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Iron

FeFe 2+ Fe(III)
A metal may be a chemical element such as iron; an alloy such as stainless steel; or a molecular compound such as polymeric sulfur nitride.
It is a metal that belongs to the first transition series and group 8 of the periodic table.

Alloy

alloysmetal alloyalloying
A metal may be a chemical element such as iron; an alloy such as stainless steel; or a molecular compound such as polymeric sulfur nitride.
An alloy is a combination of a metal and one or more other elements.

Sodium

NaNa + sodium ion
Sodium, for example, becomes a nonmetal at pressure of just under two million times atmospheric pressure.
It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal.

Arsenic

AsAs 2 Arsenate
In chemistry, two elements that would otherwise qualify (in physics) as brittle metals—arsenic and antimony—are commonly instead recognised as metalloids, on account of their predominately non-metallic chemistry.
Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals, but also as a pure elemental crystal.

Periodic table

periodic table of elementsperiodic table of the elementsperiodic system
Around 95 of the 118 elements in the periodic table are metals (or are likely to be such).
The seven rows of the table, called periods, generally have metals on the left and non-metals on the right.

Coin

coinsspecieexergue
Precious metals were historically used as coinage, but in the modern era, coinage metals have extended to at least 23 of the chemical elements.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually, depending on the country or value) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.

Precious metal

precious metalsbullionprecious
Precious metals were historically used as coinage, but in the modern era, coinage metals have extended to at least 23 of the chemical elements.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.

Nonmetal

non-metalReactive nonmetalnon-metals
The number is inexact as the boundaries between metals, nonmetals, and metalloids fluctuate slightly due to a lack of universally accepted definitions of the categories involved. Although most elemental metals have higher densities than most nonmetals, there is a wide variation in their densities, lithium being the least dense (0.534 g/cm 3 ) and osmium (22.59 g/cm 3 ) the most dense.
In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks the characteristics of a metal.

Metallic bonding

metallic bondmetallicmetallic radius
This type of interaction is called a metallic bond.
Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that rises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.

Metallicity

metalmetal-richmetal-poor
Used in that sense, the metallicity of an astronomical object is the proportion of its matter made up of the heavier chemical elements.
This usage is distinct from the usual physical definition of a solid metal.

Transition metal

transition metalstransition elementtransition-metal
The strength of metallic bonds for different elemental metals reaches a maximum around the center of the transition metal series, as these elements have large numbers of delocalized electrons.
As implied by the name, all transition metals are metals and thus conductors of electricity.

Osmium

Osos'''miumosmiophilic
Although most elemental metals have higher densities than most nonmetals, there is a wide variation in their densities, lithium being the least dense (0.534 g/cm 3 ) and osmium (22.59 g/cm 3 ) the most dense.
Osmium is a hard but brittle metal that remains lustrous even at high temperatures.

Light metal

light metalslight
Magnesium, aluminium and titanium are light metals of significant commercial importance.
A light metal is any metal of relatively low density.

Ionic bonding

ionicionic bondionic bonds
In contrast, in an ionic compound like table salt, when the planes of an ionic bond slide past one another, the resultant change in location shifts ions of the same charge into close proximity, resulting in the cleavage of the crystal.
In the simplest case, the cation is a metal atom and the anion is a nonmetal atom, but these ions can be of a more complex nature, e.g. molecular ions like or.

Plasticity (physics)

plasticityplasticplastic deformation
Heat or forces larger than a metal's elastic limit may cause a permanent (irreversible) deformation, known as plastic deformation or plasticity.
Plastic deformation is observed in most materials, particularly metals, soils, rocks, concrete, foams, bone and skin.

Hydrogen

HH 2 hydrogen gas
In astrophysics the term "metal" is cast more widely to refer to all chemical elements in a star that are heavier than the lightest two, hydrogen and helium, and not just traditional metals.
Hydrogen also forms compounds with less electronegative elements, such as metals and metalloids, where it takes on a partial negative charge.

Crystal

crystallinecrystalscrystalline solid
A temperature change may affect the movement or displacement of structural defects in the metal such as grain boundaries, point vacancies, line and screw dislocations, stacking faults and twins in both crystalline and non-crystalline metals.
Examples of polycrystals include most metals, rocks, ceramics, and ice.

Chemical element

elementelementschemical elements
A metal may be a chemical element such as iron; an alloy such as stainless steel; or a molecular compound such as polymeric sulfur nitride.
A first distinction is between metals, which readily conduct electricity, nonmetals, which do not, and a small group, (the metalloids), having intermediate properties and often behaving as semiconductors.

Silver

Agsilver orenative silver
The elemental metals have electrical conductivity values of from 6.9 × 10 3 S/cm for manganese to 6.3 × 10 5 S/cm for silver.
A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal.

Plutonium

Puplutonium-239 239 Pu
Plutonium increases its electrical conductivity when heated in the temperature range of around −175 to +125 °C.
It is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, and forms a dull coating when oxidized.

Free electron model

free electronselectron gasDrude–Sommerfeld model
The contribution of a metal's electrons to its heat capacity and thermal conductivity, and the electrical conductivity of the metal itself can be calculated from the free electron model, albeit this does not take into account the detailed structure of the metal's ion lattice.
In solid-state physics, the free electron model is a simple model for the behaviour of charge carriers in a metallic solid.

Oxide

oxidesmetal oxideO
Most will react with oxygen in the air to form oxides over various timescales (potassium burns in seconds while iron rusts over years).
Metal oxides thus typically contain an anion of oxygen in the oxidation state of −2.

Gold

Aunative goldgold dust
Some others, like palladium, platinum and gold, do not react with the atmosphere at all.
In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal.

Semimetal

semi-metalsemimetalsmeaning
In metals and semimetals the Fermi level E F lies inside at least one band of energy states.
According to electronic band theory, solids can be classified as insulators, semiconductors, semimetals, or metals.

Stress (mechanics)

stressstressestensile stress
Reversible elastic deformation in metals can be described by Hooke's Law for restoring forces, where the stress is linearly proportional to the strain.
Depending on the context, one may also assume that the particles are large enough to allow the averaging out of other microscopic features, like the grains of a metal rod or the fibers of a piece of wood.