methodologicalmethodologiesresearch methodologymethodsmethodmethodologistresearch methodologiesmethodological rulesmannerManner (philosophy)
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.wikipedia
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paradigmsparadigmaticscientific paradigm
Typically, it encompasses concepts such as paradigm, theoretical model, phases and quantitative or qualitative techniques.


epistemologicalepistemictheory of knowledge
Doing this shifts it away from its true epistemological meaning and reduces it to being the procedure itself, or the set of tools, or the instruments that should have been its outcome.

Best practice

best practicesbest management practicesbest practice exchange
Instead, a methodology offers the theoretical underpinning for understanding which method, set of methods, or best practices can be applied to a specific case, for example, to calculate a specific result.


algorithmsalgorithm designcomputer algorithm
An algorithm, like a paradigm, is also a type of constructive framework, meaning that the construction is a logical, rather than a physical, array of connected elements.


Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.

Philosophy of science

philosopher of sciencephilosophers of sciencephilosophy
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.

Estimates of sexual violence

Surveys of victims of crime have been undertaken in many cities and countries, using a common methodology to aid comparability, and have generally included questions on sexual violence.

Cultural anthropology

cultural anthropologistcultural anthropologistscultural
Cultural anthropology has a rich methodology, including participant observation (often called fieldwork because it requires the anthropologist spending an extended period of time at the research location), interviews, and surveys.

Lean startup

leanpivotlean start-up
Lean startup is a methodology for developing businesses and products that aims to shorten product development cycles and rapidly discover if a proposed business model is viable; this is achieved by adopting a combination of business-hypothesis-driven experimentation, iterative product releases, and validated learning.

Replication crisis

reproducibility crisisscience's crisisPsychology replication
The replication crisis (or replicability crisis or reproducibility crisis) is, as of 2019, an ongoing methodological crisis in which it has been found that many scientific studies are difficult or impossible to replicate or reproduce.

Philosophy of mathematics

mathematical realismmathematical Platonismmathematics
It aims to understand the nature and methods of mathematics, and finding out the place of mathematics in people's lives.

Test method

A test method is a method for a test in science or engineering, such as a physical test, chemical test, or statistical test.

David R. Heise

David Heise
Additionally he contributes to both quantitative and qualitative methodology in sociology.

Theory of change

Theory of Change (ToC) is a specific type of methodology for planning, participation, and evaluation that is used in companies, philanthropy, not-for-profit and government sectors to promote social change.

Tax shelter

tax sheltersreduceshelter
The methodology can vary depending on local and international tax laws.

Philosophy of chemistry

Philosopher of chemistryphilosophy
The philosophy of chemistry considers the methodology and underlying assumptions of the science of chemistry.

Charles Sanders Peirce

PeirceC. S. PeirceCharles S. Peirce
An innovator in mathematics, statistics, philosophy, research methodology, and various sciences, Peirce considered himself, first and foremost, a logician.

Academic study of new religious movements

List of cult and new religious movement researchersList of cult researchersList of new religious movement and cult researchers
The study of new religions is unified by its topic of interest, rather than by its methodology, and is therefore interdisciplinary in nature.


More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive".

Holocaust denial

Holocaust denierHolocaust deniersdenied the Holocaust
Scholars use the term denial to describe the views and methodology of Holocaust deniers in order to distinguish them from legitimate historical revisionists, who challenge orthodox interpretations of history using established historical methodologies.

Analysis of competing hypotheses

The analysis of competing hypotheses (ACH) is said to an unbiased methodology for evaluating multiple competing hypotheses for observed data.

Critical communicative methodology

Research methodology based on intersubjective dialogue and an egalitarian relationship between the research team and those being researched (Gomez & Latorre, 2005).Current societies are characterized for using dialogue in different domains, seeing it as necessary for social progress and for avoiding different social conflicts (Castells 1996; Flecha, Gómez & Puigvert, 2003; Habermas, 2000).