A report on Mexico and Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica and its cultural areas
Ballgame court at Monte Albán
Depiction of the founding myth of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Codex Mendoza. The eagle perched on a cactus has been incorporated into the Mexican flag since its independence, and was a motif in colonial-era art.
A pair of swinging Remojadas figurines, Classic Veracruz culture, 300 to 900 CE.
Page 9 of the Dresden Codex (from the 1880 Förstermann edition)
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan with first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
El Mirador flourished from 600 BCE to 100 CE, and may have had a population of over 100,000.
Cultivation of maize, shown in the Florentine Codex (1576) drawn by an indigenous scribe, with text in Nahuatl on this folio
Landscape of the Mesoamerican highlands
1945 mural by Diego Rivera depicting the view from the Tlatelolco markets into Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the largest city in the Americas at the time
Yojoa Lake in Honduras.
Hernán Cortés and his multilingual cultural translator, Doña Marina ("Malinche"), meeting Moctezuma II from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, a document created ca. 1550 by the Tlaxcalans to remind the Spanish of their loyalty and the importance of Tlaxcala during the conquest of the Aztec Empire.
Tikal is one of the largest archaeological sites, urban centers, and tourist attractions of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. It is located in the archaeological region of the Petén Basin in what is now northern Guatemala.
Smallpox depicted by an indigenous artist in the 1576 Florentine Codex
Olmec Colossal Head No. 3 1200–900 BCE
View of the Plaza Mayor (today Zócalo) in Mexico City (ca. 1695) by Cristóbal de Villalpando
Pyramid of the Moon viewed from atop of the Pyramid of the Sun.
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
Xochicalco, Temple of the Feathered Serpent, 650–900 CE
Silver peso mined and minted in colonial Mexico, which became a global currency
Detail of the Nunnery Quadrangle at Uxmal, 10th century
Viceroyalty of New Spain following the signing of the 1819 Adams-Onís Treaty
Mesoamerica and Central America in the 16th century before Spanish arrival
Luis de Mena, Virgin of Guadalupe and castas, showing race mixture and hierarchy as well as fruits of the realm, ca. 1750
Examples of the diversity of maize
Father Hidalgo used this banner of the Virgin of Guadalupe as their emblem
The Aztec Empire in 1512
Siege of the Alhondiga de Granaditas, Guanajuato, 28 Sept. 1810.
K'inich Kan B'alam II, the Classic period ruler of Palenque, as depicted on a stele
Flag of the Army of the Three Guarantees, the force formed by ex-royalist Iturbide and insurgent Vicente Guerrero in February 1821
Illustration that recreates the structures of the archaeological site of Yarumela or El Chircal in Honduras, this place reflects the Olmec influence that existed in Central America in the pre-classic period.
Flag of the First Mexican Empire under Agustín I, 1822-23, with the eagle wearing a crown
"Head Variant" or "Patron Gods" glyphs for Maya days
Flag of the First Republic of Mexico, with the eagle without a crown, signaling the new republic
The emblem glyph of Tikal (Mutal)
General Antonio López de Santa Anna
One of the earliest examples of the Mesoamerican writing systems, the Epi-Olmec script on the La Mojarra Stela 1 dated to around 150 CE. Mesoamerica is one of the five places in the world where writing has developed independently.
Portrait of Liberal President Benito Juárez
The xoloitzcuintle is one of the naguales of the god Quetzalcoatl. In this form, it helps the dead cross the Chicnahuapan, a river that separates the world of the living from the dead.
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian, 19 June 1867. Gen. Tomás Mejía, left, Maximiian, center, Gen. Miguel Miramón, right. Painting by Édouard Manet 1868.
Zapotec mask of the Bat God.
President Porfirio Díaz linking himself to independence hero Hidalgo and liberal hero Juárez September 1910.
Ritual human sacrifice portrayed in Codex Laud
Francisco I. Madero, who challenged Díaz in the fraudulent 1910 election and was elected president when Díaz was forced to resign in May 1911.
A small ceremonial ballcourt at Uaxactun.
Revolutionary Generals Pancho Villa (left) and Emiliano Zapata (right)
Ballgame marker from the classic Lowland Maya site of Chinkultic, Mexico depicting a ballplayer in full gear
General Álvaro Obregón (far left) shown with a cigar in his left hand and his right arm missing, center with the white beard is First Chief Venustiano Carranza
The Avenue of the Dead in Teotihuacan, an example of a Mesoamerican settlement planned according to concepts of directionality
Logo of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which incorporates the colors of the Mexican flag
Art with ideological and political meaning: depiction of an Aztec tzompantli (skull-rack) from the Ramirez Codex
Pemex, the national oil company created in 1938 for reasons of economic nationalism; it continues to provide major revenues for the government
Holy Spirit Grotto
NAFTA signing ceremony, October 1992. From left to right: (standing) President Carlos Salinas de Gortari (Mexico), President George H. W. Bush (U.S.), and Prime Minister Brian Mulroney (Canada)
Joya de Cerén
Zapatista leader Comandanta Ramona
Tazumal
Vicente Fox and his opposition National Action Party won the 2000 general election, ending one-party rule.
Casa Blanca
Topographic map of Mexico
San Andres
Mexico map of Köppen climate classification
Cihuatán
Mexican wolf
Sculpture of "The Acrobat" from Tlatilco
Gray whale
Pyramid of the archaeological site of La Venta 1000-400 BCE
The National Palace on the east side of Plaza de la Constitución or Zócalo, the main square of Mexico City; it was the residence of viceroys and Presidents of Mexico and now the seat of the Mexican government.
Cuicuilco 800–600 BCE
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
The partly excavated main structure of San José Mogote 1500–500 BCE
Alfonso García Robles diplomat who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982
Monte Albán, Building J in the foreground. 200 BCE – 200 CE
A Mexican Navy Eurocopter
Great Goddess of Teotihuacan 200–500 CE
Demonstration on 26 September 2015, in the first anniversary of the disappearance of the 43 students in the Mexican town of Iguala
A reconstruction of Guachimontones, flourished from 200 to 400 CE
The territorial evolution of Mexico after independence: secession of Central America (purple), Chiapas annexed from Guatemala (blue), losses to the U.S. (red, white and orange) and the reannexation of the Republic of Yucatán (red)
Temple of the Owl, Dzibanche 200–600 CE
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.
Acanceh, 200–300 CE<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mesoweb.com/features/acanceh/history.html|title=Mesoweb Articles|work=mesoweb.com}}</ref>
Historical GDP per capita development of Mexico
Mask located on the "Temple of the Masks" Kohunlich c. 500 CE
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Main palace of Palenque, 7th century AD
Telmex Tower, Mexico City.
K'inich Janaab Pakal I of Palenque 603–683 AD
The Central Eólica Sureste I, Fase II in Oaxaca. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the region of Mexico with the highest capacity for wind energy. (see Tehuantepecer, a strong wind that affects the region)
Copan Stela H commissioned by Uaxaclajuun Ubʼaah Kʼawiil 695–738 AD
Guillermo Haro Observatory in Cananea, Sonora.
Jaina Island type figure (Maya) 650–800 AD
Cancun and the Riviera Maya is the most visited region in Latin America
Cacaxtla, Mural depicting the Bird Man 650–900 AD
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
Chichen Itza, Temple of the Jaguars 900–1000 AD
El Cajon Dam
Governor's Palace rear view and details, 10th century CE, Uxmal
Mexican states by population density
Codz Poop, 7th–10th centuries CE Kabah
Las castas. Casta painting showing 16 racial groupings. Anonymous, 18th century, oil on canvas, 148×104 cm, Museo Nacional del Virreinato, Tepotzotlán, Mexico.
Sayil, three-story palace, 600–900 CE
Colonial caste painting of Mexican family in Viceroyalty of New Spain
Chichen Itza, "Temple of Three Dintels" 600–1000 CE
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1981 Miguel de Cervantes Prize, the 1982 Neustadt International Prize for Literature, and the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Palace of Mitla, Oaxaca 12th century
Our Lady of Guadalupe, patron saint of Mexico. This painting of her at the Basilica of Guadalupe is among her most notable depictions. Scientists debate if it should be dated 1531, the year of the first apparition was said to appear, or the 1550s.
The Calendar temple of Tlatelolco, 1200 CE
Cathedral of Zacatecas
Detail of page 20 from the Codex Zouche-Nuttall, 14–15th century
General Hospital of Mexico in Mexico City.
Pectoral mixtec, Shield of Yanhuitlan.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Aztec sun stone, early 16th century
Olga Sánchez Cordero, Minister of the Interior (Gobernacion) in President López Obrador's cabinet
A small ceremonial ballcourt at Tikal.
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Mexican Muralism. A cultural expression starting in the 1920s created by a group of Mexican painters after the Mexican Revolution.
Monument to Cuauhtémoc, Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City (1887)
Teotihuacán, State of Mexico
The colonial-era Cathedral Mexico City dominates one side of the main square of the capital
Museo Soumaya in Mexico City building
David Alfaro Siqueiros by Héctor García Cobo at Lecumberri prison, Mexico City, 1960.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, "The Tenth Muse." Posthmous portrait Juan Cabrera
Actress Dolores del Río, Hollywood star in the 1920s and 1930s and prominent figure of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema in the 1940s and 1950s
Mole sauce, which has dozens of varieties across the Republic, is seen as a symbol of Mexicanidad and is considered Mexico's national dish.
Portrait of composer Carlos Chávez by Carl van Vechten
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
Logo for the 1968 Mexico Olympics
Plaque in Mexico City commemorating Lucha libre as an intangible cultural heritage
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan, the first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
View of the Pyramid of the Sun in the ancient city-state of Teotihuacan, which was the 6th largest city in the world at its peak (1 AD to 500 AD)
Temple of Kukulcán (El Castillo) in the maya city of Chichen Itza
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.
Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his Troops (1848)
Telmex Tower, Mexico City.
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
The Baluarte Bridge was the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and is the highest bridge in the Americas.
Map of the First Mexican Empire
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Students in a burned bus during the protests of 1968
Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, two of the most famous mexican artists
Pico de Orizaba, the highest mountain in Mexico
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Congress of Mexico
Alfonso Cuarón, the first mexican filmmaker to win the Academy Award for Best Director
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
Televisa headquarters in Mexico City
Headquarters of the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs
El Santo, one of the most iconic Mexican luchadores
Mexican Federal Police celebration.
Mexico City, the financial center of Mexico
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Large Millimeter Telescope in Puebla.
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
Lake Chapala is Mexico's largest freshwater lake.
Regional variation of ancestry according to a study made by Ruiz-Linares in 2014, each dot represents a volunteer, with most coming from south Mexico and Mexico City.
Map for the year 2000 of the indigenous languages of Mexico having more than 100,000 speakers.
Mexico–United States barrier between San Diego's border patrol offices in California, USA (left) and Tijuana, Mexico (right)
Secretary of Health, Mexico City, Mexico.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Frida Kahlo, the most famous woman artist in Mexican history.
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
El Santo, one of the most famous and iconic Mexican luchadores

It extends from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica.

- Mesoamerica

In particular, the Mesoamerican region was home to many intertwined civilizations; including the Olmec, Maya, Zapotec, Teotihuacan, and Purepecha.

- Mexico

24 related topics with Alpha

Overall

North America

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Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere.

Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere.

Map of populous North America showing physical, political and population characteristics as per 2018
Map of North America, from 1621
The totality of North America seen by the Apollo 16 crew, with Canada being covered by clouds
Landforms and land cover of North America
Sonoran Desert in Arizona
Moraine Lake in Banff National Park
Nuuk, the capital city of Greenland
Principal hydrological divides of Canada, the United States and Mexico
Geologic map of North America published by USGS
North America map of Köppen climate classification
Map of North America in 1702 showing forts, towns and (in solid colors) areas occupied by European settlements
Non-native nations' control and claims over North America c. 1750–2008
Native languages of the US, Canada, Greenland, and Northern Mexico
Percentage of people who identify with a religion in North America, according to 2010–2012 data
Mexican President Peña Nieto, U.S. President Trump, and Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau sign the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement during the G20 summit in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on 30 November 2018
Worlds regions by total wealth (in trillions USD), 2018
2006 map of the North American Class I railroad network
Baseball is traditionally known as America's national pastime, but is also played in Canada, and many Latin American countries as well.
North America map of Köppen climate classification
Simplified map of subsistence methods in the Americas at 1000 BCE
hunter-gatherers
simple farming societies
complex farming societies (tribal chiefdoms or civilizations)

"Northern America", as a term distinct from "North America", excludes Central America, which itself may or may not include Mexico (see ).

They lived in several "culture areas", which roughly correspond to geographic and biological zones and give a good indication of the main way of life of the people who lived there (e.g., the bison hunters of the Great Plains, or the farmers of Mesoamerica).

Vanilla planifolia, flower

Vanilla

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Spice derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily obtained from pods of the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla .

Spice derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily obtained from pods of the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla .

Vanilla planifolia, flower
Dried vanilla beans
Drawing of the Vanilla plant from the Florentine Codex (c. 1580) and description of its use and properties written in the Nahuatl language
Vanilla cultivation
Vanilla extract displays its distinctive color.
V. planifolia – flower
A bottle of vanilla extract
Chemical structure of vanillin
Vanilla tahitensis in cultivation
A vanilla plantation in a forest of Réunion Island
Grading vanilla beans at Sambava, Madagascar
A vanilla powder preparation made from sucrose and vanilla bean extracts
Vanilla rum, Madagascar
Illustration of allergic contact dermatitis
A vanilla planting in an open field on Réunion
A vanilla planting in a "shader" (ombrière) on Réunion
Flower
Green fruits

Three major species of vanilla currently are grown globally, all of which derive from a species originally found in Mesoamerica, including parts of modern-day Mexico.

Maize

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Maize (Zea mays subsp.

Maize (Zea mays subsp.

Plant fragments dated to 4200 BC found in the Guilá Naquitz Cave in Oaxaca, Mexico, showed maize had already been domesticated from teosinte.
Cultivation of maize in an illustration from the 16th c. Florentine Codex
Ancient Mesoamerican relief, National Museum of Anthropology of Mexico
Many small male flowers make up the male inflorescence, called the tassel.
Zea mays 'Ottofile giallo Tortonese` – MHNT
Zea mays "strawberry"—MHNT
Zea mays "Oaxacan Green" MHNT
Variegated maize ears
Multicolored corn kernels (CSIRO)
Exotic varieties of maize are collected to add genetic diversity when selectively breeding new domestic strains
Teosinte (top), maize-teosinte hybrid (middle), maize (bottom)
Stucco head of the Maya maize god, 550–850 AD
Seedlings three weeks after sowing
Young stalks
Mature plants showing ears
Mature maize ears
Harvesting maize, Jones County, Iowa
Harvesting maize, Rantasalmi, South Savonia, Finland
Hand-picking harvest of maize in Myanmar
Production of maize (2019)
Semi-peeled corn on the cob
Poster showing a woman serving muffins, pancakes, and grits, with canisters on the table labeled corn meal, grits, and hominy, US Food Administration, 1918
Mexican tamales made with corn meal
Boiled corn on a white plate
Farm-based maize silage digester located near Neumünster in Germany, 2007. Green inflatable biogas holder is shown on top of the digester.
Children playing in a maize kernel box
Female inflorescence, with young silk
Mature silk
Stalks, ears and silk
Male flowers
Full-grown maize plants
Mature maize ear on a stalk
Maize kernels
Maize plant diagram
Ear of maize with irregular rows of kernels
With white and yellow kernels

This is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands.

The Olmec and Maya cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica; they cooked, ground and processed it through nixtamalization.

Agave

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Genus of monocots native to the hot and arid regions of the Americas, although some Agave species are also native to tropical areas of South America.

Genus of monocots native to the hot and arid regions of the Americas, although some Agave species are also native to tropical areas of South America.

The large flower spike of Agave chiapensis, San Francisco Botanical Garden
A row of agaves in bloom in the Karoo region of South Africa: The inflorescences of the plants are clearly visible.
Fibers inside a huachuca agave leaf (Agave parryi)
Agave harvesting in Java, 1917
Agave americana var. americana
Variegated Century Plant -- Agave americana 'Marginata'
Agave americana 'Marginata'
Agave americana cv. 'Mediopicta Alba'
Agave angustifolia 'Marginata'
Agave angustifolia (flowering)
Agave attenuata
Agave bracteosa (spider agave)
Agave deserti
Agave filifera
Agave inaequidens ssp. barrancensis
Agave lechuguilla
Agave lophantha
Agave palmeri
Agave parrasana (syn. Agave wislizeni subsp. parrasana)
Agave parryi
Agave potatorum cv. 'Kichiokan'
Agave salmiana
Agave salmiana var. ferox
Agave schidigera cv. 'Durango Delight'
Agave shawii
Agave sisalana (sisal)
Agave sisalana (flowers)
Agave stricta
Agave tequilana
Agave tequilana 'Weber's Azul' (tequila agave)
Agave utahensis
Agave victoriae-reginae
Agave vilmoriniana
Agave weberi
Agave xylonacantha

A. americana is the source of pita fiber, and is used as a fiber plant in Mexico, the West Indies, and southern Europe.

The sap of A. americana and other species is used in Mexico and Mesoamerica to produce pulque, an alcoholic beverage.