Metadata

meta datameta-datacommunications metadataimage metadatameta informationmeta-informationaudio metadatadataextended attributesfile descriptions
Metadata is "data that provides information about other data".wikipedia
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Metadata registry

Metadata registriesregistryassign the names
Metadata can be stored and managed in a database, often called a metadata registry or metadata repository. Tools such as controlled vocabularies, taxonomies, thesauri, data dictionaries, and metadata registries can be used to apply further standardization to the metadata.
A metadata registry is a central location in an organization where metadata definitions are stored and maintained in a controlled method.

Metadata standard

Metadata standardsmetadata schema
In the 2000s, as data and information were increasingly stored digitally, this digital data was described using metadata standards.
To achieve this common understanding, a number of characteristics, or attributes of the data have to be defined, also known as metadata.

Metadata repository

metadata-repository
Metadata can be stored and managed in a database, often called a metadata registry or metadata repository.
A metadata repository is a database created to store metadata.

Computer file

filefilescomputer files
Describing the contents and context of data or data files increases its usefulness.
Most file types also allocate a few bytes for metadata, which allows a file to carry some basic information about itself.

Traffic analysis

traffic analyststraffic-flow securitytraffic
This data is used for the purposes of traffic analysis and can be used for mass surveillance.
The Communications' Metadata Intelligence, or COMINT metadata is a term in communications intelligence (COMINT) referring to the concept of producing intelligence by analyzing only the technical metadata, hence, is a great practical example for traffic analysis in intelligence.

Geospatial metadata

ISO 19115MetadataISO 19139
The Geospatial community has a tradition of specialized geospatial metadata standards, particularly building on traditions of map- and image-libraries and catalogues.
Geospatial metadata (also geographic metadata, or simply metadata when used in a geographic context) is a type of metadata that is applicable to objects that have an explicit or implicit geographic extent, i.e. are associated with some position on the surface of the globe.

ISO/IEC 11179

International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) 11179
(see ISO/IEC 11179).
ISO/IEC 11179 (formally known as the ISO/IEC 11179 Metadata Registry (MDR) standard) is an international standard for representing metadata for an organization in a metadata registry.

Dublin Core

Dublin Core Metadata InitiativeDCMIOpen Source Metadata Framework
An example of a linear metadata schema is the Dublin Core schema, which is one dimensional. Standards for metadata in digital libraries include Dublin Core, METS, MODS, DDI, DOI, URN, PREMIS schema, EML, and OAI-PMH.
The full set of Dublin Core metadata terms can be found on the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) website.

Microformat

Microformats
Although not a standard, Microformat (also mentioned in the section metadata on the internet below) is a web-based approach to semantic markup which seeks to re-use existing HTML/XHTML tags to convey metadata.
A microformat (sometimes abbreviated μF) is a World Wide Web-based approach to semantic markup which uses HTML/XHTML tags supported for other purposes to convey additional metadata and other attributes in web pages and other contexts that support (X)HTML, such as RSS.

IPTC Information Interchange Model

IPTCIIMIPTC metadata
The Information Interchange Model (IIM) is a file structure and set of metadata attributes that can be applied to text, images and other media types.

Mass surveillance

surveillance statesurveillance societysurveillance
This data is used for the purposes of traffic analysis and can be used for mass surveillance.
Singapore's surveillance structure spreads widely from Closed-circuit television in public areas even around the neighbourhood, internet monitoring/ traffic monitoring and to the use of surveillance metadata for government initiatives.

Data dictionary

data dictionariesData Description SpecificationsDDS
Tools such as controlled vocabularies, taxonomies, thesauri, data dictionaries, and metadata registries can be used to apply further standardization to the metadata.
On the other hand, a data dictionary is a data structure that stores metadata, i.e., (structured) data about information.

Extensible Metadata Platform

XMPXMP metadataAdobe XMP
XMP standardizes a data model, a serialization format and core properties for the definition and processing of extensible metadata.

Thesaurus (information retrieval)

thesaurusthesaurithesauruses
Tools such as controlled vocabularies, taxonomies, thesauri, data dictionaries, and metadata registries can be used to apply further standardization to the metadata.
In the context of information retrieval, a thesaurus (plural: "thesauri") is a form of controlled vocabulary that seeks to dictate semantic manifestations of metadata in the indexing of content objects.

National Security Agency

NSAArmed Forces Security AgencyNational Computer Security Center
Bulk collection of this call detail record metadata by intelligence agencies has proven controversial after disclosures by Edward Snowden of the fact that certain Intelligence agencies such as the NSA had been (and perhaps still are) keeping online metadata on millions of internet user for up to a year, regardless of whether or not they [ever] were persons of interest to the agency.
The documents also revealed the NSA tracks hundreds of millions of people's movements using cellphones metadata.

Audio file format

audioaudio fileaudio files
Unique metadata standards exist for different discipline (e.g., museum collections, digital audio files, websites, etc.).
WAV and AIFF are designed to store a wide variety of audio formats, lossless and lossy; they just add a small, metadata-containing header before the audio data to declare the format of the audio data, such as LPCM with a particular sample rate, bit depth, endianness and number of channels.

Exif

Exchangeable image file formatExif metadataembedded tags
The specification uses the following existing file formats with the addition of specific metadata tags: JPEG discrete cosine transform (DCT) for compressed image files, TIFF Rev. 6.0 (RGB or YCbCr) for uncompressed image files, and RIFF WAV for audio files (Linear PCM or ITU-T G.711 μ-Law PCM for uncompressed audio data, and IMA-ADPCM for compressed audio data).

Information

informativeinputinputs
Metadata is "data that provides information about other data".

Controlled vocabulary

controlled vocabulariesControlled-vocabularyvocabulary
Tools such as controlled vocabularies, taxonomies, thesauri, data dictionaries, and metadata registries can be used to apply further standardization to the metadata.
Controlled vocabulary elements (terms/phrases) employed as tags, to aid in the content identification process of documents, or other information system entities (e.g. DBMS, Web Services) qualifies as metadata.

Data

statistical datascientific datadatum
Metadata is "data that provides information about other data".
It is also useful to distinguish metadata, that is, a description of other data.

Data Documentation Initiative

DDI
Standards for metadata in digital libraries include Dublin Core, METS, MODS, DDI, DOI, URN, PREMIS schema, EML, and OAI-PMH.
This information is described as metadata by the standard.

Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting

OAI-PMHProtocol for Metadata HarvestingOAI
Standards for metadata in digital libraries include Dublin Core, METS, MODS, DDI, DOI, URN, PREMIS schema, EML, and OAI-PMH.
The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) is a protocol developed for harvesting metadata descriptions of records in an archive so that services can be built using metadata from many archives.

Digital object identifier

DOIDOIsInternational DOI Foundation
Standards for metadata in digital libraries include Dublin Core, METS, MODS, DDI, DOI, URN, PREMIS schema, EML, and OAI-PMH.
This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found.

Uniform Resource Name

URNUniform Resource Name (URN)Namespace Specific String
Standards for metadata in digital libraries include Dublin Core, METS, MODS, DDI, DOI, URN, PREMIS schema, EML, and OAI-PMH.
URNs were originally conceived to be part of a three-part information architecture for the Internet, along with Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) and Uniform Resource Characteristics (URCs), a metadata framework.