Messier 82

M82Cigar GalaxyNGC 30343034337M 82NGC 3034/M 82
Messier 82 (also known as NGC 3034, Cigar Galaxy or M82) is a starburst galaxy approximately 12 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Major.wikipedia
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Starburst galaxy

starburst galaxiesstarburststarbursts
Messier 82 (also known as NGC 3034, Cigar Galaxy or M82) is a starburst galaxy approximately 12 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Major.
Starburst galaxies include M82, NGC 4038/NGC 4039 (the Antennae Galaxies), and IC 10.

M81 Group

M 81 Grp.M81Messier 81 Group
A member of the M81 Group, it is about five times more luminous than the whole Milky Way and has a center one hundred times more luminous than our galaxy's center.
The M81 Group is a galaxy group in the constellations Ursa Major and Camelopardalis that includes the galaxies Messier 81 and Messier 82, as well as several other galaxies with high apparent brightnesses.

SN 2014J

SN2014J
SN 2014J, a type Ia supernova, was discovered in the galaxy on 21 January 2014.
SN 2014J was a type-Ia supernova in Messier 82 (the 'Cigar Galaxy', M82) discovered in mid-January 2014.

Type Ia supernova

type IaType Ia supernovaetype 1a supernova
SN 2014J, a type Ia supernova, was discovered in the galaxy on 21 January 2014.
Theoretical astronomers long believed the progenitor star for this type of supernova is a white dwarf, and empirical evidence for this was found in 2014 when a Type Ia supernova was observed in the galaxy Messier 82.

Ursa Major

Great BearOrsa MaggioreUrsa Major constellation
Messier 82 (also known as NGC 3034, Cigar Galaxy or M82) is a starburst galaxy approximately 12 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Major.
Several bright galaxies are found in Ursa Major, including the pair Messier 81 (one of the brightest galaxies in the sky) and Messier 82 above the bear's head, and Pinwheel Galaxy (M101), a spiral northeast of η Ursae Majoris.

M82 X-2

Ultraluminous pulsar
In 2014, in studying M82, scientists discovered the brightest pulsar yet known, designated M82 X-2.
M82 X-2 is an X-ray pulsar located in the galaxy Messier 82, approximately 12 million light-years from Earth.

Messier 81

M81Bode's Galaxy3031
The starburst activity is thought to have been triggered by interaction with neighboring galaxy M81.
Messier 81 and Messier 82 can both be viewed easily using binoculars and small telescopes.

Pierre Méchain

MéchainPierre François André MéchainMechain
In 1779, Pierre Méchain independently rediscovered both galaxies and reported them to Charles Messier, who added them to his catalog.
He independently discovered four others, originally discovered by someone else but unknown to him at the time and included in the Messier catalogue: M71, discovered by Jean-Philippe de Chéseaux in the 1740s; M80, discovered by Messier about two weeks earlier than Méchain's observation; and M81 and M82, discovered originally by Johann Bode.

Intermediate-mass black hole

intermediate mass black holeintermediate-massIMBH
Astronomers have postulated that this fluctuating emission comes from the first known intermediate-mass black hole, of roughly 200 to 5000 solar masses.
The ULXs are observed in star-forming regions (e.g., in starburst galaxy M82 ), and are seemingly associated with young star clusters which are also observed in these regions.

Chandra X-ray Observatory

ChandraChandra Space TelescopeChandra X-ray telescope
The Chandra X-ray Observatory detected fluctuating X-ray emissions from a location approximately 600 light-years away from the center of M82.

Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies

ArpAPGArp 293
The "wind effects" refer to the appearance, not the actual detection of high-velocity gas (such as is found in M82).

Messier object

MessierMessier CatalogueList of Messier objects

Light-year

light yearlight yearsMly
Messier 82 (also known as NGC 3034, Cigar Galaxy or M82) is a starburst galaxy approximately 12 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Major.

Constellation

constellationsEuropean constellationModern constellation
Messier 82 (also known as NGC 3034, Cigar Galaxy or M82) is a starburst galaxy approximately 12 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Major.

Luminosity

luminousbolometric luminosityluminosities
A member of the M81 Group, it is about five times more luminous than the whole Milky Way and has a center one hundred times more luminous than our galaxy's center.

Johann Elert Bode

Johann BodeBodeComet Bode
M82 was first discovered by Johann Elert Bode on 31 December 1774 together with M81; he described it as a "nebulous patch", about 0.75 deg away from M81, "very pale and of elongated shape".

Charles Messier

MessierC/1785 A1C/1780 U2
In 1779, Pierre Méchain independently rediscovered both galaxies and reported them to Charles Messier, who added them to his catalog.

Irregular galaxy

irregularirregular galaxiesdwarf irregular galaxy
M82 was previously believed to be an irregular galaxy.

Rotational symmetry

axis of symmetryaxisymmetricaxis
The arms were detected by subtracting an axisymmetric exponential disk from the NIR images.

Surface brightness

integrated magnitudeintegrated visual magnitudemag/squ arc sec
The arms were previously missed due to M82's high disk surface brightness, the nearly edge-on view of this galaxy (~80°), and obscuration by a complex network of dusty filaments in its optical images.

Barred spiral galaxy

barbarredbarred spiral
These arms emanate from the ends of the NIR bar and can be followed for the length of 3 disc scales.

Galactic disc

galactic diskdiskdisc
These arms emanate from the ends of the NIR bar and can be followed for the length of 3 disc scales.

Milky Way

Milky Way Galaxygalaxyour galaxy
A member of the M81 Group, it is about five times more luminous than the whole Milky Way and has a center one hundred times more luminous than our galaxy's center.

Parsec

Mpcpckpc
In the core of M82, the active starburst region spans a diameter of 500 pc.

X-ray

X-raysX raysoft X-ray
The Chandra X-ray Observatory detected fluctuating X-ray emissions from a location approximately 600 light-years away from the center of M82. These clumps correspond to known sources at X-ray, infrared, and radio frequencies.