Meteorology

meteorologicalmeteorologistmeteorologistsatmospheric dynamicsWeatherHistory of meteorologymeteorologicagricultural meteorologyweather researchMeteorologically
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.wikipedia
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Atmospheric science

atmospheric sciencesatmospheric scientistaerology
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
Meteorology includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics with a major focus on weather forecasting.

Atmospheric chemistry

atmospheric chemistatmospheric oxygenatmospheric composition
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
It is a multidisciplinary approach of research and draws on environmental chemistry, physics, meteorology, computer modeling, oceanography, geology and volcanology and other disciplines.

Atmospheric physics

atmospheric physicistatmosphericatmosphere physics
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
It has close links to meteorology and climatology and also covers the design and construction of instruments for studying the atmosphere and the interpretation of the data they provide, including remote sensing instruments.

Hydrometeorology

hydrometeorologicalhydrometeorologisthydro-meteorological
Meteorology and hydrology compose the interdisciplinary field of hydrometeorology.
Hydrometeorology is a branch of meteorology and hydrology that studies the transfer of water and energy between the land surface and the lower atmosphere.

Glossary of meteorology

meteorological phenomenameteorological phenomenonweather phenomena
Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events that are explained by the science of meteorology.
This glossary of meteorology is a list of terms and concepts relevant to meteorology and atmospheric science, their sub-disciplines, and related fields.

Hydrology

hydrologicalhydrologisthydrologic
Meteorology and hydrology compose the interdisciplinary field of hydrometeorology.
Oceanography and meteorology are not included because water is only one of many important aspects within those fields.

Astrology

astrologerastrologicalastrologers
Early approaches to predicting weather were based on astrology and were practiced by priests.
Throughout most of its history, astrology was considered a scholarly tradition and was common in academic circles, often in close relation with astronomy, alchemy, meteorology, and medicine.

Rainbow

rainbowsColors of the rainbowdouble rainbow
In the late 13th century and early 14th century, Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī and Theodoric of Freiberg were the first to give the correct explanations for the primary rainbow phenomenon.
A rainbow is a meteorological phenomenon that is caused by reflection, refraction and dispersion of light in water droplets resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky.

Rain gauge

pluviometerrain gaugestipping bucket rain gauge
In 1441, King Sejong's son, Prince Munjong of Korea, invented the first standardized rain gauge.
A rain gauge (also known as an udometer, pluviometer, or an ombrometer) is an instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of liquid precipitation over an area in a predefined period of time.

On the Universe

De MundoOn the Cosmosmundo
The book De Mundo (composed before 250 BC or between 350 and 200 BC) noted
Likely published between 350 and 200 BC, the work discusses cosmological, geological, and meteorological subjects, alongside a consideration of the role an independent god plays in maintaining the universe.

Anemometer

anemometerswind gaugeHot-wire anemometry
In 1450, Leone Battista Alberti developed a swinging-plate anemometer, and was known as the first anemometer.
The term is derived from the Greek word anemos, which means wind, and is used to describe any wind speed instrument used in meteorology.

Christopher Wren

Sir Christopher WrenWrenWren-Gibbs
In 1662, Sir Christopher Wren invented the mechanical, self-emptying, tipping bucket rain gauge.
His scientific works ranged from astronomy, optics, the problem of finding longitude at sea, cosmology, mechanics, microscopy, surveying, medicine and meteorology.

Air mass

air massesair streamMaritime Tropical air masses
Just after World War I, a group of meteorologists in Norway led by Vilhelm Bjerknes developed the Norwegian cyclone model that explains the generation, intensification and ultimate decay (the life cycle) of mid-latitude cyclones, and introduced the idea of fronts, that is, sharply defined boundaries between air masses.
In meteorology, an air mass is a volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content.

Jacob Bjerknes

Bjerknes, Jacob Aall BonnevieJ. BjerknesJacob A. Bjerknes
The group included Carl-Gustaf Rossby (who was the first to explain the large scale atmospheric flow in terms of fluid dynamics), Tor Bergeron (who first determined how rain forms) and Jacob Bjerknes.
Jacob Aall Bonnevie Bjerknes ( in English; 2 November 1897 – 7 July 1975) was a meteorologist.

John Dalton

DaltonDalton atomic theoryDalton, John
In 1808, John Dalton defended caloric theory in A New System of Chemistry and described how it combines with matter, especially gases; he proposed that the heat capacity of gases varies inversely with atomic weight.
Dalton's early life was influenced by a prominent Quaker, Elihu Robinson, a competent meteorologist and instrument maker, from Eaglesfield, Cumbria, who interested him in problems of mathematics and meteorology.

Thermometer

thermometerstemperature sensortemperature
In the late 16th century and first half of the 17th century a range of meteorological instruments was invented – the thermometer, barometer, hydrometer, as well as wind and rain gauges.
Thermometers are widely used in technology and industry to monitor processes, in meteorology, in medicine, and in scientific research.

Johannes Kepler

KeplerDioptriceJohan Kepler
In 1611, Johannes Kepler wrote the first scientific treatise on snow crystals: "Strena Seu de Nive Sexangula (A New Year's Gift of Hexagonal Snow)".
By assuming the Earth to possess a soul (a property he would later invoke to explain how the sun causes the motion of planets), he established a speculative system connecting astrological aspects and astronomical distances to weather and other earthly phenomena.

Spatial scale

scalespatial scaleslarge scale
Different spatial scales are used to describe and predict weather on local, regional, and global levels.
The concept is also used in geography, astronomy, and meteorology.

Trade winds

trade windtradewindseasterlies
In 1686, Edmund Halley presented a systematic study of the trade winds and monsoons and identified solar heating as the cause of atmospheric motions.
In meteorology, the trade winds act as the steering flow for tropical storms that form over the Atlantic, Pacific, and southern Indian Oceans and make landfall in North America, Southeast Asia, and Madagascar and eastern Africa.

Carl-Gustaf Rossby

Carl-Gustav RossbyCarl-Gustaf Arvid RossbyCarl-Gustav Arvid Rossby
The group included Carl-Gustaf Rossby (who was the first to explain the large scale atmospheric flow in terms of fluid dynamics), Tor Bergeron (who first determined how rain forms) and Jacob Bjerknes.
Rossby came into meteorology and oceanography while studying geophysics under Vilhelm Bjerknes at the Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen in Bergen, Norway during 1919, where Bjerknes' group was developing the groundbreaking concepts that became known as the Bergen School of Meteorology, including theory of the polar front.

Contour line

isothermcontourscontour map
Late in the 19th century, the motion of air masses along isobars was understood to be the result of the large-scale interaction of the pressure gradient force and the deflecting force.
In meteorology, the barometric pressures shown are reduced to sea level, not the surface pressures at the map locations.

Hygrometer

psychrometersling psychrometerhumidity
In 1783, the first hair hygrometer was demonstrated by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure.
Psychrometers are commonly used in meteorology, and in the HVAC industry for proper refrigerant charging of residential and commercial air conditioning systems.

Central Institution for Meteorology and Geodynamics

ZAMGZentralanstalt für Meteorologie und GeodynamikCentral Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics
FitzRoy's office became the United Kingdom Meteorological Office in 1854, the second oldest national meteorological service in the world (the Central Institution for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in Austria was founded in 1851 and is the oldest weather service in the world).
The Central Institution for Meteorology and Geodynamics (Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik, ZAMG) is the national meteorological and geophysical service of Austria.

Abu Hanifa Dinawari

Al-DinawariDinawariAbū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarī
According to Toufic Fahd, around the 9th century, Al-Dinawari wrote the Kitab al-Nabat (Book of Plants), in which he deals with the application of meteorology to agriculture during the Muslim Agricultural Revolution.
Parts of al-Dinawari's Book of Plants deals with the applications of Islamic astronomy and meteorology to agriculture.

Robert FitzRoy

FitzRoyCaptain FitzRoyGovernor FitzRoy
In 1854, the United Kingdom government appointed Robert FitzRoy to the new office of Meteorological Statist to the Board of Trade with the task of gathering weather observations at sea.
FitzRoy was a pioneering meteorologist who made accurate daily weather predictions, which he called by a new name of his own invention: "forecasts".