Guatemala
Mombacho, Nicaragua
Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica
Guatemalan textiles
Mola (art form), Panama
El Salvador La Plama art form
Playa Blanca Guatemala
Jiquilisco Bay, El Salvador
Roatán, Honduras
Pink Pearl Island Nicaragua
Tamarindo, Costa Rica
Cayos Zapatilla, Panama
Corozal Beach, Belize

It is bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the south, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

It is also a part of the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot, which extends from northern Guatemala to central Panama.

Map of the different dialect areas of Otomí in central Mexico

Oto-Manguean languages

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The Oto-Manguean or Otomanguean languages are a large family comprising several subfamilies of indigenous languages of the Americas.

The Oto-Manguean or Otomanguean languages are a large family comprising several subfamilies of indigenous languages of the Americas.

Map of the different dialect areas of Otomí in central Mexico
The location of Zapotec dialect groups within the state of Oaxaca.
Mixtec languages (in green) and its surrounding languages including Triqui, Cuicatec and Amuzgo within the state of Oaxaca.
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All of the Oto-Manguean languages that are now spoken are indigenous to Mexico, but the Manguean branch of the family, which is now extinct, was spoken as far south as Nicaragua and Costa Rica.

This means that at least for the past 4000 years Oto-Manguean languages have coexisted with the other languages of Mesoamerica and have developed many traits in common with these, to such an extent that they are seen as part of a sprachbund called the Mesoamerican Linguistic Area.

Among the various cradles of civilization is Ancient Egypt. Pictured are the Giza Pyramids.

Cradle of civilization

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Location and a culture where civilization was created by mankind independent of other civilizations in other locations.

Location and a culture where civilization was created by mankind independent of other civilizations in other locations.

Among the various cradles of civilization is Ancient Egypt. Pictured are the Giza Pyramids.
Major Sumerian cities during the Ubaid period
Map of ancient Egypt, showing major cities and sites of the Dynastic period (c. 3150 BC to 30 BC)
The Indus Valley Civilization at its greatest extent
Traditional Xia sites (black) and Erlitou sites (red) near the Yellow River (Huang He)
Map of Caral-Supe sites
The Olmec heartland, where the Olmec reigned
The Fertile Crescent in 7500 BC. The red squares designate farming villages.

Other cradles of civilization include Caral-Supe or Norte Chico civilization in coastal Peru and the Olmec civilization of Mexico.

Mesoamerican Gulf Coast

Bernardino de Sahagún

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Fray Bernardino de Sahagún
Title page, Psalmodia Christiana, 1583
Aztec warriors as shown in the Florentine Codex.

Bernardino de Sahagún (c. 1499 – 5 February 1590) was a Franciscan friar, missionary priest and pioneering ethnographer who participated in the Catholic evangelization of colonial New Spain (now Mexico).

During the first decades of the Spanish conquest of Mesoamerica, many indigenous people converted to Christianity, at least superficially.

Temple of Kukulcán (El Castillo) dominates the center of the archeological site

Chichen Itza

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Large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period.

Large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period.

Temple of Kukulcán (El Castillo) dominates the center of the archeological site
A feathered serpent sculpture at the base of one of the stairways of Kukulcán (El Castillo)
Aerial view of a small portion of Chichen Itza
Columns in the Temple of a Thousand Warriors
The Grand Ballcourt structures
A photograph of Chichen Itza in 1859–1860 by Désiré Charnay, before vegetation was removed
The Kukulcán Temple, photograph by Teobert Maler, 1892
Chichen Itza, Carnegie Project staff, 1924: left to right, J.O. Kilmartin, engineer, U.S. Geological Survey; Monroe Amsden, assistant archeologist; Earl H. Morris, archeologist in charge of excavations; Ann Axtell Morris, artist; S.G. Morley, Carnegie Institution associate in charge
Excavations next to the Temple of Kukulcán ("El Castillo") began in 2009
A map of central Chichen Itza
The Jaguar Throne inside the Temple of Kukulcán ("El Castillo") pyramid is red and inlaid with jade
The Great Ball Court
The Sacred Cenote
A small temple bearing many masks in the Las Monjas complex ("La Iglesia")
The observatory temple ("El Caracol")
Composite laser scan image of Chichen Itza's Cave of Balankanche, showing how the shape of its great limestone column is strongly evocative of the World Tree in Maya mythological belief systems, data from a National Science Foundation/CyArk research partnership
1938 painting of one of the reliefs found on lower terrace columns of the Temple of the Warriors, by Octavio Medellin
El Caracol, observatory of Chichen Itza
Temple of the Warriors in 1986 - note that the Temple of the Big Tables, immediately to the left, was unrestored at that time
Stone Ring located {{convert|9|m|ft|abbr=on}} above the floor of the Great Ballcourt
Platform of Venus in the Great Plaza
Kukulcán pyramid
Mosaic mask on the western face of La Iglesia
Elaborate mosaic masks

The archeological site is located in Tinúm Municipality, Yucatán State, Mexico.

Chichen Itza was one of the largest Maya cities and it was likely to have been one of the mythical great cities, or Tollans, referred to in later Mesoamerican literature.

The west side platform at the Monte Alban pyramid complex

Monte Albán

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The west side platform at the Monte Alban pyramid complex
Panoramic showing a section of the North Platform in the foreground.
Site plan for Monte Albán.
Ballgame court
Aerial view of Monte Albán
View of Main Plaza from the North Platform. The South Platform can be seen in the distance.
The impressive stairs leading up to the South Platform.
View of Main Plaza from the South Platform, with Building J in the foreground.
Monte Alban's panorama
Panorama of Monte Albán from the South Platform.
Altar
Unrestored section of Monte Albán with Oaxaca City in the background
One of the stelae known as Dancing by unorthodox positions of the characters represented.
Plan of Monte Alban's System IV structure, cut from a 3D laser scan image.
Image of Monte Alban's System IV structure, taken from a 3D laser scan image.
View across Main Plaza from the South Platform, with Building J in the foreground.
Building M as seen from the South Platform.
Stones of the Dancers, in the Plaza of the Dancers, next to Building L.
Tomb north of the North Platform
Building X on North Platform
Unexcavated building on North Platform
Stone carvings, L
View of Main Plaza from the North Platform

Monte Albán is a large pre-Columbian archaeological site in the Santa Cruz Xoxocotlán Municipality in the southern Mexican state of Oaxaca (17.043° N, 96.767°W).

Besides being one of the earliest cities of Mesoamerica, Monte Albán was important for nearly one thousand years as the pre-eminent Zapotec socio-political and economic center.

Jalisco

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Along the shore of Lake Chapala
Near the Primavera Forest
View of a sunny day near Mascota, Jalisco in January
A Wixárika man making a beaded jaguar head
Regions of Jalisco
Four physiographic regions of Jalisco
View of Mascota, Jalisco
Figure; 2nd century; ceramic; height: 7.9 cm (3 in.); Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Cristóbal de Olid leads Spanish soldiers with Tlaxcalan allies in the conquests of Jalisco, 1522. From Lienzo de Tlaxcala.
Painting of Prisciliano Sánchez, first governor of the state
View of Puerto Vallarta
Colorful painted egg shells, filled with confetti, handmade by village children and used to celebrate the most important traditions of Ajijic, Jalisco.
Typical Mariachi of Jalisco.
Akron Stadium
Chivas banner at a game
Parroquia de Santiago Apostol, in Tequila
Parroquia de San Antonio, in Tapalpa
Parroquia de Nuestra Señora de la Asuncion, en Lagos de Moreno
Parroquia de San Miguel Arcangel in San Miguel el Alto
Guadalajara Cathedral
Parroquia de San Francisco in Tepatitlán de Morelos
Catedral Basílica de Nuestra Señora de San Juan de los Lagos in San Juan de los Lagos, 2nd most visited religious center in the country
Basilica of Our Lady of Zapopan, in Zapopan
Basilica de Nuestra Señora del Rosario, in Talpa de Allende
Parroquia de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, in Puerto Vallarta

Jalisco (,, ; Nahuatl: Xalixco), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco (Estado Libre y Soberano de Jalisco ; Nahuatl: Tlahtohcayotl Xalixco), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

A number of cities were built during this time, including Ixtepete, which show many features of Mesoamerican architecture such as the building of pyramid bases, temples and Mesoamerican ball courts.