Metempsychosis

transmigration of soulsmigration of the soulReincarnationhuman souls to migrateincarnatedliberation of the soul from the bodyother worldpast livesreincarnatedtransmigrated (mechanical) soul
Metempsychosis is a philosophical term in the Greek language referring to transmigration of the soul, especially its reincarnation after death.wikipedia
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Reincarnation

reincarnatedrebirthpast lives
Metempsychosis is a philosophical term in the Greek language referring to transmigration of the soul, especially its reincarnation after death. Generally, the term is derived from the context of ancient Greek philosophy, and has been recontextualised by modern philosophers such as Arthur Schopenhauer and Kurt Gödel; otherwise, the term "transmigration" is more appropriate.
A belief in rebirth/metempsychosis was held by Greek historic figures, such as Pythagoras, Socrates, and Plato.

Pythagoras

PythagoreanPythagoras of SamosPythagoreans
The earliest Greek thinker with whom metempsychosis is connected is Pherecydes of Syros, but Pythagoras, who is said to have been his pupil, is its first famous philosophic exponent.
The teaching most securely identified with Pythagoras is metempsychosis, or the "transmigration of souls", which holds that every soul is immortal and, upon death, enters into a new body.

Ancient Greek philosophy

Greek philosophyGreek philosophersGreek philosopher
Generally, the term is derived from the context of ancient Greek philosophy, and has been recontextualised by modern philosophers such as Arthur Schopenhauer and Kurt Gödel; otherwise, the term "transmigration" is more appropriate.
Pythagoreanism also incorporated ascetic ideals, emphasizing purgation, metempsychosis, and consequently a respect for all animal life; much was made of the correspondence between mathematics and the cosmos in a musical harmony.

Orphism (religion)

OrphicOrphismOrphic Mysteries
The Orphic religion, which held it, first appeared in Thrace upon the semi-barbarous north-eastern frontier.
Thus, it was declared that the soul returns to a host ten times, bound to the wheel of rebirth.

Phaedrus (dialogue)

PhaedrusPhædrusdivine madness
There are myths and theories to the same effect in other dialogues, the Phaedrus, Meno, Phaedo, Timaeus and Laws.
Although ostensibly about the topic of love, the discussion in the dialogue revolves around the art of rhetoric and how it should be practiced, and dwells on subjects as diverse as metempsychosis (the Greek tradition of reincarnation) and erotic love.

Palingenesis

palingeneticpalingenesiare-created again
Another term sometimes used synonymously is palingenesis.
It is thus the equivalent of metempsychosis.

Plato

Plato's dialoguesDialogues of PlatoPlatonic dialogues
The real weight and importance of metempsychosis in Western tradition is due to its adoption by Plato.
It is probable that both were influenced by Orphism, and both believed in metempsychosis, transmigration of the soul.

Pherecydes of Syros

PherecydesPherecydes Scyrius
The earliest Greek thinker with whom metempsychosis is connected is Pherecydes of Syros, but Pythagoras, who is said to have been his pupil, is its first famous philosophic exponent.
He was considered to have had the greater significance in teaching on the subject of metempsychosis.

Soul

soulsspirithuman soul
Metempsychosis is a philosophical term in the Greek language referring to transmigration of the soul, especially its reincarnation after death.

Ennius

Quintus EnniusEnnian
In Roman literature it is found as early as Ennius, who in his Calabrian home must have been familiar with the Greek teachings which had descended to his times from the cities of Magna Graecia.
It is true that the doctrine of the transmigration of souls once flourished in the areas of Italy settled by Greeks, but the statement might have been no more than a literary flourish.

Metzengerstein

Metempsychosis is a prominent theme in Edgar Allan Poe's 1832 short story "Metzengerstein".
The first paragraph of the story references metempsychosis, the belief that the soul of a person is transferred to another living being upon death.

Infinite Jest

Avril IncandenzaInfinite JesJohnny Gentle
In David Foster Wallace's 1996 novel Infinite Jest, the name of the character Madame Psychosis is an intentional malapropism of metempsychosis.

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
Metempsychosis is a philosophical term in the Greek language referring to transmigration of the soul, especially its reincarnation after death.

Arthur Schopenhauer

SchopenhauerSchopenhauer's criticism of the proofs of the parallel postulateSchopenauer
Generally, the term is derived from the context of ancient Greek philosophy, and has been recontextualised by modern philosophers such as Arthur Schopenhauer and Kurt Gödel; otherwise, the term "transmigration" is more appropriate.

Kurt Gödel

GödelGödel, KurtGodel, Kurt
Generally, the term is derived from the context of ancient Greek philosophy, and has been recontextualised by modern philosophers such as Arthur Schopenhauer and Kurt Gödel; otherwise, the term "transmigration" is more appropriate.

James Joyce

JoyceJoyceanJoyce, James
The word plays a prominent role in James Joyce's Ulysses and is also associated with Nietzsche.

Ulysses (novel)

Ulysses UlyssesPrivate Carr
The word plays a prominent role in James Joyce's Ulysses and is also associated with Nietzsche.

Friedrich Nietzsche

NietzscheNietzscheanFriedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
The word plays a prominent role in James Joyce's Ulysses and is also associated with Nietzsche.

Orpheus

Orphic HymnsOrfeoOrphic
Orpheus, its legendary founder, is said to have taught that soul and body are united by a compact unequally binding on either; the soul is divine, immortal and aspires to freedom, while the body holds it in fetters as a prisoner.

Dionysus

BacchusDionysosDionysiac
Thus the soul continues its journey, alternating between a separate unrestrained existence and fresh reincarnation, round the wide circle of necessity, as the companion of many bodies of men and animals." To these unfortunate prisoners Orpheus proclaims the message of liberation, that they stand in need of the grace of redeeming gods and of Dionysus in particular, and calls them to turn to God by ascetic piety of life and self-purification: the purer their lives the higher will be their next reincarnation, until the soul has completed the spiral ascent of destiny to live for ever as a God from whom it comes. Such was the teaching of Orphism which appeared in Greece about the 6th century BCE, organized itself into private and public mysteries at Eleusis and elsewhere, and produced a copious literature.

Eleusis

ElefsinaEleusinaElefsis
Thus the soul continues its journey, alternating between a separate unrestrained existence and fresh reincarnation, round the wide circle of necessity, as the companion of many bodies of men and animals." To these unfortunate prisoners Orpheus proclaims the message of liberation, that they stand in need of the grace of redeeming gods and of Dionysus in particular, and calls them to turn to God by ascetic piety of life and self-purification: the purer their lives the higher will be their next reincarnation, until the soul has completed the spiral ascent of destiny to live for ever as a God from whom it comes. Such was the teaching of Orphism which appeared in Greece about the 6th century BCE, organized itself into private and public mysteries at Eleusis and elsewhere, and produced a copious literature.

Republic (Plato)

RepublicThe RepublicPlato's Republic
In the eschatological myth which closes the Republic he tells the myth how Er, the son of Armenius, miraculously returned to life on the twelfth day after death and recounted the secrets of the other world.

Lethe

Letelḗthēriver Léthée
After their choice the souls drank of Lethe and then shot away like stars to their birth.