Metastasis

metastaticmetastasesmetastasizedmetastasizemetastatic cancerspreadcancer metastasismetastasizingmetastatic diseasemetastatic tumor
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; the term is typically used when referring to metastasis by a cancerous tumor.wikipedia
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Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; the term is typically used when referring to metastasis by a cancerous tumor.
Metastasis is the spread of cancer to other locations in the body.

Benign tumor

benignbenign tumourbenign neoplasm
Metastasis is one of the hallmarks of cancer, distinguishing it from benign tumors.
A benign tumor is a mass of cells (tumor) that lacks the ability to invade neighboring tissue (spread throughout the body) or metastasize.

Invasion (cancer)

invasioncancer invasioninvade neighboring tissue
It is generally distinguished from cancer invasion, which is the direct extension and penetration by cancer cells into neighboring tissues.
It is generally distinguished from metastasis, which is the spread of cancer cells through the circulatory system or the lymphatic system to more distant locations.

Basal-cell carcinoma

basal cell carcinomabasal cell cancerrodent ulcer
Basal cell carcinoma for example rarely metastasizes.
Basal-cell cancer grows slowly and can damage the tissue around it but is unlikely to spread to distant areas or to result in death.

Circulating tumor cell

circulating tumor cellscirculating tumour cellsCellSearch
Some cancer cells known as circulating tumor cells acquire the ability to penetrate the walls of lymphatic or blood vessels, after which they are able to circulate through the bloodstream to other sites and tissues in the body.
CTCs can extravasate and become seeds for the subsequent growth of additional tumors (metastases) in distant organs, a mechanism that is responsible for the vast majority of cancer-related deaths.

Cancer staging

stagestagingstage IV
Metastasis is a key element in cancer staging systems such as the TNM staging system, where it represents the "M".
The stage generally takes into account the size of a tumor, whether it has invaded adjacent organs, how many regional (nearby) lymph nodes it has spread to (if any), and whether it has appeared in more distant locations (metastasized).

Malignancy

malignantmalignanciesmalignant cells
The cells which constitute the tumor eventually undergo metaplasia, followed by dysplasia then anaplasia, resulting in a malignant phenotype.
Malignancy in cancers is characterized by anaplasia, invasiveness, and metastasis.

The Hallmarks of Cancer

hallmarks of cancerHallmark of Cancercharacteristics of cancer cells
Metastasis is one of the hallmarks of cancer, distinguishing it from benign tumors.
The only hallmark of malignant disease was its ability to invade and metastasize.

Bone metastasis

bone metastasesmetastatic bone diseasebone marrow metastases
Bone metastases, or osseous metastatic disease, is a category of cancer metastases that results from primary tumor invasion to bone.

Brain metastasis

brain metastasescerebral metastasis
A brain metastasis is a cancer that has metastasized (spread) to the brain from another location in the body and is therefore considered a secondary brain tumor.

Carcinogenesis

tumorigenesisoncogenesisoncogenic
This malignancy allows for invasion into the circulation, followed by invasion to a second site for tumorigenesis.
Other mutations enable the tumor to grow new blood vessels to provide more nutrients, or to metastasize, spreading to other parts of the body.

Metastasis suppressor

Metastase Suppressor GeneMetastasis-suppressor
The body resists metastasis by a variety of mechanisms through the actions of a class of proteins known as metastasis suppressors, of which about a dozen are known.
A metastasis suppressor is a protein that acts to slow or prevent metastases (secondary tumors) from spreading in the body of an organism with cancer.

Primary tumor

primaryprimary tumors
This uncontrolled proliferation by mitosis produces a primary heterogeneic tumour.
A primary tumor is a tumor growing at the anatomical site where tumor progression began and proceeded to yield a cancerous mass. Most cancers develop at their primary site but then go on to metastasize or spread to other parts of the body.

TNM staging system

TNMTNM stagingTNM classification
Metastasis is a key element in cancer staging systems such as the TNM staging system, where it represents the "M".
carcinoma in situ is categorized stage 0; often tumors localized to the organ of origin are staged as I or II depending on the extent, locally extensive spread, to regional nodes are staged as III, and those with distant metastasis staged as stage IV.

Ovarian cancer

ovarianovarian carcinomaovary
For example, ovarian tumors can spread transperitoneally to the surface of the liver.
It results in abnormal cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

Sentinel lymph node

sentinel lymph node biopsysentinel node biopsylymphoscintigraphy
This lymph node is then called a sentinel lymph node.
In case of established cancerous dissemination it is postulated that the sentinel lymph node/s is/are the target organs primarily reached by metastasizing cancer cells from the tumor.

Lymphadenopathy

lymphadenitisenlarged lymph nodesswollen lymph nodes
B-mode imaging features that can distinguish metastasis and lymphoma include size, shape, calcification, loss of hilar architecture, as well as intranodal necrosis.

Extracellular matrix

ECMmatrixextracellular matrices
To do so, malignant cells break away from the primary tumor and attach to and degrade proteins that make up the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), which separates the tumor from adjoining tissues.
It is in this form that HS binds to a variety of protein ligands and regulates a wide variety of biological activities, including developmental processes, angiogenesis, blood coagulation, and tumour metastasis.

Breast cancer

breastbreast carcinomabreast cancers
This means that if breast cancer metastasizes to the lungs, the secondary tumor is made up of abnormal breast cells, not of abnormal lung cells.
The study of a woman's remains from the necropolis of Qubbet el-Hawa showed the typical destructive damage due to metastatic spread.

Tumour heterogeneity

heterogeneitytumor heterogeneitycancer cell heterogeneity
This uncontrolled proliferation by mitosis produces a primary heterogeneic tumour.
The influence of microenvironment on clonal dominance is also a likely reason for the heterogeneity between primary and metastatic tumours seen in many patients, as well as the inter-tumour heterogeneity observed between patients with the same tumour type.

Prostate cancer

prostatehormone-refractory prostate cancermetastatic prostate cancer
For example, prostate cancer usually metastasizes to the bones.
The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other areas of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes.

Bone

cortical bonebone tissuecancellous bone
The lungs, liver, brain, and bones are the most common metastasis locations from solid tumors.
Cancer can arise in bone tissue, and bones are also a common site for other cancers to spread (metastasise) to.

Stomach cancer

gastric cancerstomachgastric carcinoma
Stomach cancer often metastasises to the ovary in women, then it is called a Krukenberg tumor.
The cancer may spread from the stomach to other parts of the body, particularly the liver, lungs, bones, lining of the abdomen and lymph nodes.

Amoeboid movement

amoeboidamoeboid cell migrationamoeboid motion
Human cells exhibit different kinds of motion: collective motility, mesenchymal-type movement, and amoeboid movement.
Sarcomas, or cancers arising from connective tissue cells, are particularly adept at amoeboid movement, thus leading to their high rate of metastasis.

Krukenberg tumor

Krukenberg
Stomach cancer often metastasises to the ovary in women, then it is called a Krukenberg tumor.
A Krukenberg tumor refers to a malignancy in the ovary that metastasized from a primary site, classically the gastrointestinal tract, although it can arise in other tissues such as the breast.