Metascience

Meta-researchEvidence-based researchevidence-basedmeta-scienceMetascience (research)
Metascience (also known as meta-research or evidence-based research) is the use of scientific methodology to study science itself.wikipedia
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Reproducibility

reproduciblereplicabilityreproduce
Many scientific studies could not be reproduced, particularly in medicine and the soft sciences. Later meta-research identified widespread difficulty in replicating results in many scientific fields, including psychology and medicine.
The study of reproducibility is an important topic in metascience.

Research

researcherresearchersoriginal research
It is also known as "research on research" and "the science of science", as it uses research methods to study how research is done and where improvements can be made.
There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.

John Ioannidis

John P. A. IoannidisJohn P.A. IoannidisProfessor John Ioannidis
In the words of John Ioannidis, "Science is the best thing that has happened to human beings ... but we can do it better."
In addition, he has pioneered the field of meta-research (research on research).

Replication crisis

reproducibility crisisscience's crisisPsychology replication
The term "replication crisis" was coined in the early 2010s as part of a growing awareness of the problem.
The replication crisis represents an important body of research in the field of metascience.

Scholarly peer review

peer reviewpeer-reviewedrefereed
There are continuing efforts to reduce the misuse of statistics, to eliminate perverse incentives from academia, to improve the peer review process, to combat bias in scientific literature, and to increase the overall quality and efficiency of the scientific process.
Meta-research has identified weaknesses in common peer review practices, leading critics to argue for reform.

Scientific method

scientific researchscientificmethod
Metascience (also known as meta-research or evidence-based research) is the use of scientific methodology to study science itself.
This is described in a popular 2005 scientific paper "Why Most Published Research Findings Are False" by John Ioannidis, which is considered foundational to the field of metascience.

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
Metascience (also known as meta-research or evidence-based research) is the use of scientific methodology to study science itself.
The replication crisis represents an important body of research in metascience, which aims to improve the quality of all scientific research while reducing waste.

Publication bias

File drawer problemfile drawer effectself-selecting nature of the positive reports
Pre-registration of studies serves to prevent publication bias, reduce data dredging, and increase replicability.
The study of publication bias is an important topic in metascience.

Blinded experiment

double-blinddouble blindblinded
Blinding is another focus of meta-research, as error caused by poor blinding is a source of experimental bias.
Meta-research has revealed high levels of unblinding in pharmacological trials.

EQUATOR Network

EQUATORreporting guidelinesUK EQUATOR Centre
These measures include the pre-registration of scientific studies and clinical trials as well as the founding of organizations such as CONSORT and the EQUATOR Network that issue guidelines for methodology and reporting.

Statistical significance

statistically significantsignificantsignificance level
Of particular note is the widespread misuse of p-values and abuse of statistical significance.
The widespread abuse of statistical significance represents an important topic of research in metascience.

P-value

p''-valuepp''-values
Some psychologists have responded with an increased use of effect size statistics, rather than sole reliance on the p values.
The misuse of p-values is a controversial topic in metascience.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
Later meta-research identified widespread difficulty in replicating results in many scientific fields, including psychology and medicine.
The field of metascience has revealed significant problems with the methodology of psychological research.

Evidence-based practice

evidence-based practicesevidence-basedevidence based practice
The field seeks to improve the quality of scholarly research by implementing evidence-based practices in academic publishing.
Research into the evidence-based practice of science is called metascience.

Misuse of statistics

data manipulationmanipulationAbuse of statistics
There are continuing efforts to reduce the misuse of statistics, to eliminate perverse incentives from academia, to improve the peer review process, to combat bias in scientific literature, and to increase the overall quality and efficiency of the scientific process.

Misuse of p-values

misunderstandings of p-valuesmisused and misinterpretedp''-value fallacy
Of particular note is the widespread misuse of p-values and abuse of statistical significance.

Research Integrity and Peer Review

In 2016, Research Integrity and Peer Review was launched.
* Metascience

Brian Nosek

NosekNosek, B. A.
According to Brian Nosek, “The problem that we face is that the incentive system is focused almost entirely on getting research published, rather than on getting research right.” Proponents of reform seek to structure the incentive system to favor higher-quality results.

Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials

CONSORTReporting guidelinesConsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT)
These measures include the pre-registration of scientific studies and clinical trials as well as the founding of organizations such as CONSORT and the EQUATOR Network that issue guidelines for methodology and reporting.

Data dredging

p-hackingp''-hackingdata snooping
Pre-registration of studies serves to prevent publication bias, reduce data dredging, and increase replicability.

Meta-analysis

meta-analysesmeta analysismeta-analytic
One study analyzed 1523 clinical trials included in 227 meta-analyses and concluded that "less than one quarter of relevant prior studies" were cited.

Preregistration

pre-registeredpre-registrationregistered report
These measures include the pre-registration of scientific studies and clinical trials as well as the founding of organizations such as CONSORT and the EQUATOR Network that issue guidelines for methodology and reporting.

Statistics

statisticalstatistical analysisstatistician
In 1966, an early meta-research paper examined the statistical methods of 295 papers published in ten high-profile medical journals.

Evidence-based medicine

evidence-basedmedical evidenceevidence
Many scientific studies could not be reproduced, particularly in medicine and the soft sciences. Later meta-research identified widespread difficulty in replicating results in many scientific fields, including psychology and medicine.

Hard and soft science

hard sciencehard sciencessoft sciences
Many scientific studies could not be reproduced, particularly in medicine and the soft sciences.