Methamphetamine

crystal methmethcrystal methamphetaminemethamphetaminesPervitinicespeedDesoxyndextromethamphetamineshabu
This article is about the free base and salts of methamphetamine, a recreational drug.wikipedia
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Recreational drug use

recreational drugdrug userecreational drugs
Methamphetamine (contracted from N-methylamphetamine) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
What controlled substances are considered illegal drugs varies by country, but usually includes methamphetamine, heroin, cocaine, LSD, psilocybin mushrooms, MDMA and club drugs.

Amphetamine

Benzedrinespeedamphetamines
Unlike amphetamine, methamphetamine is neurotoxic to human midbrain dopaminergic neurons.
It is also the parent compound of its own structural class, the substituted amphetamines, which includes prominent substances such as bupropion, cathinone, MDMA, and methamphetamine.

Addiction

drug addictiondrug addictdrug addicts
Methamphetamine is known to possess a high addiction liability (i.e., a high likelihood that long-term or high dose use will lead to compulsive drug use) and high dependence liability (i.e. a high likelihood that withdrawal symptoms will occur when methamphetamine use ceases).
These costs arise from the direct adverse effects of drugs and associated healthcare costs (e.g., emergency medical services and outpatient and inpatient care), long-term complications (e.g., lung cancer from smoking tobacco products, liver cirrhosis and dementia from chronic alcohol consumption, and meth mouth from methamphetamine use), the loss of productivity and associated welfare costs, fatal and non-fatal accidents (e.g., traffic collisions), suicides, homicides, and incarceration, among others.

History and culture of substituted amphetamines

History and culture of amphetamineshistory of amphetaminesillicit methamphetamine synthesis
See also: Party and play and the [[History and culture of substituted amphetamines#Recreational routes of administration|Recreational routes of methamphetamine administration]]
Methamphetamine was synthesized from ephedrine in 1893 by Nagayoshi.

Levomethamphetamine

L-methamphetamineLevmetamfetamine-methamphetamine
Methamphetamine was discovered in 1893 and exists as two enantiomers: levo-methamphetamine and dextro-methamphetamine.
Levomethamphetamine is the levorotatory (L-enantiomer) form of methamphetamine.

Party and play

chemsexMethamphetamine and sexmethamphetamine use among gay men
According to a National Geographic TV documentary on methamphetamine, an entire subculture known as party and play is based around sexual activity and methamphetamine use.
The drug of choice is typically methamphetamine, known as crystal meth, tina or T, but other drugs are also used, such as mephedrone, GHB, GBL, and alkyl nitrites (known as poppers).

Meth mouth

bad teethcorroded the teethmethmouth
The physical effects of methamphetamine can include loss of appetite, hyperactivity, dilated pupils, flushed skin, excessive sweating, increased movement, dry mouth and teeth grinding (leading to "meth mouth"), headache, irregular heartbeat (usually as accelerated heartbeat or slowed heartbeat), rapid breathing, high blood pressure, low blood pressure, high body temperature, diarrhea, constipation, blurred vision, dizziness, twitching, numbness, tremors, dry skin, acne, and pale appearance.
Meth mouth is severe tooth decay and tooth loss, as well as tooth fracture, acid erosion, and other oral problems, potentially symptomatic of extended use of the drug methamphetamine.

Dimethylphenethylamine

It is related to the other dimethylphenethylamines as a positional isomer of these compounds, which share the common chemical formula:.

Paranoia

paranoidparanoid ideationmonster
Chronic high-dose use can precipitate unpredictable and rapid mood swings, stimulant psychosis (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, delirium, and delusions) and violent behavior.
Drug-induced paranoia, associated with amphetamines, methamphetamine and similar stimulants has much in common with schizophrenic paranoia; the relationship has been under investigation since 2012.

Substituted phenethylamine

phenethylaminephenethylaminesphenethylamine class
Methamphetamine belongs to the substituted phenethylamine and substituted amphetamine chemical classes.
Several notable recreational drugs, such as MDMA (ecstasy), methamphetamine, and cathinone, are also members of the class.

Euphoria

euphoriceuphorianthigh
It is rarely prescribed over concerns involving human neurotoxicity and potential for recreational use as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant, among other concerns, as well as the availability of safer substitute drugs with comparable treatment efficacy.
Dopaminergic stimulants like amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, MDMA, and methylphenidate are euphoriants.

Over-the-counter drug

over-the-counterover the counterOTC
Levomethamphetamine is available as an over-the-counter (OTC) drug for use as an inhaled nasal decongestant in the United States.
A prescription is not required; the change has been made in an effort to reduce methamphetamine production.

Convention on Psychotropic Substances

Schedule IVamphetamine-type stimulantsSchedule I
Internationally, the production, distribution, sale, and possession of methamphetamine is restricted or banned in many countries, due to its placement in schedule II of the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances treaty.
The principle synthetic drugs manufactured clandestinely are the amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) which include the widely abused amphetamine and methamphetamine, as well as the more recently popularized methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), known as ecstasy." It is estimated that throughout the world 30,000,000, people use ATS. This is 0.5 per cent of the global population and exceeds the number using heroin and probably those using cocaine.A 1998 UN General Assembly Special Session on the World Drug Problem report noted: :Between 1971 and 1995, there was a nearly fivefold increase in the number of amphetamine-type stimulants under international control. . . ecstasy and related designer drugs are under schedule one of the 1971 Convention, because they have virtually no medical use, while amphetamine and methamphetamine are under schedule 2 because they began life with medical use.

Punding

Peculiar to methamphetamine and related stimulants is "punding", persistent non-goal-directed repetitive activity.
It has also been described in methamphetamine and cocaine users, as well as in some patients with gambling addictions, and hypersexuality.

TAAR1

trace amine-associated receptor 1TAAR1 agonisthTAAR1
Methamphetamine has been shown to activate TAAR1 in human astrocytes and generate cAMP as a result.
TAAR1 is a high-affinity receptor for amphetamine, methamphetamine, dopamine, and trace amines which mediates some of their cellular effects in monoamine neurons within the central nervous system.

Tachycardia

fast heart rateincreased heart raterapid heart rate
The physical effects of methamphetamine can include loss of appetite, hyperactivity, dilated pupils, flushed skin, excessive sweating, increased movement, dry mouth and teeth grinding (leading to "meth mouth"), headache, irregular heartbeat (usually as accelerated heartbeat or slowed heartbeat), rapid breathing, high blood pressure, low blood pressure, high body temperature, diarrhea, constipation, blurred vision, dizziness, twitching, numbness, tremors, dry skin, acne, and pale appearance.

Hypertension

high blood pressurehypertensivearterial hypertension
The physical effects of methamphetamine can include loss of appetite, hyperactivity, dilated pupils, flushed skin, excessive sweating, increased movement, dry mouth and teeth grinding (leading to "meth mouth"), headache, irregular heartbeat (usually as accelerated heartbeat or slowed heartbeat), rapid breathing, high blood pressure, low blood pressure, high body temperature, diarrhea, constipation, blurred vision, dizziness, twitching, numbness, tremors, dry skin, acne, and pale appearance. Methamphetamine is contraindicated in individuals with a history of substance use disorder, heart disease, or severe agitation or anxiety, or in individuals currently experiencing arteriosclerosis, glaucoma, hyperthyroidism, or severe hypertension.
Other causes of secondary hypertension include obesity, sleep apnea, pregnancy, coarctation of the aorta, excessive eating of liquorice, excessive drinking of alcohol, certain prescription medicines, herbal remedies, and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine.

Substituted amphetamine

amphetaminesamphetaminesubstituted amphetamines
Methamphetamine belongs to the substituted phenethylamine and substituted amphetamine chemical classes.
Examples of substituted amphetamines are amphetamine (itself), methamphetamine, ephedrine, cathinone, phentermine, mephentermine, bupropion, methoxyphenamine, selegiline, amfepramone, pyrovalerone, MDMA (ecstasy), and DOM (STP).

Aphrodisiac

aphrodisiacslove potionpro-sexual
It is rarely prescribed over concerns involving human neurotoxicity and potential for recreational use as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant, among other concerns, as well as the availability of safer substitute drugs with comparable treatment efficacy.
Amphetamine and methamphetamine are phenethylamine derivatives which are known to increase libido and cause frequent or prolonged erections as potential side effects, particularly at high supratherapeutic doses where sexual hyperexcitability and hypersexuality can occur; however, in some individuals who use these drugs, libido is reduced.

Suicide

suicidalcommitted suicidesuicides
Methamphetamine use also has a high association with anxiety, depression, amphetamine psychosis, suicide, and violent behaviors.
The misuse of cocaine and methamphetamine has a high correlation with suicide.

Psychosis

psychoticpsychosespsychotic break
The FDA also advises individuals with bipolar disorder, depression, elevated blood pressure, liver or kidney problems, mania, psychosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, seizures, thyroid problems, tics, or Tourette syndrome to monitor their symptoms while taking methamphetamine.
Methamphetamine induces a psychosis in 26–46 percent of heavy users.

Bipolar disorder

bipolarmanic depressionmanic depressive
The FDA also advises individuals with bipolar disorder, depression, elevated blood pressure, liver or kidney problems, mania, psychosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, seizures, thyroid problems, tics, or Tourette syndrome to monitor their symptoms while taking methamphetamine.
Tyrosine depletion was found to reduce the effects of methamphetamine in people with bipolar disorder as well as symptoms of mania, implicating dopamine in mania.

Sigma receptor

sigmaσσ receptor
Methamphetamine binds to and activates both sigma receptor subtypes, σ 1 and σ 2, in the brain.
Drugs known to be σ–agonists include cocaine, morphine/diacetylmorphine, opipramol, PCP, fluvoxamine, methamphetamine, dextromethorphan, and the herbal antidepressant berberine.

List of Schedule II drugs (US)

Schedule IIList of Schedule II drugsschedule II drug
The highest prevalence of illegal methamphetamine use occurs in parts of Asia, Oceania, and in the United States, where racemic methamphetamine, levomethamphetamine, and dextromethamphetamine are classified as schedule II controlled substances.

Anorexia (symptom)

anorexialoss of appetitedecreased appetite
The physical effects of methamphetamine can include loss of appetite, hyperactivity, dilated pupils, flushed skin, excessive sweating, increased movement, dry mouth and teeth grinding (leading to "meth mouth"), headache, irregular heartbeat (usually as accelerated heartbeat or slowed heartbeat), rapid breathing, high blood pressure, low blood pressure, high body temperature, diarrhea, constipation, blurred vision, dizziness, twitching, numbness, tremors, dry skin, acne, and pale appearance.