Mesoderm

mesodermalmiddle cell layerparietal layervisceral layercaudal mesodermmesodermic cellssomatic mesodermventral mesoderm
In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.wikipedia
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Bilateria

bilaterianbilateriansbilateral animals
In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
For the most part, bilateral embryos are triploblastic, having three germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm.

Ectoderm

ectodermalectodermal tissuesEmbryonic ectoderm
The other two layers are the ectoderm (outside layer) and endoderm (inside layer), with the mesoderm as the middle layer between them.
The other two layers are the mesoderm (middle layer) and endoderm (most proximal layer), with the ectoderm as the most exterior (or distal) layer.

Germ layer

germ layersmesodermectoderm
In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
Other animals such as chordates produce a third layer (the mesoderm) between these two layers, making them triploblastic.

Endoderm

endodermalEntodermdefinitive endoderm
The other two layers are the ectoderm (outside layer) and endoderm (inside layer), with the mesoderm as the middle layer between them.
The other two layers are the ectoderm (outside layer) and mesoderm (middle layer), with the endoderm being the innermost layer.

Mesenchyme

mesenchymalmesenchymal tissuemesenchym
The mesoderm forms mesenchyme, mesothelium, non-epithelial blood cells and coelomocytes. The paraxial mesoderm forms the somitomeres, which give rise to mesenchyme of the head and organize into somites in occipital and caudal segments, and give rise to sclerotomes (cartilage and bone), and dermatomes (subcutaneous tissue of the skin).
The mesenchyme originates from the mesoderm.

Embryo

embryosembryonalhuman embryos
In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
During gastrulation of triploblastic animals, the three germinal layers that form are called the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

Coelom

coelomic fluidacoelomatepseudocoelomate
Mesothelium lines coeloms.
The archenteron initially forms, and the mesoderm splits into two layers: the first attaches to the body wall or ectoderm, forming the parietal layer and the second surrounds the endoderm or alimentary canal forming the visceral layer.

Fibroblast growth factor and mesoderm formation

FGF and mesoderm formationmesoderm formationorganizing center
The mesoderm differentiates from the rest of the embryo through intercellular signaling, after which the mesoderm is polarized by an organizing center.
Mesoderm formation is a complex developmental process involving an intricate network of signaling pathways that coordinate their activities to ensure that a selective group of cells will eventually give rise to mesodermal tissues in the adult organism.

Mesenchymal stem cell

mesenchymal stem cellsmesenchymal cellmesenchymal
Myogenesis is specifically a function of mesenchyme.

Myogenesis

myotubemuscle differentiationmyotubes
Mesoderm forms the muscles in a process known as myogenesis, septa (cross-wise partitions) and mesenteries (length-wise partitions); and forms part of the gonads (the rest being the gametes).
Mox2 (also referred to as MEOX-2) plays an important role in the induction of mesoderm and regional specification.

Paraxial mesoderm

paraxial (somitic) mesodermprimitive somitic mesoderm
There are three important components, the paraxial mesoderm, the intermediate mesoderm and the lateral plate mesoderm.
Paraxial mesoderm, also known as presomitic or somitic mesoderm is the area of mesoderm in the neurulating embryo that flanks and forms simultaneously with the neural tube.

Intermediate mesoderm

intermediate cellintermediate cell mass
There are three important components, the paraxial mesoderm, the intermediate mesoderm and the lateral plate mesoderm.
Intermediate mesoderm or intermediate mesenchyme is a narrow section of the mesoderm (one of the three primary germ layers) located between the paraxial mesoderm and the lateral plate of the developing embryo.

Embryonic development

embryogenesisdevelopmentembryo development
The mesoderm is one of the three germinal layers that appears in the third week of embryonic development.
The egg cell is generally asymmetric, having an "animal pole" (future ectoderm and mesoderm) and a "vegetal pole" (future endoderm).

Gastrulation

gastrulablastoporedorsal lip
It is formed through a process called gastrulation.
These three germ layers are known as the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

Lateral plate mesoderm

lateral mesodermlateral platesplanchnic mesoderm
There are three important components, the paraxial mesoderm, the intermediate mesoderm and the lateral plate mesoderm.
Lateral plate mesoderm is a type of mesoderm that is found at the periphery of the embryo.

Neural plate

medullary plate
Furthermore, mesoderm has the capability to induce the growth of other structures, such as the neural plate, the precursor to the nervous system.
During the stage of neural plate formation the embryo consists of three cell layers: the ectoderm that eventually forms the skin and neural tissues, the mesoderm that forms muscle and bone, and the endoderm that will form the cells lining the digestive and respiratory tracts.

Beta-catenin

β-cateninCTNNB1B-catenin
The position of the organizing center is in turn determined by the regions in which beta-catenin is protected from degradation by GSK-3.
Experimentally modified embryos that do not express this protein will fail to develop mesoderm and initiate gastrulation.

Notochord

notocordembryonic notochord cells
Signals for somite differentiation are derived from surroundings structures, including the notochord, neural tube and epidermis.
The notochord lies along the anteroposterior ("head to tail") axis, is usually closer to the ventral than the dorsal surface of the animal, and is composed of cells derived from the mesoderm.

Somite

somitessclerotomedermatome
The paraxial mesoderm forms the somitomeres, which give rise to mesenchyme of the head and organize into somites in occipital and caudal segments, and give rise to sclerotomes (cartilage and bone), and dermatomes (subcutaneous tissue of the skin).
The mesoderm forms at the same time as the other two germ layers, the ectoderm and endoderm.

Endothelium

endothelialendothelial cellsendothelial cell
Some of the mesoderm derivatives include the muscle (smooth, cardiac and skeletal), the muscles of the tongue (occipital somites), the pharyngeal arches muscle (muscles of mastication, muscles of facial expressions), connective tissue, dermis and subcutaneous layer of the skin, bone and cartilage, dura mater, endothelium of blood vessels, red blood cells, white blood cells, and microglia, the kidneys and the adrenal cortex.
Endothelium is of mesodermal origin.

Axial mesoderm

Chordamesoderm
Axial mesoderm, or chordamesoderm, is a type of mesoderm that lies along the central axis under the neural tube.

Histogenesis

histogenhistogenetichistogeny
These cells are constituents of three primary germ layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm.

List of human cell types derived from the germ layers

This is a list of cells in humans derived from the three germ layers – ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

Organogenesis

developmental anatomydevelopmentalform distinct organs
During organogenesis, the three germ layers formed from gastrulation: the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm form the internal organs of the organism.

Triploblasty

triploblastictriploblastthree
Triploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are three primary germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.