Methylphenidate

RitalinConcertaMethylinMethylphenidate hydrochloride(RS;SR)-MethylphenidatelevomethylphenidateMetadateMethlyinRitalin (methylphenidate)stimulant medication
Methylphenidate, sold under the trade name Ritalin among others, is a stimulant medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.wikipedia
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Novartis

SandozCiba-GeigyHexal Australia
It was originally sold by CIBA, now Novartis Corporation.
imatinib mesylate (Gleevec/Glivec), ciclosporin (Neoral/Sandimmun), letrozole (Femara), methylphenidate (Ritalin), terbinafine (Lamisil), and others.

Narcolepsy

narcolepticdifficulty in controlling her sleepdifficulty staying awake
Methylphenidate, sold under the trade name Ritalin among others, is a stimulant medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Medications used include modafinil, sodium oxybate and methylphenidate.

Opioid

opioidsopioid-induced constipationopioid analgesic
Stimulants may have fewer side-effects than tricyclic antidepressants in the elderly and medically ill. In individuals with terminal cancer, methylphenidate can be used to counteract opioid-induced somnolence, to increase the analgesic effects of opioids, to treat depression, and to improve cognitive function.
* Stimulants (e.g. caffeine, modafinil, amphetamine, methylphenidate)

Tricyclic antidepressant

tricyclic antidepressantsTCAsTCA
Stimulants may have fewer side-effects than tricyclic antidepressants in the elderly and medically ill. In individuals with terminal cancer, methylphenidate can be used to counteract opioid-induced somnolence, to increase the analgesic effects of opioids, to treat depression, and to improve cognitive function.
The TCAs were used in the past in the clinical treatment of ADHD, though they are not typically used anymore, having been replaced by more effective agents with fewer side effects such as atomoxetine (Strattera, Tomoxetin) and stimulants like methylphenidate (Ritalin, Focalin, Concerta), and amphetamine (Adderall, Attentin, Dexedrine, Vyvanse).

Analgesic

analgesiaanalgesicspainkillers
Stimulants may have fewer side-effects than tricyclic antidepressants in the elderly and medically ill. In individuals with terminal cancer, methylphenidate can be used to counteract opioid-induced somnolence, to increase the analgesic effects of opioids, to treat depression, and to improve cognitive function.
Stimulants such as methylphenidate, caffeine, ephedrine, dextroamphetamine, methamphetamine, and cocaine work against heavy sedation and may elevate mood in distressed patients as do the antidepressants.

Substituted phenethylamine

phenethylaminephenethylaminesphenethylamine class
Methylphenidate is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes.

Substance abuse

drug abusedrug useabuse
More serious side effects may include psychosis, allergic reactions, prolonged erections, abuse, and heart problems.

Insomnia

trouble sleepingsleeplessnessdifficulty sleeping
The most common adverse effects include appetite loss, dry mouth, anxiety/nervousness, nausea, and insomnia.

Recreational drug use

recreational drugdrug userecreational drugs
Based upon studies of self-reported illicit stimulant use, performance-enhancing use, rather than use as a recreational drug, is the primary reason that students use stimulants.

Inhibitory control

impulse controlresponse inhibitioninhibition
A 2015 review found that therapeutic doses of amphetamine and methylphenidate result in modest improvements in cognition, including working memory, episodic memory, and inhibitory control, in normal healthy adults; the cognition-enhancing effects of these drugs are known to occur through the indirect activation of both dopamine receptor D 1 and adrenoceptor α 2 in the prefrontal cortex.
In healthy adults and ADHD individuals, inhibitory control improves over the short term with low (therapeutic) doses of methylphenidate or amphetamine.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitor

MAOImonoamine oxidase inhibitorsMAOIs
Methylphenidate is contraindicated for individuals using monoamine oxidase inhibitors (e.g., phenelzine, and tranylcypromine), or individuals with agitation, tics, glaucoma, or a hypersensitivity to any ingredients contained in methylphenidate pharmaceuticals.

Tachycardia

fast heart rateincreased heart raterapid heart rate
Cardiac adverse effects may include palpitations, changes in blood pressure and heart rate (typically mild), tachycardia (rapid resting heart rate), and Raynaud's phenomenon (reduced blood flow to the hands and feet). The symptoms of a moderate acute overdose on methylphenidate primarily arise from central nervous system overstimulation; these symptoms include: vomiting, agitation, tremors, hyperreflexia, muscle twitching, euphoria, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, hyperthermia, sweating, flushing, headache, tachycardia, heart palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, mydriasis, and dryness of mucous membranes.

Dopamine

dopaminergic systemDAdopaminergic
Methylphenidate is believed to work by blocking dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake by neurons.
Cocaine, substituted amphetamines (including methamphetamine), Adderall, methylphenidate (marketed as Ritalin or Concerta), and other psychostimulants exert their effects primarily or partly by increasing dopamine levels in the brain by a variety of mechanisms.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ADHDattention deficit disorderhyperactivity
Methylphenidate, sold under the trade name Ritalin among others, is a stimulant medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Urinary and blood plasma phenethylamine concentrations are lower in ADHD individuals relative to controls and the two most commonly prescribed drugs for ADHD, amphetamine and methylphenidate, increase phenethylamine biosynthesis in treatment-responsive individuals with ADHD.

Piperidine

piperidinespiperidinylNC5H10
Methylphenidate is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes.

Episodic memory

episodic memoriesepisodicEpisodic knowledge
A 2015 review found that therapeutic doses of amphetamine and methylphenidate result in modest improvements in cognition, including working memory, episodic memory, and inhibitory control, in normal healthy adults; the cognition-enhancing effects of these drugs are known to occur through the indirect activation of both dopamine receptor D 1 and adrenoceptor α 2 in the prefrontal cortex.
A 2015 meta-analysis of high quality evidence found that therapeutic doses of amphetamine and methylphenidate improve performance on working memory, episodic memory, and inhibitory control tests in normal healthy adults.

Treatment-resistant depression

treatment-resistantrefractory depressiondepression
Methylphenidate may also be prescribed for off-label use in treatment-resistant cases of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.
Stimulants such as amphetamines and methylphenidate have also been tested with positive results but have potential for abuse.

Bruxism

teeth grindinggrinding of teethsleep bruxism
Other adverse effects may include depression, emotional lability, confusion, and bruxism.
Specific examples include levodopa (when used in the long term, as in Parkinson's disease), fluoxetine, metoclopramide, lithium, cocaine, venlafaxine, citalopram, fluvoxamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methylphenidate (used in attention deficit hyperactive disorder), and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and similar gamma-aminobutyric acid-inducing analogues such as phenibut.

Stimulant psychosis

amphetamine psychosispsychosisdrug-induced psychosis
When used above the medical dose range, stimulants are associated with the development of stimulant psychosis.
Stimulant psychosis is a mental disorder characterized by psychotic symptoms (e.g., hallucinations, paranoid ideation, delusions, disorganized thinking, grossly disorganized behaviour) which involves and typically occurs following an overdose on psychostimulants; however, it has also been reported to occur in approximately 0.1% of individuals, or 1 out of every 1,000 people, within the first several weeks after starting amphetamine or methylphenidate therapy.

Raynaud syndrome

Raynaud's phenomenonRaynaud's diseaseRaynaud's syndrome
Cardiac adverse effects may include palpitations, changes in blood pressure and heart rate (typically mild), tachycardia (rapid resting heart rate), and Raynaud's phenomenon (reduced blood flow to the hands and feet).

Daytrana

The Daytrana patch has a much higher rate of skin reactions than oral methylphenidate.
In the literature, Daytrana is most commonly referred to as methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS).

Norepinephrine

noradrenalinenoradrenergicnoradrenalin
Methylphenidate is believed to work by blocking dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake by neurons.
It is most commonly treated using stimulant drugs such as methylphenidate (Ritalin), whose primary effect is to increase dopamine levels in the brain, but drugs in this group also generally increase brain levels of norepinephrine, and it has been difficult to determine whether these actions are involved in their clinical value.

Ethylphenidate

When methylphenidate is coingested with ethanol, a metabolite called ethylphenidate is formed via hepatic transesterification, not unlike the hepatic formation of cocaethylene from cocaine and ethanol.
Ethylphenidate (EPH) is a psychostimulant and a close analog of methylphenidate.

Anorexia (symptom)

anorexialoss of appetitedecreased appetite
The most common adverse effects include appetite loss, dry mouth, anxiety/nervousness, nausea, and insomnia.

Psychomotor agitation

agitationrestlessnessexcitement
The symptoms of a moderate acute overdose on methylphenidate primarily arise from central nervous system overstimulation; these symptoms include: vomiting, agitation, tremors, hyperreflexia, muscle twitching, euphoria, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, hyperthermia, sweating, flushing, headache, tachycardia, heart palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, mydriasis, and dryness of mucous membranes.